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Ubehebe Mining District, Cottonwood Mts, Panamint Mts (Panamint Range), Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Ubehebe Mining DistrictMining District
Cottonwood MtsMountain Range
Panamint Mts (Panamint Range)Mountain Range
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
36° 34' 59'' North , 117° 30' 2'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:


A W mining area located 10 miles W of Death Valley Scotty's Castle, in the Panamint Range, between the Nelson Range on the W and the Cottonwood Mountains on the East, on National Park Service wilderness land (Death Valley National Park/Death Valley Wilderness).

The initial claims of this area were first discovered in the summer of 1875 by W. I. and J. B. Hunter, Thomas McDonough, and J. L. Porter. The Ubehebe mineral district, about thirty-five miles northeast of Keeler, includes an area about eighteen miles long by thirteen miles wide, bounded on the west by Saline Valley, on the south by spurs of the Nelson Range extending east to Hunter Mountain, on the east by the Cottonwood Mountains, and on the north by the southern end of the Last Chance Range. Two smaller mountain systems span the area north to south, the Ubehebe Range on the west being separated from the Dutton Range on the east by a two-mile wide valley containing the dryed-up lake bed known as the Racetrack. The exact derivation of the name "Ubehebe" is unknown, although it is thought to. be Shoshonean, meaning "big basket." It has been variously translated as "basket in the rock" or "basket in the sand."

The principal find of the 1875 explorations in the area was an enormous eighty-foot-wide ledge of copper, referred to as the Piute Lode and showing ore assaying 15% to 67%. Immediately after its discovery on 2 July, Porter began experiments to determine the best method of ore reduction, ultimately concluding that it could be smelted profitably right on the grounds. The famous Cerro Gordo Mine near Keeler was in a very prosperous condition at this time, and probably encouraged by its success and the general air of prosperity in the area, M. W. Belshaw, operator of a smelter at Keeler, purchased at least a portion of Hunter and Porter's Ubehebe properties that year and proposed erection of a smelting furnace on the edge of Saline Valley before early spring. This goal was never achieved.

For many years thereafter little work was performed on the large and promising copper veins of the Ubehebe district, the problems characterizing all desert mining--lack of water and wood near the deposits, their isolation from rail centers and supply points, the difficulties of constructing and maintaining adequate roads through a hostile environment, the uneconomical methods of ore removal and transport--being present here in abundance. Reportedly the famous New York artist Albert Bierstadt became interested in the Ubehebe mines around 1886 and spent several days examining them. Although he made definite plans to purchase some property, for unknown reasons the deal was never consummated. Perhaps he too realized the many factors still militating against the success of mining ventures in the region.

Not until the late 1890s did activity surface again. In 1897 a W. J. Ryan of Denver, representing Mr. N. O. Moore, one of the country's leading mining experts, bonded the copper mines of A. F. Mairs and J. F. Welsh for $15,000, with the promise that active development would commence immediately. True to his word, by early March Ryan had departed for the mine with a load of provisions and supplies to sustain the eight-man crew he intended to set to work on a large vein that showed promising amounts of gold as well as of high-grade copper. [15] Undeterred by the area's remoteness, Moore was overly and prematurely optimistic in his assurances that a railroad would penetrate the area if the copper deposits proved as extensive as they appeared. The first serious mention of a railroad connection again concerned the Randsburg Railway, which at this time stretched from Kramer station on the Santa Fe and Pacific only as far north as Johannesburg. If the line was extended to Keeler via Ballarat, it had been suggested, it could service also the Wildrose and Lemoigne Mine areas. A thirty-mile wagon road constructed from the Cottonwood Mountains south to some agreed-upon point on the line would then open up the Ubehebe copper region and provide the necessary incentive for developing these mines whose ores were carrying from 20% to 60% copper and from $6 to $32 per ton in gold.

In addition to this suggestion for a possible railroad connection to the Ubehebe, a proposal was made two years later that residents of the Owens Valley region unite in construction of a road across the Inyo Mountains to the borax, copper, and gold deposits of " the Saline Valley and Ubehebe regions. Another possibility mentioned in 1899 was that the Carson and Colorado Railway would eventually be extended into the Panamint Valley and tap the Ubehebe region along 'the way. Despite the prevailing lack of transportation facilities, however, development was proceeding in the 1890s on the one big copper mine in the Ubehebe, whose workings already included a seventy-five-foot tunnel and a thirty-seven-foot-deep, shaft with crosscut. Water had to be piped in from a nearby spring and the ore transported to the railroad over a rough wagon road, probably west through Saline Valley.

b) Boston Capitalists Become Interested

Around the late 1890s and early 1900s many Boston capitalists became interested in the copper mines of the Ubehebe region and the adjacent Saline Valley, probably as a result of the record price for copper (19-1/4¢/lb.) reached in 1899. In that year a representative of certain Salt Lake City parties, after a detailed preliminary examination of the Ubehebe area, reported to his employers that the copper deposits in the Saline Valley region--primarily the Ubehebe, Sanger Group, and Hunter and Spear properties--appeared to be of sizable value. One of these capitalists, a Mr. Scheu, came to the area to inspect the property firsthand and took options on a great number of locations in the district. Subsequently all parties from whom options had been acquired were summoned to meet with Scheu and an S. H. Mackay and transfer the subject properties. The syndicate purchasing them was reportedly capitalized for $75 million, and intended to hire miners and begin development at once to determine the depth and extent of the ore bodies. A railroad connection was deemed essential for the success of. the venture. A 1,000-ton-per-day-capacity reduction plant was even anticipated if water could be found; otherwise the ore would be shipped to smelters. An initial sum of $5,000 was paid toward purchase of the Sanger Group, with other transactions to follow. The ultimate outcome of the whole venture, however, was that Scheu and Mackay embezzled some of the money due the Eastern backers, disgusting the Boston group to such a degree that they washed their hands of the whole enterprise.

In 1901 George McConnell and his associates bonded a group of mining claims at Ubehebe to a Boston syndicate for $125,000. About a half dozen groups of claims here, in fact, were under bond, for amounts varying from $25,000 to $50,000, when a financial panic of sorts enveloped the Boston commodities market, and the deals were never concluded. Copper prices reached rock bottom in 1902, when only 11¢/lb. was offered. Due largely to this copper slump, in that year the approximately eighty copper, gold, and silver claims in the Ubehebe, located within a radius of about six miles of each other, were only touched by assessment work, though results were still encouraging.

A description of the Ubehebe area in 1903 again mentions its inaccessibility, despite which regular assessment work on all the main ledges and deposits had been regularly performed for the past several years. One pleasing aspect of mining in the district was that the mountainous terrain permitted mining by drift tunnels rather than shafts and hoisting methods, which was much more economical and a great deal less time consuming. The mineral-bearing zone was reached by only one wagon road, stretching from the Inyo Mountain Range across Saline Valley, its primary drawback being the extreme heat encountered along its course during the summer months. Properties in the north end of Ubehebe were at this time producing ore assaying $12 to $18 in gold, carrying some silver, and ranging from 5% to 20% in copper. Ore in the middle sections carried 4% or 80 lbs. pure metal to the ton, while the southern section was mostly idle. Railroad access was still necessary for realization of the region's full potential, and it was remarked at this time that if the Los Angeles, Daggett and Salt Lake Railroad was constructed, a forty- or forty-five-mile spur could open up the whole Ubehebe to the world market. As had been stressed often before during discussions of possible routes into the area, the best way to spark the interest of Eastern mining capitalists was to be able to offer better ingress and egress routes than the rough trails currently in use.

c) Rising Copper Prices Benefit Ubehebe

Starting about 1904 the price of copper and of shares of copper-producing companies began a slow but steady rise. By 1905 the Ubehebe copper district was industriously active, and several properties were producing: the Spear brothers and W. L. Hunter had made three ore shipments returning 26.24% copper, $8 in gold, and 3 ozs. of silver per ton from their Ulida property; R. G. Paddock and H.L. Wrinkle of Keeler were beginning development of thirty claims; and S. H. Reynolds owned a group of claims from which he was procuring a more than satisfactory showing. A new record price for copper of 19-3/4¢/lb. was reached in 1906, and future prospects appeared bright indeed. Several factors were responsible for this dramatic change in the market: an increase in the amount of copper needed for electrical conduction purposes, the escalation in the building of trolley lines, the electrification of steam railroads, and the pressing need for copper in China and throughout the Far East for recoinage use after the Russo-Japanese War.

Finally consumption had overtaken production and created a strong demand both here and abroad for immediate delivery:

At the price copper is selling at the present time, it is no wonder that the mammoth copper properties of Saline valley and the Ubehebe districts are claiming the attention of mining men from all parts of America. These properties are reported as carrying a very high percentage in copper, and the only reason and drawback that keeps them from ranking as the foremost- copper properties of America, is their isolated position, lack of water, and being owned by people who have not sufficient means to enable them to build plants and furnish cheap transportation facilities. Men of capital are sending their agents here to investigate, and in every instance they seem to be much impressed by the magnitude and high values of the properties. If copper continues to hold to nearly the high figure it has attained, we feel confident that in the near future, the mines will be in charge of people who have ample means to bring the product of these properties in touch with the market.

One of the large mining transactions that took place at this time was the sale of the Sanger and Mairs copper-silver-gold properties to a New York businessman for a reported $200,000. Coincidental with the impetus to copper mining provided by the advance in prices was the rising enthusiasm for the metal among the desert community, and on the East Coast especially, generated by the discovery of rich lodes such as those at Greenwater that created a new town practically overnight. Some of that bonanza camp's most prominent backers, such as John Salsberry from Tonopah, Jack Gunn of Independence, and Arthur Kunze also sent prospectors into the Ubehebe area.

Almost instantaneously Ubehebe mining properties began to move. McConnell and associates again bonded some copper properties to a Salt Lake City firm; A. F. Mairs received a payment for his property adjacent to Saline Valley and also bonded seven claims to Goldfield people; a Salt Lake group was employing eight men on the Ulida Mine; a Mr. Whittier and associates discovered and filed on the Rio Pinto Group or Lost Spanish gold and silver mine north of Hunter's Ranch; the Guggenheim Smelter Company of the American Smelter Trust Company purchased forty of W. A. Sanger's claims, intending to erect a smelter twenty miles away in Deep Springs Valley; Goldfield people took a $100,000 option on a group of claims owned by John Miller, one of the pioneer locators in the area; and Senator Nixon and George Wingfield even acquired an interest in some area copper claims for $70,000. Except for six treacherous miles, a decent road now existed from Montana Station via Steininger's Ranch (later Scotty's Ranch near Grapevine Canyon), providing access to the region from Rhyolite and Greenwater.

d) Townsites are Discussed and a Mining District Formed

The spring of 1907 saw the systematic continuance of development in the Ubehebe area. Although as many as two townsites had been proposed, so far the only population centers were the small camps and groups of prospectors scattered here and there one-quarter to four miles apart from each other. Jack Salsberry, in the meantime, had bought Sanger's group of claims and was in the throes of trying to create a decent auto road from Montana Station to the site he had chosen for a town directly northwest of the Racetrack playa near the entrance to his mine property. This action probably contributed more than any other single factor to the influx of influential people into the area, not only from the neighboring towns of Salt Lake City and Rhyolite and Goldfield, but eventually from as far away as Boston and Philadelphia. Suddenly the desirable mining locations in the Ubehebe were accessible to all. "Mr. Lockhard says that you would almost think, from the people that are met in Ubehebe, that you were in the Bullfrog district," remarked one newspaper article. The sixty-two-mile trail from Rhyolite was well traveled, and several large teams constantly moved over Salsberry's road to Bonnie Claire. A corps of surveyors from the Tonopah and Goldfield Railroad were busy determining the most feasible route to the area, and four engineering outfits were already in the region surveying properties. Two townsites, Ubehebe and Saline (Salina) City, were reportedly being platted eight miles apart to house the population of fifty or so miners. Already a warehouse and corral had been erected at the latter site, and water would be piped in as soon as possible. The desire of the people in the area to form their own mining region separate from the Big Pine District was voiced in the spring at a meeting held in the Saline Valley salt works that culminated in formation of the Ubehebe Mining District. Boundaries of the district, whose recorder's office was established at Saline City, were delineated thusly:

Commencing at Waucoba Peak, thence southerly along the summit of the Inyo range past Cerro Gordo Peak to Hunter Ranch trail, thence along Cottonwood creek to Lost Valley, thence northerly along the trail to Surveyors' Wells, thence northeasterly along Death Valley dry wash to northeast corner township 10 south, range 41 east, thence westerly on north line township 10 to Waucoba Peak.

e) Ubehebe Copper Mines and Smelter Company Determines to Construct Railroad into Area

Several large properties were now operating in the Ubehebe: the Meyers; the Los Angeles Group; the Spears Group and Ulida; the Paddocks, Rooney, Wooden, and McConnell holdings; the Lakeview Group owned by Rhyolite people; the Joseph Cook (Crook) possessions, including the Wedding Stake; and the Valentine Group of fourteen claims. The newly-organized Ubehebe Mining Company, capitalized at one million shares, had bought the six Rio Pinto (Lost Spanish Mine) claims about ten miles from the new Saline City, plus the water right to Hunter's Springs. The Sanger and Mairs properties, options on which were held by the Fitting Company, were some of the most notable claims in the district. Water was available several miles from the mines and was hauled in by wagon at $1 per barrel.

The largest and best-known mine in the Ubehebe area, as well as the most highly developed, was Jack Salsberry's property, operated by his newly-formed Ubehebe Copper Mines and Smelter Company, which opened offices in Baltimore to promote company stock in the large Eastern commercial centers. The mine was actively supported by a variety of Eastern capitalists who made several inspection tours to the area over Salsberry's recently completed road to Bonnie Claire. After one such jaunt the following comment was noted:

To many readers, Ubehebe is an unheard of camp, yet it is like many other sections in the state that are wonderfully rich in minerals but have not been brought especially to the attention of the people simply from the fact that those owning the properties are not looking for notoriety or endeavoring to boom their district. They are there to develop and mine their properties and secure substantial results to those interested in common with them and not for the purpose of advertising.

Encouraged by the optimism and generosity of their supporters, Salsberry and Ray T. Baker, the two principals in the new company, conceived a plan of constructing a railroad to their mine from Bonnie Claire and of erecting a smelter there to reduce the ore before shipment. Persuading the prestigious banking and brokerage firm of Peard, Hill & Company of Baltimore, Maryland, to underwrite the bond issue for the project, work on a permanent survey of the proposed route was started with Salsberry receiving assurances that all bonds would be placed before 15 November and grading commenced shortly thereafter. The bonds were to be sold largely in Europe. It was planned that the forty-eight-mile-long standard-gauge track would head down Grapevine Canyon past the present site of Scotty's Castle, wind around Ubehebe Crater, and eventually reach Salsberry's mine near the 'northwest corner of the Ubehebe valley. The one million dollars worth of railroad bonds would be floated as a separate company to comply with the law, but in reality would belong to the Ubehebe Copper Mines and Smelter Company, thus greatly increasing its assets. The railroad would also haul ore for other mines in the area and thus hopefully soon become a regular dividend payer. Cost of the project was estimated at $800,000. In anticipation of the line's arrival, a well had already been sunk on Salsberry's new townsite to a depth of 155 feet, and as soon as water was reached, the site would be platted and the selling of lots would commence.

Suggestions for opening up the area in another manner and from another direction included a proposed change in the Keeler-Skidoo wagon road route, bringing it through the Panamints further north at Townsend Pass and thus closer to northern mining properties. By fall 1907 the Kimball Bros.' Bullfrog Stage & Transfer Company started a regular weekly service to Ubehebe City, running the twenty-two miles to Grapevine the first day and the next forty miles on the second day. Corrals and buildings for the stage company were in process of erection at Bonnie Claire and Ubehebe, and stations were being established along the route. The stage leaving Ubehebe on Wednesday would arrive at Bonnie Claire in time to meet the Clark trains from Bullfrog and Goldfield. Four horses were to be used on the road, whose condition was described as "very bad." Two survey crews were busy preparing townsite maps. Twenty tents were already on the ground, as were two saloons and a grocery store. Application for a post office was forwarded to Washington. Having failed in the well project, plans were being made to pipe water in from nearby springs. Meanwhile Salsberry was sinking wells at various points along the Ubehebe wagon road for use by the big freight teams passing back and forth between Bonnie Claire and Ubehebe. He was also. buying coal lands in southern Utah and taking options on others to provide coke for the smelter he proposed. to erect near his Ubehebe Mine.

f) Work Continues Despite Panic of 1907

The influx of Eastern and European visitors and investors to the area continued over the next several months, despite the hard times and depression leading up to the Panic of 1907. Although copper mining was still very strong in spite of the slump, a prophetic opinion was voiced at this time by a certain veteran desert prospector, Jim Titus, who ventured the observation that

It is the prevailing opinion that the predominant metal in the district is copper, and while some fine copper ore has been discovered on the surface, I think it will be found with deeper exploration, that gold, silver and lead will be the leading values.

Properties in the area were being worked despite the tight money situation, with a force of about twenty-five men hoping to hold on until the financial situation across the country eased. In November Salsberry was reportedly working seventeen men on his company's claims, and expected to increase the force upon the arrival of new machinery. Several other companies in the area also were employing good-sized forces on annual assessment work. The townsite, meanwhile, was undergoing a construction spurt; water was being hauled in barrels from springs six miles away. Salsberry and some Rhyolite associates were also operating the Ubehebe Lead Mining Company, Ubehebe Sunset Copper Company, and the Ubehebe Contact Company, comprising a total of forty claims in the district. An Inyo Copper Company also existed.

The bubbling optimism centering around the proposed Bonnie Claire & Ubehebe Railroad continued, although initial construction was still in abeyance until all bonds were sold. Despite the money-market depression that had delayed the start of development, it was promised that the route would be in operation before mid-summer of 1908. Arrangements were still reportedly being made to erect a fine hotel and several residences and business houses at the terminus of the line at Saline City. Salsberry never saw fulfillment of his dream, however, for the closing of banks and consequent termination of a ready money supply scuttled the project entirely. Although a camp of Saline evidently did exist for a short while, it never became the prosperous railhead and mining center envisioned by its founder.

g) Mining in Ubehebe Hampered by Isolation and Transportation Problems

A 1908 report on California's copper resources lists several claims as still active in the area (note that the western boundary of the Ubehebe Mining District was somewhat nebulous, extending west across the Saline Valley toward the east slope of the Inyo Mountains).
Greene, 1981

Local rocks include Mesozoic granitic rocks, unit 3 (Sierra Nevada, Death Valley area, Northern Mojave Desert and Transverse Ranges).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada, USANational Park

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Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

51 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Detailed Mineral List:

'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Coarse-grained in pegmatite.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 52; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 485.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 56; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 495.
Andradite var: Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 56; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 495.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Colour: White to colorless
Description: Occurs as crystals as much as ½ inch (1.25 cm) long lining fissures in some of the workings.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 53; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 81; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 215.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 89.
'Axinite Group'
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Copper Handbook 1911
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Description: Coarse-grained baryte in a vein 1 foot (0.3 meter) thick.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 53; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 96-97.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 50; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 94.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: Keck Museum (Reno, Nevada) Specimen #9663
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Keck Museum (Reno, Nevada) Specimen #9663
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities:
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 43, 55; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 99.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Cuprotungstite
Formula: Cu2(WO4)(OH)2
Colour: light olive-green to greenish yellow
Description: Occurs as a replacement of scheelite in fractures in the scheelite.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 51, 55; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 165; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 338.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: [MinRec 32:393]
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Description: Occurs as phenocrysts to 13 mm long in basalt covering large parts of the Ubehebe quadrangle.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 57, 59; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 457.
Ferberite ?
Formula: FeWO4
Colour: Brownish black
Description: Occurs as irregular masses of coarse anhedral and subhedral crystals. NOTE: Described as "brownish black" indicating that perhaps it is actually Hübnerite.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 51; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 232 (map 6-5), 331.
Ferrisurite (TL)
Formula: (Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
Type Locality:
Reference: American Mineralogist (1992): 77: 1107-1111; Adams, P.M. (2001). "The Shirley Ann claim, Inyo County, California." Mineralogical Record: 32(5): 393-400.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Colour: Red-purple
Description: Occurs as anhedral and subhedral crystal.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 56; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 188.
Fornacite
Formula: Pb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: [MinRec 32:393]
Galena
Formula: PbS
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 259.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
'Hornblende'
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; WARING, C. A., 1915 , INYO COUNTY; 15TH REPT. STATE MINERALOGIST; CALIF. MIN. BUR., P. 127
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Occurs as colloform linings of fine-grained material coating and filling cavities.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 27; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 229; www.mineralsocal.org.
'Iddingsite'
Formula: MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Description: A prominent alteration product of olivine phenocrysts in basalts.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 57, 59; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Occurs as small crystals protruding into cavitiers in solid aggregate of fine-grained jarosite.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 58; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 276.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 379.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
'Mercurian Tetrahedrite'
Formula: (Cu,Hg)12Sb4S13
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 61; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 363.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: [MinRec 32:393]
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 59; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 339.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Spec Report 42, 63 pp.: 52; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 401.
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Description: Occurs as alteration rings around molybdenite.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 59; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 339.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities:
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Scapolite'
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 60; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 328.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
'Silica'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10188277.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
'Stilbite subgroup'
Description: Occurs in aplite.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 63; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 378.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Description: Occurs as drusy encrustations in ores.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 24, 62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 324, 340.
Vanadinite var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Description: Occurs as drusy encrustations in ores.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 24, 62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 324, 340.
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Description: Occurs scattered in white silicate rock and is concentrated in veinlets in a contact-metamorphic zone.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 48, 63; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 480.
Zoisite var: Thulite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al,Mn3+3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Occurs scattered in white silicate rock and is concentrated in veinlets in a contact-metamorphic zone.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 48, 63; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 480.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Ferberite ?4.DB.30FeWO4
Hübnerite4.DB.30MnWO4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cuprotungstite7.GB.15Cu2(WO4)(OH)2
Fornacite7.FC.10Pb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Duftite8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Melanite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferrisurite (TL)9.EC.75(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
Gehlenite9.BB.10Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Marialite9.FB.15Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zoisite9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
var: Thulite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al,Mn3+3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Axinite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Iddingsite'-MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mercurian Tetrahedrite'-(Cu,Hg)12Sb4S13
'Scapolite'-
'Silica'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Fornacite43.4.3.2Pb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Ferberite ?48.1.1.2FeWO4
Hübnerite48.1.1.1MnWO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Basic Anhydrous Molybdates and Tungstates
Cuprotungstite48.3.2.1Cu2(WO4)(OH)2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Group 55 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
Gehlenite55.4.1.2Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zoisite58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Ferrisurite (TL)71.2.4.1(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework with other Be/Al/Si frameworks
Marialite76.3.1.1Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Andradite
var: Melanite
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Axinite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Iddingsite'-MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mercurian Tetrahedrite'-(Cu,Hg)12Sb4S13
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Scapolite'-
'Silica'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-
Vanadinite
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
-Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Zoisite
var: Thulite
-{Ca2}{Al,Mn3+3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H Zoisite (var: Thulite){Ca2}{Al,Mn33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
C CerussitePbCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
OOxygen
O Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
O CerussitePbCO3
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O HübneriteMnWO4
O CupriteCu2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O AragoniteCaCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Zoisite (var: Thulite){Ca2}{Al,Mn33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
O Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
O Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O BaryteBaSO4
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O FerberiteFeWO4
FFluorine
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
AlAluminium
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Al Zoisite (var: Thulite){Ca2}{Al,Mn33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si Zoisite (var: Thulite){Ca2}{Al,Mn33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Si Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S ChalcociteCu2S
S SphaleriteZnS
S TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S CovelliteCuS
S Mercurian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Hg)12Sb4S13
S BaryteBaSO4
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Cl Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Zoisite (var: Thulite){Ca2}{Al,Mn33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
VVanadium
V Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
CrChromium
Cr FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
MnManganese
Mn HübneriteMnWO4
Mn Zoisite (var: Thulite){Ca2}{Al,Mn33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FeIron
Fe Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
Fe TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe FerberiteFeWO4
CuCopper
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu Mercurian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Hg)12Sb4S13
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
ZnZinc
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
AsArsenic
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Sb Mercurian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Hg)12Sb4S13
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W HübneriteMnWO4
W CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2
W FerberiteFeWO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg Mercurian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Hg)12Sb4S13
PbLead
Pb Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe23+(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Aubury, Lewis E. (1902), The copper resources of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 23: 245.
Aubury, Lewis E. (1908), The copper resources of California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 50: 302.
Waring, Clarence A. & E. Huguenin (1919), Inyo County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 81-82, 109.
McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 54, 56.
Lemmon, Dwight Moulton and Tweto, O.L. (1962) Tungsten in the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. USGS Mineral Investigative Resources Map MR-25.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 75, 110, 129, 157, 545.
Clark, Wm. B. (1970a) Gold districts of California: California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 193: 152.
Greene, Linda I. (1981), U.S. National Park Service, Historic Preservation Branch, Pacific Northwest/Western Team, Denver Service Center, Death Valley – Historic Resource Study – A History of Mining, Volume I (Parts 1 and 2): part 2: III.C.2.a)-g).
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 48, 210, 495.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #60000009.
Lemmon, D.M., Tungsten deposits in the US; Vol. I, unpublished data.
McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 57, 59.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224, 225, 294.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 457.

USGS MRDS Record:60000009

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