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Candoglia marble quarries, Candoglia, Mergozzo, Ossola Valley, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Piedmont, Italy

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 45° 58' 54'' North , 8° 25' 32'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 45.98192,8.42568
GeoHash:G#: u0jvxdz2h
Locality type:Group of Quarries
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Cave di marmo di Candoglia, Candoglia, Mergozzo, Val d'Ossola, Provincia del Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Piemonte, Italia


Lenses of calcite and calc-silicate marbles, interlayered within the kinzigites of the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, with a subvertical attitude and small thickness (8-30 m). Structural studies evidenced isoclinal folds, with subvertical axial plane parallel to the main foliation, which connect the different small lenses.

The quarries of Candoglia were firstly opened near the village, but later on, their location moved up to higher levels. Now there are five recognisable extraction sites: Madre quarry (Cava Madre), active underground quarry at an elevation of 560 m a.s.l.; Carrettone quarry (Cava Carrettone), abandoned open pit quarry; Cornovo West quarry (Cava Cornovo Ovest), abandoned open pit quarry; Cornovo East quarry (Cava Cornovo Est), active open pit quarry at 860 m a.s.l.; Mergozzoni quarry (Cava Mergozzoni or Cava dei Mergozzoni), abandoned open pit quarry at 950 m a.s.l.

Since 1387 the Candoglia marble quarries belong to the "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo" of Milan and now the produced stone (about 1000 t/year) is only used for the restoration of the Cathedral (Ferrari da Passano, 2000). The Candoglia marble was also used in the past as facing stone in few other monuments such as Certosa in Pavia, Cappella Colleoni in Bergamo, and San Petronio Cathedral in Bologna. Formerly, the Romans used it for columns and altars.

The medium- to coarse-grained Candoglia marble mainly shows a pink colour with frequent dark green layers, due to the presence of diopside and tremolite; other subordinate minerals are quartz, epidote, sulphides, Ba-feldspars, baryte, and rare phlogopite. The varieties of Candoglia marble (pink, white, grey, and veined) are deeply affected by the chromatic, textural, and compositional features.

Madre quarry (Cava Madre) is the type locality for taramellite (Tacconi, 1908 a, b; 1911) and paracelsian (Tacconi, 1905; 1911). Mergozzoni quarry (Cava Mergozzoni or Cava dei Mergozzoni) is the type locality for wenkite (Papageorgakis, 1959; 1961; 1962).

The Ba silicate found at the contact between calciphyres and amphibolite and described as "calciocelsian" by Peyronel Pagliani (1958) is ascribable to armenite. The presence of armenite, in the form of prismatic crystals, has been recently confirmed (Gentile et al., 2017).

Historical note: since 24 October 1387 the Candoglia marble quarries belong to the "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo" of Milan, to which the Duke of Milan Gian Galeazzo Visconti gave the right to exploit for free the Candoglia marble and the woods located in Grande Valley (Val Grande), in the area between Cima Corte Lorenzo and Alpe Ompio as far as the course of Rio di Val Grande. The “Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo” is still today the concessionaire of this wooded territory, now included in the Val Grande National Park, whose confines are marked by boundary stones with the symbol of two crossed hammers. A large amount of timber was necessary for moving the marble blocks inside the quarries and from the quarries to the bank of Toce River, where they were loaded onto wooden barges, 15-18 m long. The marble blocks sailed to Milan along Toce River (navigable until the beginning of the 20th century), Lake Maggiore, Ticino River, and Naviglio Grande canal. Until 1439 the barges reached the Porta Ticinese dock (Darsena di Porta Ticinese) near the church of Sant’Eustorgio. Then, thanks to a new system of two locks to control the water level (known as Conca di Viarenna or Conca di Via Arena) designed by Ridolfo “Aristotele” Fioravanti and Filippino (Filippo) degli Organi, it was possible to connect the dock near Sant’Eustorgio to the inner canal system (Fossa Interna) and to transport the stones to Laghetto dell'Ospedale (a small basin filled in during 1857 and replaced by the modern-day Via Laghetto and Piazza Santo Stefano) near the Cathedral workshop. As the stones for the construction of the Cathedral were exempted from duties and tolls, the barges were marked with the letters “AUF” (Ad Usum Fabricae). This acronym originated the Milanese dialect expression “a uf” (sometimes used in the Italianised form “a ufo” or “a uffa”), which means “gratis, for free, free of charge”.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Candoglia Quarry, Ossola valley, Italy

Regions containing this locality

The Alps, Europe

Mountain Range - 2,202 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


26 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: ; American Mineralogist, Volume 69, pages 358-373, 1984
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Apatite'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Armenite
Formula: BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Reference: Peyronel Pagliani, G. (1958): I silicati di bario del marmo di Candoglia (Ossola). Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana, 14, 280-300; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.; Gentile, P., Cavallo, A., Zorzi, F. (2017): Armenite della Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo, Candoglia di Mergozzo (VB). Novità di mineralogia sistematica italiana. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 188.
'Axinite Group'
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo; Camisasca O. (1941): Il marmo di Candoglia ed i suoi minerali. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 80, (2), 199-222.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: ; American Mineralogist, Volume 69, pages 358-373, 1984
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Eckermannite ?
Formula: NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Mica Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Microcline var: Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Paracelsian (TL)
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Tacconi, E. (1905): Di un silicato di alluminio e bario dei calcefiri di Candoglia in valle del Toce. Rendiconti del Regio Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, Serie II, 38, 636-643.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Scapolite'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Taramellite (TL)
Formula: Ba4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Reference: Tacconi, E. (1908): Taramellite, nuovo silicato di ferro e bario. Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Serie V, 18, 810-814; Tacconi, E. (1908): Ueber Taramellit, ein neues Mineral. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 1908, 506-508; Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975): Minerali alpini e prealpini. Edizioni Atlas Bergamo.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Wenkite (TL)
Formula: (Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
Reference: Papageorgakis, J. (1959): Ein neues Bariummineral des Marmors von Candoglia in der unteren Val d’Ossola. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 39, 333-335; Papageorgakis, J. (1962): Wenkit, ein neues Mineral von Candoglia. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 42, 269-274; AmMin 48:213 (1963); Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975): Minerali alpini e prealpini. Istituto Italiano Edizioni Atlas, Bergamo, 2 vol., 472 pp.; Mattioli, V. (1979): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Albertini, C., Gentile, P., Nibbio, F., Panighetti, A., Ponti, C. (2017): Wenkite. Un raro minerale delle cave di Candoglia, Mergozzo (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 190-196.
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: ; American Mineralogist, Volume 69, pages 358-373, 1984
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Witherite5.AB.15BaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Aegirine'9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
'Armenite'9.CM.05BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
'Celsian'9.FA.30Ba(Al2Si2O8)
'Cordierite'9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
'Diopside'9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
'Eckermannite' ?9.DE.25NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Forsterite'9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Microcline
var: Hyalophane
9.FA.30(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Paracelsian (TL)9.FA.40Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Taramellite (TL)9.CE.20Ba4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Wenkite (TL)9.GD.25(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-
'Axinite Group'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Mica Group-
Pyroxene Group-
Scapolite-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Witherite14.1.3.2BaCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Armenite63.2.1b.1BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Group 64 - CYCLOSILICATES Rings with Other Anions and Insular Silicate Groups
Rings with Other Anions and Insular Silicate Groups: 4-membered rings with [Si2O7] dimers
Taramellite (TL)64.3.1.1Ba4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Eckermannite ?66.1.3c.6NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Celsian76.1.1.4Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Microcline
var: Hyalophane
76.1.1.3(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Paracelsian (TL)76.1.5.1Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Wenkite (TL)76.2.5.16(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-
'Axinite Group'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Mica Group'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
H EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
BBoron
B TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C WitheriteBaCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
O WitheriteBaCO3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Na Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Al CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Si CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Cl TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
KPotassium
K Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
BaBarium
Ba ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Ba Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ba ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Ba TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Ba Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
Ba WitheriteBaCO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Unknown
Ma



ID: 2350272
Metamorphe Gesteine, meist Metasedimente

Age: Anthropocene ( Ma)

Lithology: Metamorphic rocks, mostly metasedimentary

Reference: Geological Institute. Geological Map of Switzerland 1:500,000. isbn: 3906723399. University of Bern. [49]

Paleozoic
251.902 - 541 Ma



ID: 3157500
Palaeozoic gneiss

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 541 Ma)

Description: high grade metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{gneiss}, Minor{granulite,greenschist}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Cambrian - Proterozoic
485.4 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3189284
Precambrian-Phanerozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: to Cambrian (485.4 - 2500 Ma)

Comments: Alps

Lithology: Crystalline metamorphic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Barelli, V. (1835) Cenni di statistica mineralogica degli Stati di S.M. il Re di Sardegna, ovvero Catalogo ragionato della Raccolta formatasi presso l'Azienda Generale dell'Interno. Tipografia Giuseppe Fodratti, Torino, 686 pp.
Jervis, G. (1873) I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 1: Regioni delle Alpi. Ed. Loescher, Torino, 410 pp.
Tacconi, E. (1905) Di un silicato di alluminio e bario dei calcefiri di Candoglia in valle del Toce. Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, serie 2, 38, 636-643.
Tacconi, E. (1908a) Taramellite, nuovo silicato di ferro e bario. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, serie 5, Rendiconti, Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, 18, 810-814.
Tacconi, E. (1908b) Ueber Taramellit, ein neues Mineral. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 506-508.
Tacconi, E. (1911) La massa calcarea ed i calcefiri di Candoglia, in Valle del Toce. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali, 50, 1, 55-88 and 2-3, 89-94.
Codara, G. and Battaini, C. (1939) Itinerari mineralogici. I minerali di Candoglia. 1°) Località Vallorba. 2°) Località Cava Madre, Carrettone, Cornovo, Cava del Duomo di Milano. Natura, 30, 4, 196-205.
Camisasca, O. (1941) Il marmo di Candoglia ed i suoi minerali. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali, 80, 2, 199-222.
Mazzi, F. (1957) Riesame della taramellite. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, serie A, 64, 237-245.
Peyronel Pagliani, G. (1958) I silicati di bario del marmo di Candoglia (Ossola). Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana, 14, 280-300.
Papageorgakis, J. (1959) Ein neues Bariummineral des Marmors von Candoglia in der unteren Val d’Ossola. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 39, 333-335.
Papageorgakis, J. (1961) Marmore und Kalksilkatfelse der Zone Ivrea-Verbano zwischen Ascona und Candoglia. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 41, 157-254.
Papageorgakis, J. (1962) Wenkit, ein neues Mineral von Candoglia. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 42, 269-274.
Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., and Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.
De Michele, V. (1974) Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol., 408 pp.
Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975) Minerali alpini e prealpini. Istituto Italiano Edizioni Atlas, Bergamo, 2 vol., 472 pp.
Mazzi, F. and Rossi, G. (1978) Nuovi dati chimici e strutturali sulla taramellite. Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia, 34, 1, 205-206.
Mattioli, V. (1979) Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.
Mazzi, F. and Rossi, G. (1980) The crystal structure of taramellite. American Mineralogist, 65, 123-128.
Alfors, J.T. and Pabst, A. (1984) Titanian taramellites in western North America. American Mineralogist, 69, 358-373.
Ferrari da Passano, C. (2000) La Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano. “Quarry-Laboratory-Monument” International Congress, Pavia 2000, Proceedings, Vol. 1, 23-34.
Cavallo, A., Bigioggero, B., Colombo, A., and Tunesi, A. (2004) The Verbano Cusio Ossola province: a land of quarries in northern Italy (Piedmont). Periodico di Mineralogia, 73, (special issue 3), 197-210.
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., and Lombardo, B. (2007) Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
Brack, P., Ulmer, P., and Schmid, S.M. (with a contribution by) (2010) A crustal-scale magmatic system from the Earth's mantle to the Permian surface - Field trip to the area of lower Valsesia and Val d’Ossola (Massiccio dei Laghi, Southern Alps, Northern Italy). Swiss Bulletin für angewandte Geologie, 15, 2, 3-21.
Albertini, C., Gentile, P., Nibbio, F., Panighetti, A., and Ponti, C. (2017) Wenkite. Un raro minerale delle cave di Candoglia, Mergozzo (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 190-196.
Gentile, P., Cavallo, A., and Zorzi, F. (2017) Armenite della Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo, Candoglia di Mergozzo (VB). Novità di mineralogia sistematica italiana. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 188.


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