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San Pedro Mine (Pedro mine), Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill), Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
San Pedro Mine (Pedro mine)Mine
Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)Mountain
Pala- not defined -
Pala DistrictMining District
San Diego Co.County

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Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 22' 44'' North , 117° 2' 17'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.37889,-117.03833
GeoHash:G#: 9muvbsrq1
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Nearest Settlements:
Rainbow1,832 (2011)10.7km
Temecula112,011 (2017)16.3km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)17.6km
Valley Center9,277 (2011)17.8km
Hidden Meadows3,485 (2011)18.4km

"San Pedro"
—Spanish, meaning "Saint Peter".

Located in the N2SE4 Sec. 24 T9S R2W SBM, the mine is on the north flank of Hiriart Mountain. Developed by 4 shallow cuts in the northern part of the Vanderberg pegmatite where the dike strikes north-northwestward, dips moderately west, and is up to 20 feet thick. Gem minerals reported include spodumene (primarily kunzite) pale-green and pink beryl, and pale yellow quartz. Additional minerals are tourmaline, lepidolite, molybdenite, bornite, and large clear crystals of microcline. The White Queen dike also strikes across the property.

The deposit was located by Bernardo Hiriart and Pedro Peiletch in 1902, as northernmost and last of three claims on the mountain made by the two Basque Frenchman between 1901 and 1902. Not long after the date of the San Pedro location, the surrounding vacant public lands were temporarily withdrawn and removed from mineral entry under the United States land and mineral laws pursuant to Secretarial Order dated January 24, 1903. This order was a temporary withdrawal pending acquisition of all private inholdings, including valid existing rights, for the benefit of the Pala Tribe, under Indian tract allotment pursuant to the Act of January 12, 1891.

In 1905, George F. Kunz described the San Pedro workings as 4 cuts along a pegmatite ledge traceable for nearly a mile in length. These cuts were said to produce some kunzite, tourmaline, beryl, and lepidolite. In 1906, Kunz described the San Pedro mine as traversed by the same dike or vein as the Katerina and Vanderberg mines. Recent development of the San Pedro mine was described as a large open cut which showed pink beryl, pink kunzite, green tourmaline, and fine quartz crystals.

The mine was later acquired by Jim R. Fouch, head of the Universal Microphone Company of Inglewood, who reported running into a lot of peach colored beryl. Fouch sold the claim to George A. Ashley in 1947. Ashley then sold the claim to Charlie E. Reynolds of Escondido in 1948. In 1951 Reynolds mined a large pocket which yielded 300 pounds of fine gem spodumene which ranged from colorless to pale pink to pale green. The largest crystal from this pocket measured 11x5.5x1.5 inches.

In 1973, Pala International of Fallbrook acquired the San Pedro mine and began working the deposit. Some of the surface workings were expanded by using a D-8 Caterpillar track-type dozer, and some of the underground workings were extended for short distances.

In the early 1990's the Secretary of the Interior, through the delegation to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), investigated the bona fides of the mining claim to determine any encumbrance of an allotment application (trust patent) filed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs on behalf of the Pala Tribe on June 19, 1980. The claim was adjudicated and in 1992 it was declared invalid from the beginning, or void ab initio.

In 1997, John Sinkankas reported the largest cut pink beryl from North America is a 400-carat faceted Morganite produced from the San Pedro mine. The land is now managed for the benefit of the Pala Band of Mission Indians by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

Regions containing this locality

Pacific PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

13 valid minerals.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
Group 6 - Borates
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Ludlamite8.CD.20Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Ludlamite40.3.5.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
var: Aquamarine
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Citrine
var: Kunzite

List of minerals for each chemical element

H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
P LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Cretaceous - Triassic
66 - 251.902 Ma

ID: 2776321
Mesozoic gabbroic rocks, unit 2 (undivided)

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 251.902 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Cuyamaca Gabbro; Elk Creek Gabbro; Gold Park Gabbro-Diorite; San Marcos Gabbro; Summit Gabbro

Description: Gabbro and dark dioritic rocks; chiefly Mesozoic

Comments: Mostly small exposures of gabbro and diorite scattered in western Klamath Mts., Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, Mojave Desert, and Peninsular Ranges Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{diorite,gabbro}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

66 - 145 Ma

ID: 2706494
Granite pegmatite dike

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Description: Tabular, pegmatitic-textured granitic dikes. Most dikes range in thickness from a few centimeters to over a meter. Larger dikes are typically zoned compositionally and texturally.

Reference: Kennedy, M.P., and S.S. Tan. digital prep. by Bovard et al. Geologic Map of the Oceanside 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California. California Department of Conservation California Geological Survey. [131]

66 - 145 Ma

ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 86, 133.
Kunz, G. F. (1906), The Production of Precious Stones in 1905. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and Mineral Resources. GPO, Washington: pages 26-27; 40 pp.
Anonymous (1951), World news on mineral occurrences: Rocks & Minerals: 26: 265-279.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A, 72 p.
Weber, F. H. (1963), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
Murdoch, Joseph & Webb, Robert W. (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
Rynerson, F. J. (1967), Exploring and mining for Gems and Gold in the West. Happy Camp, California: Naturegraph Publishers, Inc.: 198.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 312.
Todd, W. R. & Waiwood, R. M. (1996), Mineral Report: Validity Examination of the Katerina Lode; Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of the Interior, Oct. 30; 71 p., maps/plats, photos, legal/technical data.
Sinkankas, J. (1997), Gemstones of North America. Appendix: Table of Largest Cut Gems from North American Localities; Tucson, Arizona: Geoscience Press Inc.: 515-518.
Swoboda, E. R. (2001), Pala district 1946-48: Unpublished field notes and personal interviews. Swoboda Inc., Beverly Hills, Los Angeles County, CA; 5/2; 8 p.
Pala International, Inc. (2007), A brief synopsis on mining operations by Pala Properties International, of Fallbrook, CA; at

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