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Carson Hill Mining District (Melones Mining District), Mother Lode Belt, Calaveras Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Carson Hill Mining District (Melones Mining District)Mining District
Mother Lode BeltBelt
Calaveras Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
38° North , 120° West (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~4km
Locality type:


Carson Hill is on the Mother Lode belt in southwestern Calaveras County. The district consists of that portion of the Mother Lode that extends from Carson Flat southeast through Carson Hill to the town of Melones on the Stanislaus River. It has also been known as the Melones district.

History: Carson Hill was named for James H. Carson, a soldier who came to California in 1847 and who discovered gold at nearby Carson Creek in 1848. Within 10 days, Carson and a small company of men reportedly had each taken out 180 ounces of gold, after which they left the area planning to return the following year. By 1849, word had gotten out, and when Carson returned he found the area swarming with miners and little left to claim. He left Carson Hill to prospect the Mother Lode farther south.

Lode gold was first discovered in 1850 at the Morgan mine and many miners soon came to the area. By 1851, the town of Melones had a population of 3,000 to 5,000. It was named for the melon seed-shaped gold nuggets found here. The district was extremely productive then, much of the mineral coming from fantastically rich surface pockets. Gold to the amount of $110,000 was exposed by one blast, and in 1854, a 195-pound mass of gold, the largest ever taken in California, was found here. Telluride minerals were recovered in quantity, but most were lost in unsuccessful attempts to extract the gold.

The Carson Hill mines principal properties were the Calaveras, Finnegan, Melones, Morgan, Reserve, and Stanislaus mines. Other claims that were consolidated with one or more of these mines included the Adelaide, Carson, Enterprise, Iron Rock, Irvine, Kentucky, May Day, Mayflower, McMillan, Mineral Mountain, Point Rock, relief, South Carolina, and Union. Because of the complexity of the history of operations and various consolidations, all have been generally grouped together for this discussion, with only the more important mines being described in any detail.

Lode gold was first discovered in 1850 at the Morgan Mine on Carson Hill. The rich surface ores were easily crushed in hand mortars, and rock too poor for a hand mortar was ground in arrastras. From February 1850 until December 1851, it was reported that about $2.8 million was extracted and unknown sums were stolen (Clark and Lydon, 1962). As much as $110,000 in gold was exposed with a single blast, and in 1854, a 195-pound mass of gold, the largest ever found in North America, was found ("Calaveras Nugget"). The nugget was eventually melted down after being exhibited at the Paris Exhibition in 1856. Telluride minerals were also recovered in quantity, but most were lost in unsuccessful attempts to extract the gold (Clark, 1970).

After the rich shallow ores were exhausted, ore grade and gold production declined. In the late 1850s, G.K. Stevenot took possession of the Morgan Mine and erected a 3-stamp mill, the first quartz mill in the area (destroyed by fire in 1862). The Melones and Stanislaus Mining Company was then organized (with G. K. Stevenot as manager) to work the Melones and Stanislaus claims. By 1865, the two properties had been mined to a depth of 250 feet and a length of 400 feet. The ore was dry ground in a wooden tub-like device, and the concentrates were shipped to New York. Later an eight-stamp mill was erected on the property. In the meantime, the Finnegan Mine on the northeast slope of Carson Hill, which had been discovered in 1857, was active (Clark and Lydon, 1962).

During the late 1860s and early 1870s, the mines were mostly idle, due largely to litigation over the Morgan Mine claims and milling difficulties. In 1869, the Morgan Mine was sold for back taxes of $115.19 to William Irvine. Lack of modern processes, an absence of a cheap labor force, and the necessity for large-scale operations made it expensive to mine and mill the lower-grade ores. Lacking sufficient capital, Irvine deeded the claim to the Morgan Mining Company of which he was a major stockholder. In 1876, the Morgan Mining Company reopened the mine and a tunnel was begun, which in 1878, struck the vein 200 feet below the outcrop. The Morgan Mine was operated intermittently until 1884 when it was acquired by Senator James G. Fair. Due to animosity between Fair and Irvine, Fair closed the Morgan Mine, refusing to allow it to be worked during his lifetime so that Irvine would not profit from his 25% interest (the mine remained closed until 1914 when the Calaveras Consolidated Mining Company bought the Morgan Mine from the Fair estate).
In 1888, an orebody 40 feet wide was discovered on the Calaveras claim. The same year, the Calaveras Consolidated Gold Mining Company, Ltd., was organized to develop the find. It purchased several claims on the Calaveras vein, erected a 20-stamp mill and commenced development. This was the first operation in the area in which large low-grade ore bodies were mined commercially (Clark and Lydon, 1962).

In 1898, the Melones Consolidated Mining Company was organized with Grayson and Boland as principal stockholders. This concern consolidated the Enterprise, Keystone, Last Chance, Melones, Mineral Mountain, Reserve, and Stanislaus claims, and later the South Carolina. Under the superintendency of W.C. Ralston and later W. G. Deveraux, a large amount of development work was done including driving the Melones adit northwestward from the south side of the hill. A new mill was erected just east of the adit, and the first 60 stamps began operation in 1902. The mill was increased to 100 stamps in 1905. This was the first mine on Carson Hill to employ modern technological methods including a large mill with full electrical power that could process large volumes of low-grade ore. Mining and milling costs were lower than any other mine on the Mother Lode belt (Clark and Lydon, 1962). Large quantities of ore were mined, the maximum having been 245,000 tons in 1918, the next to last year of operation by this concern. The total value of gold produced by the Melones Consolidated Mining Company was about $4.5 million (Logan, 1935).

Meanwhile, in 1917, Carson Hills Gold Mines, Inc. was formed under the direction of W, J. Loring with A.D. Stevenot as mine superintendent. The old Morgan Mine was purchased in 1918. In 1919 they also acquired and consolidated the Calaveras Group, Melones, South Carolina, Iron Rock, Relief, Irvine, Rider, Adelaide, Stanislaus, and other claims. A new adit, known as the Morgan adit was driven in a southerly direction from the north side of the hill. A rich new ore body was encountered in schist in the hanging wall of the large massive "Bull" vein. This proved to be the upward extension of high-grade ore previously mined some 1300 feet below on the 1600-foot level (Knopf, 1929). In the next few years, this "Hanging Wall" ore body was mined to a depth of 4550 feet and yielded more than $5 million. Mill heads averaged over $20 per ton at times, but the average grade of the ores was $12.60/ton (Burgess, 1848). Additional properties were absorbed including those of the Melones Mining Company, and the name of the concern was changed to Carson Hill Gold Mining Company. A new 30-stamp mill was erected west of the 100-stamp mill. This concern operated the properties until 1926 when increasing costs and a decline in ore grade caused them to close the mine. The value of production for the 7 years of operation was $7 million (Clark and Lydon, 1962).

During these years, the Finnegan Mine was also being operated sporadically by a local family, prospecting the Finnegan and Melones veins and operating an old mill when sufficient ore was accumulated. In the mid-1920s, while working on the 1100-foot level, loose rock caused work to cease and shortly afterward the workings caved, creating a large landslide. In 1928, a 10-stamp mill was erected at the Finnegan Mine, but by the early 1930s, the Finnegan Mine was on its last legs with the only activity being dewatering of the workings.
In 1933, the Carson Hill Gold Mining Corporation was organized. The Morgan and Melones Mines were rehabilitated to the 3000-foot level where newly discovered ore bodies in the footwall area were exposed. These were mined from that depth to the surface. Operations were stimulated by the increase in the gold price to $35 an ounce in 1935, enabling the company to work downward to the 3500-foot level. It was during this time that the large pits were developed, including the Relief, the Union Shovel Pit (Morning Glory Hole), and the Footwall glory holes west and south of the Bull vein. The Calaveras Mine was also operated with mining on the upper levels. The capacity of the 30-stamp mill was increased to 20,000 tons per month. The peak year of production for this mill was 1939 when $937,156 worth of gold was sold. The Carson Hill Gold Mining Corporation continued operations until May 1942 when the mill burned to the ground. During this period of operation 2,400,000 tons of ore were mined which yielded a total of $6.5 million. Any hope of rebuilding the mill and resuming operations was crushed by the enactment of Government Order L-208 (Gold Mine Closing Order) in 1942 to help the war effort.

The properties of the Carson Hill Mines group lay idle until 1975 when they were acquired by Cyprus Mines Corporation. After the evaluation of the properties, Cyprus abandoned the project. In 1984, Grandview Resources acquired the property. Following further evaluations including 43,000 feet of reverses circulation drilling, the decision was made to proceed with mining. Permits to reopen the mine as an open-pit operation were approved in 1985. Operations consisted of open pit mining with extraction by heap leaching using a valley leach method, carbon in column adsorption, high temperature-low pressure glycol elution, and electrowinnowing. Ore was produced at rates that ranged from 7,000 to 14,000 tons per day (Collum, 1990) with an average gold content ranging from 0.046-0.057 oz./ton. Recovery averaged between 70% to 75%. The first doré bar was poured in December 1986. In 1988 Western Mining Corporation took over operations, but mining operations ceased in October 1989, after dropping gold prices and a deteriorating heap leach recovery rate made operation uneconomic. During this short period, the mine produced 90,000 ounces of gold (Collum, 1990). The mine site underwent reclamation during the 1990s.

The following is a brief summary of some of the principal early mines comprising the Carson Hill mines group (from Clark and Lydon, 1962):

Calaveras Mine

The Calaveras Mine, which was also known as the Calaveras Consolidated, originally consisted of several claims of which the Calaveras and Santa Cruz were the most important. The property is was on the southwest slope of Carson Hill west of the Melones Mine. Large-scale mining of low-grade ore bodies in the Carson Hill area began at the Calaveras Mine soon after 1889. The mine was a major source of ore during the later part of operations of the Carson Hill Mining Company (1918-1926). During the operations of the Carson Hill Mining Corporation (1933-1942), it was mined extensively both underground and in open cuts.

The mine was developed by the 1500-foot Calaveras adit, the portal of which was just west of State Highway 49 at Melones, several raises, and two open cuts on the adjacent northern slope, known as the north and south pits. These workings were on the Calaveras vein system.

Finnegan Mine

The Finnegan Mine was located on the northeast slope of Carson Hill between the Reserve and Boston Consolidated claims. The mine was operated separately from the other Carson Hill group mines for much of its history. The mine was discovered in 1856 by John Finnegan. In 1867, a small rich ore shoot which yielded $80,000 to $100,000 was encountered on the property. During the latter part of the 19th century, the mine was almost continuously active. In 1894, it was being worked on a small scale for pockets. In the early 1900s, it was worked chiefly by the open-pit method, and in 1910, a $10,000 pocket was discovered.

The open cuts of the Finnegan and the adjoining Reserve claim of the Melones Mining Company finally joined and a suit against the latter concern resulted. From about 1920 until about 1931, Lewis, Gilman, and Moore operated the mine.

The ore body consisted of mineralized amphibolite schist as much as 100 feet thick on the footwall of the Bull vein. This was developed by open cut. To the east, a narrow west-dipping quartz vein was developed by a 350-foot inclined shaft.

Melones Mine

The Melones mine consisted of eight claims consolidated by the Melones Mining Company in 1895 and operated as a unit until 1919. They extended from the summit of Carson Hill south to the river and are on and east of the Bull vein. All of the claims had earlier histories. The Melones Mine was best known for the large quantities of low-grade ore mined and milled at low cost. The main working entry was the Melones adit, which extended 500 feet from portal to workings.

Morgan Mine

Located on the northwest slope of Carson Hill, the Morgan Mine produced the largest amount of gold in the area. Discovered in 1850, it had yielded at least $2.8 million by the end of 1851. In 1854, a large mass of gold was found on the property. The mine was active during the 1860s. It was idle during much of the following period until 1918, when it was acquired by the Carson Hill Gold Mining Company. In driving the Morgan adit, the famous Hanging wall ore shoot was discovered, consequently, the Morgan and adjoining Melones mine were major sources of ore from 1920 to 1926. This mine was again highly productive during the operations of the Carson Hill Gold Mining Corporation (1933-1942). The principal working entries were the Morgan adit, the Morgan shaft, and the immense Morgan glory hole. The gold production from the district declined in the late 1850s. Large-scale mining of low-grade ore bodies began in 1889 at the Calaveras mine. The Melones mine was worked on a major scale from 1895 to 1918. The Morgan, Calaveras, and Melones mines were consolidated in 1918 and worked as a unit until 1926. They were operated again from 1933 until 1942. This was one of the richer portions of the Mother Lode, the Carson Hill group alone having yielded an estimated total of $26 million. Part of Carson Hill will be inundated by the New Melones Reservoir.

Geology: The district is underlain by a series of northwest-striking beds of phyllite, amphibolite, greenschist, and serpentine. The widespread hydrothermal alteration has changed much of the serpentine to extensive bodies of mariposite-ankerite-quartz rock. The slate of the Mariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic) lies to the west and metasediments of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian) to the east.

Ore deposits: The deposits consist of thick, massive, and often barren quartz veins, with adjacent large bodies of auriferous schist and pyritic ankerite mariposite-quartz rock containing numerous thin quartz seams and stringers. Milling ore usually was low in grade, but the ore bodies were extensive. The famous Hanging Wall orebody, which consisted of auriferous schist, averaged Yz ounce of gold per ton and had dimensions of 175 x 4500 x 15 feet. Much rich high-grade ore from surface pockets was recovered in the 1850s. Tellurides, which included calaverite, sylvanite, hessite, and petzite, were recovered in quantity during the early days, near the surface. Both calaverite and melonite, a rare nickel telluride, were first found and described from this district.

Mines: Carson Hill Mines ($26 million), Calaveras, Finnegan, Melones, Morgan, Reserve, Stanislaus Mines, Carson Creek ($1 million), Hardy, Santa Ana, Tulloch.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

36 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Description: Occurs as crystals lining vugs.
Reference: Jackson, Abraham Wendell, Jr. (1886), Mineralogical contributions: California Academy of Science, 1st. series, Bulletin 4: 365; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64, 359.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028998.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1929), The Mother Lode system of California: USGS Professional Paper 157, 88 pp.; […(abstract): Engineering & Mining Journal: 128: 20; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 421.
'Apatite' ?
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Genth F A (1868) Contributions to mineralogy - No. VII, The American Journal of Science and Arts, 95, 305-321
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028998.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10029002.
Calaverite (TL)
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: Genth F A (1868) Contributions to mineralogy - No. VII, The American Journal of Science and Arts: 312, 314; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 105, 109.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Description: Occurs as crusts on quartz.
Reference: Blake, Wm. P. (1867b), Mineralogical notices II: American Journal of Science, 2nd. series: 43: 124; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 123; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 193.
'Chlorite Group'
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1929), The Mother Lode system of California: USGS Professional Paper 157, 88 pp.; […(abstract): Engineering & Mining Journal: 128: 24 (1929); […Geol. Zentralbl., Band 41: 364-367 (1930)]: 37; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 433.
Coloradoite
Formula: HgTe
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Galena
Formula: PbS
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
'Hornblende'
Description: Occurs in crystalline rock almost exclusively hornblende.
Reference: Moss, Frank A. (1927), The geology of Carson Hill, California: Engineering & Mining Journal: 124: 1010-1012; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 65; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 400.
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Mariposite'
Formula: K(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Melonite (TL)
Formula: NiTe2
Reference: American Mineralogist (1949): 34: 342; Genth F A (1868) Contributions to mineralogy - No. VII, The American Journal of Science and Arts, 95, 313; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 218; Hillebrand, William Francis (1900), Mineralogical notes: SS Bulletin 167: 60; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 66.
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Occurs in chlorite-sericite schist.
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10102691.
Nagyágite ?
Formula: [Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
Description: Tentative identification.
Reference: Whitney, J.D. (1865), Geological survey of California, Geology, 1, Report of progress and synopsis of the field work from 1860 to 1864: 263; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 276.
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Küstel, Guido (1865): Tellurite of gold and silver: Mining and Scientific Press: 10: 306; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Dana 7:I:206; Dana 6: 1095.
Petzite
Formula: Ag3AuTe2
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Moss, Frank A. (1927), The geology of Carson Hill, California: Engineering & Mining Journal: 124: 1010-1012; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 310; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 68.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028998.
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Genth, F.A. (1868), Contributions to mineralogy - No. VII, The American Journal of Science and Arts, 2nd. series: 95 (45 ?): 305-321; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 313.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: Prismatic; twinned
Description: Occurs as small crystals as a microscopic constituent of ankeritic schist ore.
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1929), The Mother Lode system of California: USGS Professional Paper 157, 88 pp.: 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 169.
'Soapstone'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Genth F A (1868) Contributions to mineralogy - No. VII, The American Journal of Science and Arts, 95, 305-321
Sylvanite
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Localities:
Tellurium
Formula: Te
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Tellurium1.CC.10Te
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Altaite2.CD.10PbTe
Calaverite (TL)2.EA.10AuTe2
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Coloradoite2.CB.05aHgTe
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Hessite2.BA.60Ag2Te
Melonite (TL)2.EA.20NiTe2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Nagyágite ?2.HB.20a[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Petzite2.BA.75Ag3AuTe2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Sylvanite2.EA.05(Au,Ag)2Te4
Tetradymite2.DC.05Bi2Te2S
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Milky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Phengite9.EC.15KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite' ?-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'Mariposite'-K(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
'Soapstone'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Tellurium1.3.4.2Te
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Hessite2.4.2.1Ag2Te
Petzite2.4.3.3Ag3AuTe2
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Altaite2.8.1.3PbTe
Coloradoite2.8.2.5HgTe
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Nagyágite ?2.11.10.1[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
Tetradymite2.11.7.1Bi2Te2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Calaverite (TL)2.12.13.2AuTe2
Melonite (TL)2.12.14.1NiTe2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Sylvanite2.12.13.3(Au,Ag)2Te4
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite' ?-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'Mariposite'-K(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Muscovite
var: Phengite
-KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
var: Milky Quartz
-SiO2
var: Rock Crystal-SiO2
'Soapstone'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C GraphiteC
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O QuartzSiO2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O RutileTiO2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Quartz (var: Milky Quartz)SiO2
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Quartz (var: Milky Quartz)SiO2
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S TetradymiteBi2Te2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S MilleriteNiS
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S BaryteBaSO4
S Nagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
CrChromium
Cr MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
NiNickel
Ni MeloniteNiTe2
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni NickelineNiAs
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As NickelineNiAs
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
Ag PetziteAg3AuTe2
Ag HessiteAg2Te
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Sb Nagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
TeTellurium
Te CalaveriteAuTe2
Te MeloniteNiTe2
Te Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
Te TetradymiteBi2Te2S
Te PetziteAg3AuTe2
Te HessiteAg2Te
Te AltaitePbTe
Te ColoradoiteHgTe
Te TelluriumTe
Te Nagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au CalaveriteAuTe2
Au Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
Au GoldAu
Au PetziteAg3AuTe2
Au Nagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
HgMercury
Hg ColoradoiteHgTe
PbLead
Pb AltaitePbTe
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb Nagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
BiBismuth
Bi TetradymiteBi2Te2S

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Turner, Henry Ward (1894) Description of the gold belt; description of the Jackson sheet. USGS, Geol. Atlas Jackson folio (Folio No. 11), 6 pages (reprinted 1914).
Ransome, Frederick Leslie (1900) Description of the Mother Lode district, California. USGS Geological Atlas, Mother Lode (folio No. 63), 11 pages.
Storms, William H. (1900) The Mother Lode region of California. California Mining Bureau Bulletin 18: 121-122.
Young, George J. (1921) Gold mining in Carson Hill, California. Engineering & Mining Journal, 112, 725-729.
Moss, Frank A. (1927) The geology of Carson Hill, California. Engineering & Mining Journal, 124, 1010-1012.
Knopf, Adolf (1929) The Mother Lode system of California: USGS Professional Paper 157, 88 pages; […(abstract): Engineering & Mining Journal, 128, 24 (1929); […Geol. Zentralbl., Band 41: 364-367 (1930)]: 72-77.
Logan, Clarence August (1934) Mother Lode Gold Belt of California. California Division Mines Bulletin 108, 221 pages: 129-137.
Burgess, John A. (1937) Mining methods at the Carson Hill mine, Calaveras County, California. U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 6940, 15 pages.
Eric, J.H., Stromquist, A.A., Swinney, C.M. (1955) Geology and mineral deposits of the Angels Camp and Sonora quadrangles, Calaveras and Tuolumne Counties, California. California Division of Mines Special Report 41, 55 pages.
Clark, Wm. B., Lydon, P.A. (1962) Mines and mineral resources of Calaveras County, California. California Division of Mines & Geology County Report 2; [… Geological Society of America Proceedings, 1933: 312-313, 1934]: 44-50.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983) Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinhold Press: 155 (map 4-6).

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