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Wushan Spessartine Mine, Tongbei, Yunxiao Co., Zhangzhou, Fujian, Chinai
Regional Level Types
Wushan Spessartine MineMine
Tongbei- not defined -
Yunxiao Co.County
ZhangzhouPrefecture
FujianProvince
ChinaCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):乌山锰铝榴石矿, 通北, 云霄县, 漳州市, 福建省, 中国
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 23° 54' 21'' North , 117° 11' 53'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 23.90611,117.19806
GeoHash:G#: ws5rfzvp0
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Huanggang225,956 (2012)32.5km


The first specimens of Chinese garnet associated with smoky quartz and feldspar appeared on the market in 1998. The locality cited was the city of Lechang, in Guangdong Province; only at the end of 2001, some dealers gave the province of Fujian as the true locality and Yunxiao as the nearest large city.

Samples come from two main collecting sites: the first lies near the village of Tongbei, southwest of Yunxiao; the second is at Yunling in Zhangpu County, about 30 km further northeast. At Tongbei, helvine and topaz occur, but no fluorite, which is present only at Yunling.

The discovery of these localities took place 15 years ago. Granitic rocks originated as intrusions during the late Mesozoic, as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Pacific Plate under the continental plate of southeastern China.

NOTE: The feldspar associated with the spessartine is microcline, not orthoclase as originally reported.

Regions containing this locality

Yangtze PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


17 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Norman King and various dealers
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Colour: pale green
Description: xls up to few mm long.
Reference: http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_fujian.htm and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Rob Lavinsky specimen
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: www.fabreminerals.com; Mineralogical Record, May/Jun 2002.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Habit: octahedral xls
Colour: colorless, pale green, pale to dark blue
Reference: http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_fujian.htm and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Habit: pseudo-octahedral xls
Colour: yellow, with dark surface coatings
Description: xls rest either on feldspar or on smoky quartz. Helvite xls were found at Tongbei at the end of 2001 and the first xls collected had a dark surface coatings. Helvite xls discovered at later times lack the dark surface coatings but it is suspected that such pieces have been treated in Tongbei with HCl.
Reference: http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_fujian.htm and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Habit: tabular xls
Reference: http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_fujian.htm and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Rarely Manebach twins have been observed and characteristic of microcline. Feldspar xls in near surface pockets are often seen to be in the process of kaolinization.
Reference: various added photos
Milarite
Formula: K2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
Description: xls up to 0,5 mm.
Reference: Ottens, B. (2005): Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record 36(1), 35-43
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Philip Bluemner Collection
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Van King
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Colour: Whitish
Fluorescence: Bright green (SW UV)
Description: Thin whitish crusts on orthoclase crystals and spessartine crystals.
Reference: C. Lemanski, Jr. and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Colour: Whitish
Fluorescence: Bright green (SW UV)
Description: Thin whitish crusts on orthoclase crystals and spessartine crystals.
Reference: C. Lemanski, Jr. and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Colour: cream colored
Reference: Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: cubic xls
Reference: http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_fujian.htm and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Dan Weinrich
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: xls up to 30 cm.
Reference: Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_fujian.htm and Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: trapezohedric xls
Colour: orange
Reference: Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Ottens, B., 2005. Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36 (1): 35-43

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Helvine9.FB.10Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Milarite9.CM.05K2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase ?9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Milarite63.2.1a.12K2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase ?76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Helvine76.2.4.1Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Be MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
O HematiteFe2O3
O MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
AlAluminium
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Si MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SSulfur
S HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
S PyriteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
KPotassium
K MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
FeIron
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Mesozoic
66 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 3185811
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 251.902 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ottens, B. (2003) Prächtiger Spessartin-Granat aus den Pegmatiten von Fujian, China. Lapis, 28(4), 13-20.
Ottens, B. (2005) Tongbei. Spessartine localities, Fujian Province, China. Mineralogical Record, 36(1), 35-43.

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