Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Mount Tarawera, Okataina, Rotorua District, Bay of Plenty Region (Te Moana-a-Toi), North Island, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Mount TaraweraMountain
Okataina- not defined -
Rotorua DistrictDistrict
Bay of Plenty Region (Te Moana-a-Toi)Region
North Island- not defined -
New ZealandCountry

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 13' 23'' South , 176° 30' 24'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -38.22309,176.50669
GeoHash:G#: rcjw898q2
Locality type:Mountain
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


The early eruptions of the Mount Tarawera volcano had built up a series of rhyolitic flows and domes. On June 10 1886 a series of basaltic eruptions left a chain of craters forming a spectacular rift 8 km long across the mountain. Basalt blasting through the older rhyolite layers produced an unusual type of volcanic bomb having a white core of glassy melted rhyolite and an outer skin of black basalt.

This 1886 eruption had devastating effects, killing 120 people and destroying the famed Pink and White terraces.

The description of the eruptions sound like the end of the world. There was little forewarning, with only earthquakes up to one hour before the eruptions, heralding the event. Within a few hours lava was erupting from craters the full length of the mountain, with an ash cloud up to 10 kilometres high. Shortly, Rotomahana just to the south-west began erupting as well, after a severe earthquake, then Waimangu further south-west erupted. Volcanic activity extended a length of 17 kilometres.

Near the sources of the eruptions, ground hugging turbulent hurricanes of mud, ash, and steam swept over hills 360 metres above the Rotomahara crater floor, travelling 6 kilometres to the west. The ash cloud was lit by lightning and fireballs, while strong winds flattened trees, surrounded the area with suffocating gas, ash falling metres deep, and darkened day into night to the north, which was the prevailing direction of the ash cloud. This is considered a small eruption in the history of the Okataina Volcanic Centre.

Along the Mount Tarawera (1284 metres) rift, the Tarawera basalt is exposed as red and black scoria 20-60 metres thick, contrasting with older grey and white rhyolite lavas. Weak steam vents remain around the crater, although greater thermal activity can be visited to the south-west at Waimangu, and Waiotapu. Mount Tarawera itself is difficult to visit, with no easy access, barring a helicopter.

The top of the mountain contains thirteen domes, of which hypersthene (orthopyroxene) is an important constituent. Enstatite photographs seen on Mindat for the location are not unreasonable, as enstatite is the magnesium end member of the enstatite-ferrosilite series, with hypersthene noted as a common intermediate member.

There are four types of rhyolite showing at the top of the mountain. 1) Hornblende-biotite rhyolite, grey biotite with large green and brown hornblende crystals, with quartz and plagioclase in a pumiceous matrix. 2) Hypersthene rhyolite with variable colouring, hypersthene and plagioclase with minor hornblende, some magnetite, quartz rare, in a ground mass of pumice or obsidian. 3) Hypersthene-hornblende rhyolite of pink basaltic hornblende, and hypersthene with quartz and plagioclase. 4) Biotite rhyolite as pink, grey or white biotite, minor hypersthene, large quartz and plagioclase crystals, in a pumiceous to spherulitic groundmass. The rock unit may contain vesicles lined with tridymite.

In general quartz crystals may be found with obsidian, cristobalite in vesicles, and tridymite in vesicles found near dome centres, as clear euhedral prisms, with wedge shaped twinning, and may completely fill the cavity.

Plagioclase as glomeroporphyritic clusters, sometimes accompanied with ferromagnesian minerals, with twinning (albite, Carlsbad-albite, pericline-albite), and zoning ubiquitous, and inclusions common.

'Normal' biotite found at the dome margins, euhedral, often with inclusions of apatite, zircon, and rarely hornblende. Ferroan biotite is found at dome centres. Hornblende pervasive but only in small amounts, as pale, green, brown, and basaltic types.

Orthopyroxene (hypersthene) common in hypersthene rhyolite, as small euhedral and subhedral crystals, containing numerous inclusions of magnetite and sometimes apatite. Determined as end member enstatite on Mindat photographs.

Magnetite is ubiquitous as small euhedral and subhedral crystals and inclusions, found on the dome margins as steel grey, and dome centres oxidised to red, and often associated with leucoxene where the rocks have been hydrothermally altered.

Apatite is rare as small prism crystals enclosed in biotite. Zircon is common enclosed in biotite crystals as small prism crystals.



Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Mt Tarawera
Mt Tarawera, Rotorua

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


10 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: J. W. Cole (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924,
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Hiess, J., Cole, J.W., Spinks, K.D. (2007) High-Alumina Basalts of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Influence of the Crust and Crustal Structure. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 50(4):327-342.
'Apatite'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
'Basalt'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
'Biotite'
Reference: Ewart, A., Cole, J.W. (1967) Textural and mineralogical significance of the Granitic Xenoliths from the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 10:1, 31-54,
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: S.Mills, Museum Victoria
Ferrosilite
Formula: FeSiO3
Description: Maximum of 20% ferrosilite molecule found in analyzed specimen
Reference: Hiess, J., Cole, J.W., Spinks, K.D. (2007) High-Alumina Basalts of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Influence of the Crust and Crustal Structure. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 50:4, 327-342.
'Glassy igneous rock'
Reference: Collection of RJ Martin
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Rod Martin personal collection
'Hornblende'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
'Ignimbritic tuff'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
Leucoxene
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Rod Martin personal collection
'Obsidian'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin
Opal var: Hyalite
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
'Pumice'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Structure and eruptive history of the Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 879-902.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Collection of RJ Martin
'Rhyolite'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Structure and eruptive history of the Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 879-902.
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Ewart, A., Cole, J.W. (1967) Textural and mineralogical significance of the Granitic Xenoliths from the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 10:1, 31-54,
'Scoria'
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cristobalite'4.DA.15SiO2
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Hyalite4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
'Anorthite'9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Enstatite'9.DA.05MgSiO3
'Ferrosilite' ?9.DA.05FeSiO3
Sanidine9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-
'Basalt'-
'Biotite'-
'Glassy igneous rock'-
'Hornblende'-
Ignimbritic tuff-
Leucoxene-
Obsidian-
Orthopyroxene Subgroup-
Pumice-
Pyroxene Group-
Rhyolite-
Scoria-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Ferrosilite ?65.1.2.2FeSiO3
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Sanidine76.1.1.2K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Apatite'-
'Basalt'-
'Biotite'-
'Glassy igneous rock'-
'Hornblende'-
'Ignimbritic tuff'-
Leucoxene-
'Obsidian'-
Opal
var: Hyalite
-SiO2 · nH2O
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Pumice'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Rhyolite'-
'Scoria'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Opal (var: Hyalite)SiO2 · nH2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
OOxygen
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O CristobaliteSiO2
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O FerrosiliteFeSiO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O Opal (var: Hyalite)SiO2 · nH2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
O TridymiteSiO2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
MgMagnesium
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
AlAluminium
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si FerrosiliteFeSiO3
Si Opal (var: Hyalite)SiO2 · nH2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Si TridymiteSiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
FeIron
Fe FerrosiliteFeSiO3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 1309549
Late Quaternary rhyolite

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Pakihi Supergroup

Description: Rhyolite lavas, domes and pyroclastic deposits.

Comments: Zealandia Megasequence Extrusive and Intrusive Rocks (Neogene)

Lithology: Rhyolite, pyroclastic material

Reference: Edbrooke, S.W., Heron, D.W., Forsyth, P.J., Jongens, R. (compilers). Geology Map of New Zealand 1:1 000 000. GNS Science Geological Map 2. [12]

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 3187411
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Ignimbrite(s); felsic volcanic rocks; rhyolite

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Holocene
0 - 0.0117 Ma



ID: 1364951
Kaharoa Formation (Okataina Group) rhyolite of Okataina Volcanic Centre

Age: Anthropocene (0 - 0.0117 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kaharoa Formation

Description: Crystal-rich biotite bearing rhyolite lava; variably with lesser pumice and breccia as a carapace.

Comments: Holocene igneous rocks. Age based on wiggle-radio

Lithology: Major:: {rhyolite},Minor:: {pumice, breccia}

Reference: Heron, D.W. . Geology Map of New Zealand 1:250 000. GNS Science Geological Map 1. [13]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ewart, A., Cole, J.W. (1967) Textural and mineralogical significance of the Granitic Xenoliths from the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 10:1, 31-54,
Cole, J.W. (1970) Petrography of the rhyolite lavas of Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 903-924.
Cole, J.W. (1970) Structure and eruptive history of the Tarawera Volcanic Complex. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 13:4, 879-902.
Thornton, J. (1985) Field Guide to New Zealand Geology, 226 pages.
Hiess, J., Cole, J.W., Spinks, K.D. (2007) High-Alumina Basalts of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Influence of the Crust and Crustal Structure. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 50:4, 327-342.

External Links



This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: April 24, 2019 11:10:15 Page generated: December 3, 2018 07:13:51
Go to top of page