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Hamre Copper Mine, Bygland, Aust-Agder, Norwayi
Regional Level Types
Hamre Copper MineMine
ByglandMunicipality
Aust-AgderCounty
NorwayCountry

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Name in Norwegian:Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder, Norge
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 58° 50' 31'' North , 7° 45' 19'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 58.84218,7.75540
GeoHash:G#: u4mw8rzk9
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Byglandsfjord332 (2014)19.8km
Fyresdal359 (2014)42.5km


The Hamre copper mine is beautifully located at a height of 130 m over the Byglandsfjord.

According to Monen (2016) it is probably the oldest mine in the entire Setesdal valley, with copper mining by monks in medieval times. These monks are supposed have come from the Nomeland monastery in Valle. It is suggested that some or all of the monks must have come from Germany.

In the area around the mine there are several places with names referring to the monks. The very steep path leading to the mine is called the "Munketoa", referring to the narrow ledge which is the path to the mine.

However, Breivik (2017) comes with a different explanation. The Danish king had a stadtholder and tax collector by the name of Erik Munk stationed in Arendal during the years 1570 until 1585. Munk was active in the mining industry and it is very conceivable that he also went to the Setesdal valley.

The reference to Germany can be explained by the likelihood that German miners lived at the Hamre farm, where there is a low hilled called the Tyskerhaugen (Tysker = German).

And at the coast near the Byglandsfjord was once a small smelter visible, where they supposedly tried to smelt the ore from the Hamre mine. Due to the damming up of the Byglandsfjord this place is now under water.

In 1845 the Sætersdalen Kobberværk studied the deposit, but they didn't start mining.

In 1867 there was some activity in the mine, but with little result.

There are no reports about activity in the period 1868-1905.

In a two year's period 1908-09 one Kjetil Bygland put up a forge and cabin for the miners, and at its most 10-12 miners worked in the mine. It was very likely he who built a ropeway down to the fjord.

In 1908 50 ton ore was extracted and sold to England for 100 kroner per ton.

After Bygland abandoned the mine he leased the mine to an adjunct Kraft, who in his turn in 1910 handed the mine over to a German company.

The ore was separated from the waist rock in the mine, and the latter was thrown straight down the hill while the ore was send down with the ropeway.

An analyses performed in 1911 showed the ore to have a content of 587 g silver per ton ore.

Ettner (2001) reported that the ore contains up to 11,73 g/t gold and up to 243,3 g/t silver.

In 1913 another German company prospected the deposit and in a short period 800 m3 ore was extracted, of which 400 m3 raw ore, which resulted in 22 ton ore with 10% copper. In addition 70 ton ore with 2-3% was produced.

They believed the mine to be empty now and left. However, in 1914 they came back and wanted to buy the mine, but the war started and the mine has been abandoned ever since.

The feature that makes this deposit somewhat unusual is that the ore is hosted in a plagioclase dominated pegmatite.

The age and origin of this pegmatite are unknown, and a relationship with the pegmatites of the Evje-Iveland pegmatite field is pure speculation.

Collectors who want to visit or collect in either the mine or dump need to ask for permission from the owner, who during the summer often can be found at the nearby situated Hamre farm at 58.8130889,7.7633268.

This is not only a matter of courtesy, but also safety. The walk to the mine is not without danger. The path to the mine is a narrow ledge with considerable fall height. The owner would see at glance if somebody is not fit to walk to the mine, and advice this person not to go.

Coordinates © Kartverket - https://www.kartverket.no

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
ScandinaviaRegion

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


31 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Description: Named as "hornblende" in Breivik (2015), no chemical analysis is done.
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
'Apatite'
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Nordrum, F.S. (2012): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2011-2012. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 49, 117-124
'Biotite'
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2017): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Stein 44 (1): 14-23.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: George Creighton photo & specimen (Identified by Rune S. Selbekk NHM Oslo); Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Collection of the Evje og Hornnes geomuseum Fennefoss
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Heulandite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2017): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Stein 44 (1): 14-23.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Nordrum, F.S. (2012): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2011-2012. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 49, 117-124; Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Nordrum, F.S. (2012): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2011-2012. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 49, 117-124; Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Schröckingerite
Formula: NaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Stilbite-Ca
Formula: NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 13-22

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Djurleite2.BA.05Cu31S16
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Schröckingerite5.EG.05NaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Allanite-(Ce)9.BG.05b{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Allophane9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Chabazite-Ca9.GD.10(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Heulandite-Ca9.GE.05(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Stilbite-Ca9.GE.10NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'K Feldspar'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Schröckingerite17.1.5.1NaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Allanite-(Ce)58.2.1a.1{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Chabazite-Ca77.1.2.1(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Heulandite-Ca77.1.4.1(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Stilbite-Ca77.1.4.3NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'K Feldspar'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
H Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
H Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
OOxygen
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O HematiteFe2O3
O RutileTiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
O Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
FFluorine
F SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
Na Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Al Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Si Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S ChalcociteCu2S
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Ca Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
CeCerium
Ce Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
UUranium
U SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Proterozoic
541 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3186372
Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (541 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Granitoid gneiss; orthogneiss/paragneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Mesoproterozoic - Paleoproterozoic
1000 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3137286
Proterozoic I granite

Age: Proterozoic (1000 - 2500 Ma)

Description: undifferentiated metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{granite}, Minor{granodiorite-diorite group,meta-granite,meta-granodiorite-diorite group}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mortenson, P. (1911): Copper occurrences in the Vormvik-mountain. Norges geologiske undersøkelse, Bergarkivet BA 219.
Breivik, H. (2015): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015: 13-22.
Breivik, H. (2017): Hamre kobbergruve, Bygland, Aust-Agder. Stein 44 (1): 14-23.
Ettner, D.C. (2001): Preliminary findings report for the Mandal - Ustaoset fault zone precious metals exploration project. Bergvesenetrapport nr 4775. pp. 19-20.
Monen, S. (2016): Gruvedrift og Nikkelindustri i Setesdal. Arbeidsfolk fortel m.m. Vol 1-3. Evje og Hornnes kommune. Vol. 1. ISBN: 978-82-690462-1-2.

External Links



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