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Devil's Den (Devil's Den lime pit), Newbury, Essex Co., Massachusetts, USAi
Regional Level Types
Devil's Den (Devil's Den lime pit)- not defined -
Newbury- not defined -
Essex Co.County
MassachusettsState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
42° 46' 4'' North , 70° 50' 3'' West (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~0km


The limestone at this locality (actually an impure metamorphosed magnesian limestone) was discovered by Ensign James Noyes (b. 1657), and worked beginning in 1697 -- the first "lime quarry" in colonial Massachusetts. Before this time, lime used for mortar for construction purposes was derived from oyster and clam shells.

According to De Alcedo et al. (1812): "In a quarry of limestone here is found the asbestos, or incorruptible cotton, as it is sometimes called." The poet, John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892), alludes to this asbestos in "The Double-Headed Snake of Newbury" (1859) with the line "Or the gray earth-flax of the Devil's Den."

The name "Devil's Den" originated with local schoolboys who frequented the abandoned quarry beginning long before 1819. The boys would chew the asbestos, which they called rag-stone. (B.P., 1819)

Parker Cleaveland (1780–1858), the famous American geologist and mineralogist, first collected minerals here in 1811. His half-brother, Rev. Dr. John P. Cleaveland (1799-1873), recalls the day: "I well remember the forenoon of a warm day in the first week in June in 1811 when he made his first visit to the Devil's Den in Newbury. ... It had been visited once before by a Professor from Harvard, and once by some Professor from foreign parts; but its riches were reserved for my brother's eye. He returned to my father's house with one or two candle-boxes filled; and my mother's kitchen was at once turned into a laboratory, and the floor strewed with fragments of every variety which the den yielded . . . No miser ever worshipped his money as he did these specimens. Many of them which I helped him reduce and pack up that day have long had a place in French, German, and Russian Cabinets." (Woods, 1860; Ewell, 1904).

See also the nearby Devil's Basin locality.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


17 valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Colour: green
Reference: P. Cristofono collection
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Clapp, C. H. and W. G. Ball (1909): The Lead-Silver Deposits at Newburyport, Massachusetts and Their Accompanying Contact-Zones (Economic Geology, 4(3):239-250).
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities; Rocks & Min.: 13:183.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 13:183.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: Essex Institute (1885): Report of the Annual Meeting Held Monday, May 18, 1885. [Description of field trip of Oct 13, 1884]
Brucite var: Nemalite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: Essex Institute (1885): Report of the Annual Meeting Held Monday, May 18, 1885. [Description of field trip of Oct 13, 1884]
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: McDaniel, B.F. (1884): Geology and Mineralogy of Newbury in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XV.
Calcite var: Calcite Satin Spar
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward (1841): Final Report on the Geology of Massachusetts, Vol. 1.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Habit: fibrous
Colour: white, greenish
Reference: P. Cristofono collection
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Harvard University Collection - Ex: Woitowicz Collection
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: McDaniel, B.F. (1884): Geology and Mineralogy of Newbury in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XV.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: mostly massive; crystals uncommon
Colour: orange-brown
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Grossular var: Hessonite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Peter Cristofono, 2016
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: McDaniel, B.F. (1884): Geology and Mineralogy of Newbury in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XV.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Habit: massive
Colour: green
Description: "Noble serpentine" said to occur here. (Sears, 1894)
Reference: Sears, John Henry (1905): The Physical Geography, Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Essex County
'Serpentine Subgroup var: Marmolite'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Habit: massive, foliated (Sears, 1894)
Reference: Sears, John Henry (1894): Geological and Mineralogical Notes, No. 9 in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XXVI.
'Serpentine Subgroup var: Picrolite'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Bud Harmon collection, 1966
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: McDaniel, B.F. (1884)
Sodalite
Formula: Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Description: Unbelievable paragenesis.
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Colour: colorless, pale yellowish tan
Reference: P. Cristofono collection
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: n/a
Description: Wollastonite was mistaken for tremolite. Ref.: Wadsworth, M. Edward (1878): On the So-Called Tremolite of Newbury, Mass. (Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 19:251).
Reference: Wadsworth, M. Edward (1878): On the So-Called Tremolite of Newbury, Mass. (Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 19:251).
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Habit: massive
Description: Crosby (1888) reported an analysis of a massive brown mineral and found it to be vesuvianite. Sears (1894) did not initially accept this identification, but later (Sears, 1905) he apparently changed his mind.
Reference: Sears, John Henry (1894): Geological and Mineralogical Notes, No. 9 in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XXVI.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Habit: crystalline aggregates
Colour: white
Reference: P. Cristofono collection

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
var: Nemalite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
var: Calcite Satin Spar5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Hessonite9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sodalite ?9.FB.10Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite ?9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'var: Marmolite'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'var: Picrolite'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite ?66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Sodalite ?76.2.3.1Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Brucite
var: Nemalite
-Mg(OH)2
Calcite
var: Calcite Satin Spar
-CaCO3
Grossular
var: Hessonite
-Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'var: Marmolite'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'var: Picrolite'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Brucite (var: Nemalite)Mg(OH)2
H Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C Calcite (var: Calcite Satin Spar)CaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O CalciteCaCO3
O Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O QuartzSiO2
O Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Calcite (var: Calcite Satin Spar)CaCO3
O Brucite (var: Nemalite)Mg(OH)2
O Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O SideriteFeCO3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
NaSodium
Na SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
MgMagnesium
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Brucite (var: Nemalite)Mg(OH)2
Mg Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
SiSilicon
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Grossular (var: Hessonite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Calcite (var: Calcite Satin Spar)CaCO3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mn Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mn Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn Serpentine Subgroup (var: Marmolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn Serpentine Subgroup (var: Picrolite)D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Sewall, Samuel (1697): Diary, vol. 1, p.458. in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. 5, 1878.
Belknap, Jeremy (1780) Letter to Ebenezer Hazard: Dover, August 28, 1780, in Belknap Papers (Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. II – Fifth Series, Boston, 1877).
Hazard, Ebenezer (1788): Letter to Jeremy Belknap, May 10, 1788. (Collections of the Mass. Historical Society, vol. 3, 5th series, 1877). A request for 3 - 4 lbs of "asbestos."
Morse, Jedidiah (1792): The American Geography, 2nd ed. (London: John Stockdale), p. 183.
De Alcedo, Antonio; George Alexander Thompson, Aaron Arrowsmith (1812): The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies, p. 232.
Cleaveland, Parker (1816): An Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology (Boston: Cummings and Hilliard), p.153.
B. P. (1819) [name not recorded]: An Essay on Asbestus (Journal of the Times, Baltimore, January 30, 1819; Originally in the Newburyport Herald)
Vanuxem, Lardner (1823): On the Marmolite of Mr. Nuttall (Philosophical Magazine and Journal 65:88-91, 1825)
Robinson, Samuel (1825). A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities, p. 63.
Cushing, Caleb (1826): The History and Present State of the Town of Newburyport (Newburyport: E. W. Allen), p. 38.
Hitchcock, Edward (1835): Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts.
Hitchcock, Edward (1841): Final Report on the Geology of Massachusetts, Vol. 1.
Coffin Joseph and Bartlett, Joseph. (1845): A sketch of the history of Newbury, Newburyport, and West Newbury from 1635 to 1845. (Boston: Samuel G. Drake).
Whittier, John Greenleaf (1859): "The Double-Headed Snake of Newbury" (Atlantic Monthly, March 1859).
Woods, Leonard (1860): Address of the Life and Character of Parker Cleaveland, LL.D., 2nd ed. (Boston: Joseph Griffin), p. 39.
Balch, David (1869): List of Minerals Collected in Essex County, and Arranged in the County Collection of the Peabody Academy of Science (First Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science)
Wadsworth, M. Edward (1878): On the So-Called Tremolite of Newbury, Mass. (Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 19:251).
Crosby, William O. (1880): Contributions to the Geology of Eastern Massachusetts. (Occasional papers of the Boston Society of Natural History, Volume 3)
McDaniel, B.F. (1884): Geology and Mineralogy of Newbury in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XVI, p. 163-169.
Essex Institute (1885): Report of the Annual Meeting Held Monday, May 18, 1885. [Description of field trip of Oct 13, 1884]
Crosby, W. O. and Greely, James T. (1888): Vesuvianite From Newbury, Mass. MIT Technology Quarterly, Vol. 1, pp. 407-408.
Sears, John Henry (1894): Geological and Mineralogical Notes, No. 9 in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XXVI.
Currier, John J. (1896): "Ould Newbury": Historical and Biographical Sketches (Boston: Damrell and Upham), pp. 421-423
Ewell, John (1904): The Story of Byfield: A New England Parish (Boston: George E. Littlefield), p. 194.
Sears, John Henry (1905): The Physical Geography, Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Essex County
Clapp, C. H. and W. G. Ball (1909): The Lead-Silver Deposits at Newburyport, Massachusetts and Their Accompanying Contact-Zones (Economic Geology, 4(3):239-250).
Daniels, Elizabeth (1931): Devil's Den, Newbury, Mass. (Rocks & Minerals 6:28-29).
Savage, Henry G. (1938) Boston Mineral Club Holds Field Trip Rocks & Minerals 13:183.
Bartsch, Rudolf (1941): New England Notes (Rocks & Minerals 16:56).
Sinkankas, John (1959). Gemstones of North America, Vol. 1, p.544.
Beard, Robert (2008): Enter the Devil's Den (Rock & Gem v. 38, no. 8).

Mindat Articles

Devil’s Den and Basin, Newbury, Massachusetts by Peter Cristofono


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