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Mount Caliella, Palagonia, Northern Iblean plateau, Catania Province, Sicily, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Mount CaliellaMountain
Palagonia- not defined -
Northern Iblean plateauPlateau
Catania ProvinceProvince
SicilyAutonomous Region
ItalyCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):Monte Caliella, Palagonia, Nord plateau Ibleo, Provincia di Catania, Sicilia, Italia
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 18' 42'' North , 14° 43' 35'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 37.31167,14.72639
GeoHash:G#: sqdkr07kj
Locality type:Mountain
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Palagonia16,227 (2014)2.6km
Mineo4,567 (2014)5.9km
Militello in Val di Catania7,798 (2014)7.1km
Ramacca10,137 (2014)8.8km
Scordia16,645 (2014)10.3km


Outcrop of volcanic rocks at the foot of Monte Caliella, near the border between the municipal territories of Palagonia and Mineo.

This area, part of the upper Pliocene Militello-Monte Caliella formation (Schmincke et al., 1997), consists of products of submarine volcanism characterized by the presence of palagonite, basaltic breccia, pillow lavas, and hyaloclastites. Mineralogy mainly consists of zeolites and CSH (hydrated calcium silicates).

The most interesting mineral occurring at Monte Caliella appears as globules with a white smooth surfaces or sometimes a greyish rough surfaces due to a coating of calcite microcrystals. These globules internally show a fibrous radiating structure. On the basis of incomplete analytical data they probably are ascribable to tetranatrolite (Sicurella et al., 2010). In some old collections these globules are erroneously classified as "mesolite", according to the description given by Ponte (1908). According to XRD analyses performed on old specimens classified as "mesolite", the globular mineral is compatiple with tetranatrolite or natrolite (Sicurella et al., 2010).

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


17 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Aluminoceladonite ?
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Chabazite-Na
Formula: (Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
'Gismondine'
Reference: Ciriotti, M.E. & Biagioni, C. (2011): Pot-pourri 2011: identificazioni di minerali di interesse. Micro, 3/2011, 125-133
'Glass'
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010) Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2-2010, 371-408.
'Glass var: Palagonite'
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010) Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2-2010, 371-408.
Gmelinite-Ca
Formula: Ca2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Gmelinite-Na
Formula: Na4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Gaetano Sicurella collection
'Manganese Oxides var: Manganese Dendrites'
Reference: Gaetano Sicurella collection
Mesolite
Formula: Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Description: As white globular aggregates. According to XRD analyses performed on old specimens classified as "mesolite", the globular mineral is compatiple with tetranatrolite or natrolite (Sicurella et al., 2010).
Reference: Ponte, G. (1908) Mesolite di Palagonia. Atti dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, serie 5, 1, 1-5.
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Phillipsite-Ca
Formula: (Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Phillipsite-K
Formula: (K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Phillipsite-Na
Formula: (Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010) Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2-2010, 371-408.
Tacharanite
Formula: Ca12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
'Tetranatrolite' ?
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010) Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2-2010, 371-408.
Thaumasite
Formula: Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
Tobermorite
Formula: [Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
Reference: Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Thaumasite7.DG.15Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Aluminoceladonite ?9.EC.15K(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Chabazite-Ca9.GD.10(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Chabazite-Na9.GD.10(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
'Gismondine'9..
Gmelinite-Ca9.GD.05Ca2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Gmelinite-Na9.GD.05Na4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Mesolite ?9.GA.05Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Phillipsite-Ca9.GC.10(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Phillipsite-K9.GC.10(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Phillipsite-Na9.GC.10(Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
Tacharanite9.HA.75Ca12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
Tobermorite9.DG.10[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Glass'-
'var: Palagonite'-
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tetranatrolite' ?-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Thaumasite32.4.4.4Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Tacharanite72.3.2.6Ca12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
Tobermorite72.3.2.1[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Chabazite-Ca77.1.2.1(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
'Gismondine'77.1.3.1
Mesolite ?77.1.5.4Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aluminoceladonite ?-K(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Aragonite-CaCO3
Chabazite-Na-(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
'Glass'-
'var: Palagonite'-
Gmelinite-Ca-Ca2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Gmelinite-Na-Na4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
Phillipsite-Ca-(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Phillipsite-K-(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Phillipsite-Na-(Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tetranatrolite' ?-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
H Chabazite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
H Gmelinite-CaCa2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
H Gmelinite-NaNa4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
H Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
H Phillipsite-Na(Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
H TacharaniteCa12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
H ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
H Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
H MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
OOxygen
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O CalciteCaCO3
O Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
O Chabazite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O Gmelinite-CaCa2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
O Gmelinite-NaNa4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
O Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
O Phillipsite-Na(Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
O TacharaniteCa12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
O ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
O Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
O MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
NaSodium
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na Chabazite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Na Gmelinite-NaNa4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Na Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Na Phillipsite-Na(Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
Na MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Al Chabazite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Al Gmelinite-CaCa2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Al Gmelinite-NaNa4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Al Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Al Phillipsite-Na(Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
Al TacharaniteCa12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
Al AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Al MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
SiSilicon
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Si Chabazite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Gmelinite-CaCa2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Si Gmelinite-NaNa4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Si Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Si Phillipsite-Na(Na,K,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] · 12H2O
Si TacharaniteCa12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
Si ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Si Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
Si AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Si MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
SSulfur
S ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
KPotassium
K Chabazite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
K Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
K Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
K AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Ca Gmelinite-CaCa2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2O
Ca Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Ca Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Ca TacharaniteCa12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36
Ca ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Ca Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
Ca MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
FeIron
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
BaBarium
Ba Phillipsite-Ca(Ca0.5,K,Na,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Ba Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3192835
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Pliocene
2.588 - 5.333 Ma



ID: 3157655
Pliocene alkali

Age: Pliocene (2.588 - 5.333 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{alkali basalt}, Minor{tuff group,tephrite, basanite,phonolite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Gemmellaro, G.G. (1854) Descrizione d’alcune specie minerali de’ vulcani estinti di Palagonia. Atti dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, serie 2, 10, 39-49.
Ponte, G. (1908) Mesolite di Palagonia. Atti dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, serie 5, 1, 1-5.
Schmincke, H.U., Behncke B., Grasso, M., Raffi, S. (1997) Evolution of the northwestern Iblean Mountains, Sicily: uplift, Plicocene/Pleistocene sea-level changes, paleoenvironment, and volcanism. Geologische Rundschau, 86, 637-669.
Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010) Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2-2010, 371-408.


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