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Eagle Mine, Marquette Co., Michigan, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 46° 44' 53'' North , 87° 52' 53'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 46.74811,-87.88146
GeoHash:G#: f039bnnxt
Owned/operated by:Lundin Mining 
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate


The Eagle Ni-Cu-PGE deposit occurs in olivine-rich melagabbro, melatroctolite, and feldspathic peridotite units that were emplaced during the early stage of development of the Midcontinent Rift. Mineralization is characterized by the presence of two semi-massive sulfide zones in olivine-rich rocks that are linked by a zone of massive sulfides. Pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite comprise the bulk of the sulfide mineral assemblage. Possibly formed in a magma conduit.

The Eagle deposit is a high-grade magmatic sulphide deposit containing nickel and copper mineralization and minor amounts of cobalt, precious and platinum group metals (PGMs).
The economic minerals associated with this deposit are predominately pentlandite and chalcopyrite.

Three distinct types of sulphide mineralization occur at the Eagle deposit. They are described as disseminated, semi-massive and massive sulphide. Massive sulphide is generally over 90% pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite. Semi-massive, or matrix ore, is 30% or greater net textured sulphide. Disseminated mineralization is generally uneconomic. The semi-massive and massive sulphides occur in separate zones called the Massive Sulphide, Semi-massive East, and Semi-massive West zones.

Eagle is a relatively shallow underground mine with access gained via a surface ramp that also serves as the route for waste, ore and backfill haulage. The mine employs transverse bench-and-fill stoping with mining in an up-dip primary secondary sequence. Backfilling is undertaken using cemented and uncemented rockfill. Two ventilation shafts are in place, with the downcast shaft also equipped for emergency egress. Ore from the mine is stored in a covered coarse ore stockpile facility prior to transport by road 105 km to the Humboldt mill site.

From a second covered coarse ore storage facility, the ore is processed using a conventional crush, grind and differential flotation process to produce separate nickel and copper concentrates. Tailings from the plant are deposited sub-aqueously in the adjacent former Humboldt iron ore open pit.

Nickel and copper concentrates are stored in a covered concentrate building on site prior to being transported via rail car direct to smelter facilities within North America or to ports for shipment overseas.

Mineral Reserves at Eagle are sufficient until 2024.

Both the mine and mill operate under a number of local, state and federal permits. First commercial concentrate production was achieved in the fourth quarter of 2014.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Kennecott Eagle Project, Marquette Co., Michigan, USA

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


12 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Reference: Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Ware, Andrew, Cherry, Jon,, and Ding, Xin, 2008, Geology of the Eagle Project: Proceedings of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology, v. 54, Part 2 - Field Trip Guidebook, 87-114.; Xin Ding, Edward M. Ripley and Chusi Li (2012) PGE geochemistry of the Eagle Ni–Cu–(PGE) deposit, Upper Michigan: constraints on ore genesis in a dynamic magma conduit. Mineralium Deposita 47:89-104; Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
'Chert'
Reference: Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Reference:  
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ware, Andrew, Cherry, Jon,, and Ding, Xin, 2008, Geology of the Eagle Project: Proceedings of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology, v. 54, Part 2 - Field Trip Guidebook, 87-114.; Xin Ding, Edward M. Ripley and Chusi Li (2012) PGE geochemistry of the Eagle Ni–Cu–(PGE) deposit, Upper Michigan: constraints on ore genesis in a dynamic magma conduit. Mineralium Deposita 47:89-104; Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Xin Ding, Edward M. Ripley and Chusi Li (2012) PGE geochemistry of the Eagle Ni–Cu–(PGE) deposit, Upper Michigan: constraints on ore genesis in a dynamic magma conduit. Mineralium Deposita 47:89-104; Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Dean Rossell and Steven Coombes ,April 29, 2005, THE GEOLOGY OF THE EAGLE NICKEL-COPPER DEPOSIT MICHIGAN, USA ; Kennecott Minerals Co.
'Melagabbro'
Reference: https://gis.lic.wisc.edu/wwwlicgf/glifwc/Kennecott/PermitAp2/Mining/Vol1/Vol1A/Eagle%20Deposit.pdf
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Dean Rossell and Steven Coombes ,April 29, 2005, THE GEOLOGY OF THE EAGLE NICKEL-COPPER DEPOSIT MICHIGAN, USA ; Kennecott Minerals Co.
'commodity:Nickel'
Formula: Ni
Reference:  
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Ware, Andrew, Cherry, Jon,, and Ding, Xin, 2008, Geology of the Eagle Project: Proceedings of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology, v. 54, Part 2 - Field Trip Guidebook, 87-114.; Xin Ding, Edward M. Ripley and Chusi Li (2012) PGE geochemistry of the Eagle Ni–Cu–(PGE) deposit, Upper Michigan: constraints on ore genesis in a dynamic magma conduit. Mineralium Deposita 47:89-104; Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
'Peridotite'
Reference: https://gis.lic.wisc.edu/wwwlicgf/glifwc/Kennecott/PermitAp2/Mining/Vol1/Vol1A/Eagle%20Deposit.pdf
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Ware, Andrew, Cherry, Jon,, and Ding, Xin, 2008, Geology of the Eagle Project: Proceedings of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology, v. 54, Part 2 - Field Trip Guidebook, 87-114.; Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Ware, Andrew, Cherry, Jon,, and Ding, Xin, 2008, Geology of the Eagle Project: Proceedings of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology, v. 54, Part 2 - Field Trip Guidebook, 87-114.; Xin Ding, Edward M. Ripley and Chusi Li (2012) PGE geochemistry of the Eagle Ni–Cu–(PGE) deposit, Upper Michigan: constraints on ore genesis in a dynamic magma conduit. Mineralium Deposita 47:89-104; Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Dean Rossell and Steven Coombes ,April 29, 2005, THE GEOLOGY OF THE EAGLE NICKEL-COPPER DEPOSIT MICHIGAN, USA ; Kennecott Minerals Co.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Dean Rossell and Steven Coombes ,April 29, 2005, THE GEOLOGY OF THE EAGLE NICKEL-COPPER DEPOSIT MICHIGAN, USA ; Kennecott Minerals Co.
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Dean Rossell and Steven Coombes ,April 29, 2005, THE GEOLOGY OF THE EAGLE NICKEL-COPPER DEPOSIT MICHIGAN, USA ; Kennecott Minerals Co.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Graphite'1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cubanite'2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
'Millerite'2.CC.20NiS
'Pentlandite'2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Pyrrhotite'2.CC.10Fe7S8
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Violarite'2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Baddeleyite'4.DE.35ZrO2
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - Silicates
'Forsterite'9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chert'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Melagabbro'-
'Peridotite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Baddeleyite4.4.14.1ZrO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chert'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Melagabbro'-
'Peridotite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
OOxygen
O BaddeleyiteZrO2
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
MgMagnesium
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AlAluminium
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SiSilicon
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S MilleriteNiS
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn SphaleriteZnS
ZrZirconium
Zr BaddeleyiteZrO2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3185010
Paleoproterozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Marquette Range Supergroup

Comments: Penokean Orogen

Lithology: Bimodal volcanic rocks; shale,quartz arenite,dolomite,quartzite,conglomerate,greywacke,siltstone,iron formation; turbidite

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 2783631
Baraga Group; Michigamme Formation; Gray to black slate

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Michigamme Formation

Description: Strongly cleaved. Represents lower stratigraphic part of formation

Comments: Continental margin assemblage (north of Niagara Fault)

Lithology: Major:{slate}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ware, Andrew, Cherry, Jon, and Ding, Xin (2008), Geology of the Eagle Project: Proceedings of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology: volume 54, Part 2 - Field Trip Guidebook: 87-114.
Xin Ding, Edward M. Ripley and Chusi Li (2012) PGE geochemistry of the Eagle Ni–Cu–(PGE) deposit, Upper Michigan: constraints on ore genesis in a dynamic magma conduit. Mineralium Deposita: 47: 89-104.
Ding, Xin, Ripley, Edward M., Li, C., Geochemical and stable isotope studies of hydrothermal alteration associated with the Eagle deposit, northern Michigan: Proceedings of the Institute on Lake Superior Geology, volume 54, Part 1 – Program and Abstracts: 14-15.

External Links



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