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Itrongay (Itrongahy), Mahasoa Est, Betroka, Anosy, Madagascari
Regional Level Types
Itrongay (Itrongahy)Area
Mahasoa EstCommune
BetrokaDistrict
AnosyRegion
MadagascarCountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
23° South , 45° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~20km
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Other Languages:
Malagasy:
Itrongay (Tongay), Kaominin'i Mahasoa Atsinanana, Distrikan'i Betroka, Faritr' Anosy, Madagasikara


The designation Itrongay refers to an area famous for yellow (due to Fe3+ substituting for Al3+) gemmy "orthoclase" (which actually are sanidine, see below), but also gemmy crystals of diopside and zircon. In 1922 when the famous French mineralogist Lacroix wrote his monumental book on Malagasy minerals, the ancient village called Itrongay was situated on the path between the town Betroka and Benenitra in the southern Madagascar. It was located near the village which today is called Tongay, south of the river Hazofotsy. Itrongay was at that time an important mineralogical centre in the area. But today you will not find the name "Itrongay" on contemporary maps- just the geological ones. The placename has erroneously been spelled in some literature as "Itrongahy", but the correct is Itrongay. The word in the local Bara language is derived from the verb "mitrongay" meaning "to walk with a limp".

The famous gemmy sanidine (reported in earlier litterature as orthoclase) is today found in a 40 km large area around what was the ancient Itrongay. In lack of local knowledge, minerals from this area and others close by are still labelled as Itrongay by mineral dealers. Some of the minerals found today originates from the area around Benono.

NOTE 1: Not all gemmy feldspar labelled Itrongay, originates from the Itrongay area. In the 1980s gemmy orthoclase were also found at Ampandrandava (Pezzotta, 1999). It is also reported from other localities in the Betroka district as well. One that produced several specimens in the 1990s was Andangovato.
Not all the minerals referred to in the literature as coming from Itrongay has been found in the same geological setting as the sanidine. And some of the minerals found in the beginning of the 20th century were also found directly on the ground.
Lacroix (1922) states that the diopside and sanidine are originating from a pegmatite. Pezzotta (1999) observes in a new site in the same area that the yellow gemmy sanidine occurs in pegmatite derived feldspar veins cutting marbles.

NOTE 2: X-ray studies of a bright yellow to colorless feldspar collected in 2001 at one of the localities around Itrongay and other samples showed it to be high to low sanidine, not orthoclase (Simmons and Falster 2002). Further investigations by Ackermann et al. (2005) on the cation distribution and ordering of Si, Al, Fe on the tetragonal (T1) site of a K-feldspar from Itrongay, showed it to be a monoclinic low sanidine (for more details see the paper at http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/20f968sx ).

See also the discussion under http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-162698.html and
http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-219075.html

Regions containing this locality

Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)Tectonic Plate
Tuléar Province (Toliara), MadagascarProvince

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


16 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Marco Barsanti specimen & photo
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Description: A 3 cm long, transparent, greenish crystal is reported by Lacroix (1913)
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1913) Minéralogie de La France et de ses colonies. Tome Cinq, Deuxième Supplément. Librairie Polytechnique, Paris 1913, p. 6; [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]; Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
'Bastnäsite'
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Colour: Blue
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]; Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30];Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
'Chevkinite Group'
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30];Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Marco Barsanti specimen
'Feldspar Group'
Colour: Pink to reddish
Description: Perthitic K-Feldspar. Sometimes Graphic Granite intergrowths with white/smoky Quartz
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Colour: Pink to reddish
Description: Perthitic K-Feldspar. Sometimes Graphic Granite intergrowths with white/smoky Quartz
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Ackermann, S., Kunz, M., Armruster, T., Schefer, J. & Hanni, H. (2005): Cation distribution in a Fe-bearing K-feldspar from Itrongay, Madagascar. A combined neutron- and x -ray single crystal diffraction study. Lawrence Berkeley National Labroatory- http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/20f968sx
Kornerupine
Formula: Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Description: Found in an alluvial deposit close to Itrongay (Lacroix 1939)
Reference: Lacroix , A. (1939): Observation sur quelques minéraux de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie. 62: 300-309; De Villiers, J.E. (1940) Iron-rich kornerupine from Port Shepstone, Natal. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 25, n° 169, 550-556 (contains an analysis of kornerupine from Itrongay).; Behier, J. (1963) Carte minéralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871; American Mineralogist 9:22.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p. (p.558-561)
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Habit: prismatic
Colour: Yellow
Description: Gemmy facetable crystals. All are Sanidine.
Reference: Ungemach, M.H. (1916) Contribution à la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 39: 5-38; [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30] http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-219075.html
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]; Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]; Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p. (p.558-561)
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]; Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Habit: Prismatic
Colour: Yellow
Description: All the gemmy yellow "Orthoclase" is Sanidine
Reference: Ackermann, S., Kunz, M., Armruster, T., Schefer, J. & Hanni, H. (2005): Cation distribution in a Fe-bearing K-feldspar from Itrongay, Madagascar. A combined neutron- and x -ray single crystal diffraction study. Lawrence Berkeley National Labroatory- http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/20f968sx http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-219075.html
Sapphirine
Formula: Mg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Reference: American Mineralogist 9:22
'Scapolite'
Colour: Pale yellow
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30];Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Colour: Blue-green
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]; Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: [Madagascar - extraLapis English Vol 1 p.30]; Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis no.17,30-31[german version]
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Colour: Brownish to deep red
Description: Gemmy.
Reference: Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 234-236

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kornerupine9.BJ.50Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Orthoclase ?9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sanidine9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Sapphirine9.DH.45Mg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chevkinite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Scapolite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [4] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n=1, 2)
Kornerupine58.1.1.1Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 69 - INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
Sapphirine69.2.1b.1Mg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase ?76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Sanidine76.1.1.2K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chevkinite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'K Feldspar'-
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Scapolite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
O SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O CalciteCaCO3
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O RutileTiO2
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
AlAluminium
Al SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Al SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Si SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Furongian : 490 ± 20 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Cambrian
   Furongian
ⓘ Zircon490 ± 20 Ma

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ungemach, M.H. (1916) Contribution à la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 39: 5-38 [with a note on "l'orthose ferrifère" from Itrongahy]
Lacroix, A. (1922) Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A. Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p. (p.558-561).
De Villiers, J.E. (1940) Iron-rich kornerupine from Port Shepstone, Natal. Mineralogical Magazine: 25 (169): 550-556 (contains an analysis of kornerupine from Itrongay).
Hey, M.H., Anderson, B.W., and Payne, C.J. (1941) Some new data concerning kornerupine and its chemistry. Mineralogical Magazine: 26 : p. 119.
Coombs, D.S. (1954) Ferriferous orthoclase from Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine: 30 (226): 409-427.
Behier, J. (1960) Contribution à la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, 78p.
Behier, J. (1963) Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871.
Weiss, S. (1991) Eisenhaltiger gelber Orthoklas - ein wiederentdeckter Edelstein aus Madagaskar. Lapis 16 (3): 13-14.
Pezzotta, F. (1999) Madagaskar - Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis: 17: 30-31 [in German].
Simmons, W.B. and Falster, A.U. (2002) Yellow orthoclase (sanidine) from South Betroka, Madagascar. Mineralogical Record: 33: 79-80.
Ackermann, S., Kunz, M., Armbruster, T., Schefer, J., and Hanni, H. (2005) Cation distribution in a Fe-bearing K-feldspar from Itrongay, Madagascar. A combined neutron- and x-ray single-crystal diffraction study. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory- http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/20f968sx


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