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Holland Mine, Duquesne Gulch, Nash Mines group (Duquesne-Washington group), Washington Camp-Duquesne District, Patagonia District, Patagonia Mts, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
Holland MineMine
Duquesne GulchGulch
Nash Mines group (Duquesne-Washington group)- not defined -
Washington Camp-Duquesne DistrictMining District
Patagonia DistrictMining District
Patagonia MtsMountain Range
Santa Cruz Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 22' 14'' North , 110° 41' 42'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 31.37056,-110.69500
GeoHash:G#: 9t963nf6e
USGS MRDS Record:10037099
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Kino Springs136 (2011)11.0km
Francisco Miguel Cárdenas Valdez (Mascareñas)541 (2014)14.2km
Beyerville177 (2011)17.5km
Santa Cruz1,038 (2018)17.9km
Patagonia890 (2017)19.7km


A former small surface and underground Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au-Quartz mine located in the center of sec. 3, T24S, R16E (protracted), in the southwestern part of the camp, nearly ½ mile south of the Pride of the West Mine, adjacent on the SW to the Dudley Mine, and 2/3 mile west of Duquesne, on the south fork of Duquesne Gulch, 2.5 miles N of Mexico, 3/4 mile SW of Washington Camp, at an elevation of about 5,800 feet. Located in 1880 by Henry Holland, who shortly thereafter sold it to Dr. Luttrell & others, from California. Owned at times, or in part, by the Holland Smelting & Mining Co.; B. Coughlin (1891); F.L. Bartlett, of Denver (1896- ); the Duquesne Mining & Reduction Co. (1905- ); Callahan Zinc Lead Co. (1940-1944); Nash Mines (1951-1957); E.W. McFarland (1952-1957); and, Byrd (1945-1949); Carl Sandberg & Fred Williams (1964); Luttrell and Partners; and, A.B. Elder. Operated by the Simplot Mining Co. (1970). Owned by Rosario Exploration Co. (1973).

Mineralization is sulfides oxidized to iron oxides and carbonates with manganese oxide near the surface, in massive, irregular, lens-like orebodies with a gangue of silicated limestone, quartz, and calcium silicates, in pyrometasomatized Permian Naco Group limestone. Mineralization is along a garnetiferous zone close to Laramide granodiorite. The ore zones dip 45-65W between surface and 100 feet, then abruptly become nearly vertical between 100-200 feet, when the sulfide zone thins. Molybdenite appears to replace chalcopyrite & galena in isolated occurrences. Ore control was the contact of the Epitaph Dolomite with the Scherrer Quartzite; and bedding planes.

The mine is in the crystalline limestone near the contact of the quartz monzonite on the west and is probably on the southerly extension of the same general mineralized zone as the Pride of the West. The deposit occupies a zone about 50 feet in width, which dips about 60ºW., conformably with the limestone. It has a fairly regular footwall of crystalline limestone on the east, from which it is separated by about 2 feet of gougelike material containing a mineral that is mostly iron. The deposit and enclosing limestone are cut by a jointing or coarse sheeting that dips 25ºE. Sulphides are cut off by post-ore faulting.

The ore occurs chiefly in irregular, crudely tabular bodies, mostly dipping to the west. The lead ores, which contain most of the silver, occur mainly on the footwall side of the deposit; toward the hanging wall side the ores contain principally zinc with a little copper.

Mineral deposits of the Washington-Duquesne area occupy a limestone-sediment belt (2.5 miles long by 1.25 miles wide) surrounded by igneous rocks which also form detached masses and dikes within the belt.

Workings include a nearly 100 foot deep shaft (1881) and open cut operations. There are 4 inclined shafts, 100 by 40 foot open cut in 1915. Later it had 4 inclined shafts, opening it to a depth of 200 feet, which decend from the bottom of an open cut 100 feet long and 40 feet wide in the east side of the mineralized zone. Worked extensively prior to 1900 for high-grade, oxidized Pb-Ag ore. Total production would be some 80,000 tons of ore averaging about 18% Zn, 10% Pb, 2% Cu, 12 oz. Ag/T and minor Au.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Sonoran Desert, North AmericaDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


28 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 77 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 339; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Colour: White, pale blue
Fluorescence: Red (SW UV)
Description: Massive.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 152, 347.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 77 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 339; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 347.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 229; Marshall, R.R. & O. Joensuu (1961), Crystakl habit and trace element content of some galenas, Econ.Geol.: 56: 758-771; Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 77 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 339; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10037099, MRDS ID #M030397.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10037099, MRDS ID #M030397.
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10037099, MRDS ID #M030397.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 77 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 339; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10037099, MRDS ID #M030397.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: Slender, tapering prismatic crystals to 12 inches (30 cm) long, some Japan-law twins
Description: In pockets with calcite, drusy siderite & chlorite. Finest Japan-law twinned quartz crystals in the USA. Some of the Japanese twinned crystals have "ears" more than a foot long.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 347; Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 77 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 339; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Fluorescence: Blue-white (SW UV)
Reference: C. Lemanski, Jr. - self collected
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Description: Drusy.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 347.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Sporadic.
Reference: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 340.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 77 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 339; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10037099, MRDS ID #M030397.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 339.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O SideriteFeCO3
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O AnglesitePbSO4
O HematiteFe2O3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
NaSodium
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
SSulfur
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3187054
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Kungurian - Moscovian
272.95 - 315.2 Ma



ID: 2734843
Permian to Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks

Age: Paleozoic (272.95 - 315.2 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Hermit Formation; Supai Group; Schnebly Hill Formation; Naco Group

Description: Interbedded sandstone, shale, and limestone usually characterized by ledgy outcrops. Orange to reddish sandstone forms cliffs near Sedona. This unit includes Supai Group and Hermit Shale in northern Arizona and Naco Group in southern Arizona. It was deposited in coastal-plain to shallow-marine settings during time of variable and changing sea level. Rocks of this map unit in southern Arizona may be in part equivalent to Permian rocks of map unit P in central and northern Arizona. (280-310 Ma)

Comments: Original map source: Arizona Geological Survey, DI-8 Geologic Map of Arizona, Digital Spatial data for the Geologic Map of Arizona, v. 3.0, edited by S.M. Richard and S.M. Kneale, 2002, 10 p., 2 DOS HD disks. Arc/INFO export file (.e00) format, scale 1:1,000,000.

Lithology: Major:{sandstone,shale,limestone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
The Resources of Arizona - A Manual of Reliable Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Scottsdale, Arizona: 43.
Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 338-340.
Tenney, J.B. (1927-1929) History of Mining in Arizona, Special Collection, University of Arizona Library & Arizona Bureau of Mines Library: 293-300.
Marshall, R.R. & O. Joensuu (1961), Crystal habit and trace element content of some galenas, Economic Geology: 56: 758-771.
Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 77 (Table 4).
Lehman, Norman E. (1978) The Geology and Pyrometasomatic Ore Deposits of the Washington Camp-Duquesne District, Santa Cruz County, Arizona. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona: 126-143.
Blair, Gerry (1992), The Rockhound's Guide to Arizona: Helena, MT, Falcon Press.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 152, 229, 347.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Coronado National Forest Study.
U.S. Bureau of Mines field reports ZN1.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mining District Sheet 727.
U.S. Bureau of Mines - Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology file data.
Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
MRDS database Dep. ID file #10037099, MRDS ID #M030397.


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