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Touissit-Bou Beker District, Jerada Province, L'oriental Region, Moroccoi
Regional Level Types
Touissit-Bou Beker DistrictDistrict
Jerada ProvinceProvince
L'oriental RegionRegion
MoroccoCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 34° 29' 20'' North , 1° 45' 57'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 34.48901,-1.76605
GeoHash:G#: eynspyd10
Locality type:District
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate


The Touissit-Bou Beker district comprises a 16 km long by 100 to 1200 m wide, ENE-WSW-trending, semi-continuous string of carbonate-hosted ("Mississippi Valley Type") lead-zinc deposits, located in far eastern Morocco, a few km west of the border with, and extending 3 km into Algeria (El Abed deposit), 30 km south of Oujda and ~70 km south of the Mediterranean coastline.

From west to east, the four main constituent deposits are Mekta, Beddiane, Touissit and Bou Beker (in some sources, the Beddiane deposit is divided into the Beddiane, Hassi M’Sidira, and Hassi Ennyag (or Hassi Niag, Hassi Niah) orebodies). The district is organized into these main deposits, plus some localities which were kept for historical reasons (e.g. “Puits IX”, or #9 pit).

This district features lead-zinc deposits replacing dolomite. The Pb–Zn mineralization took place in dolomite strata by ascending hot, saline fluids probably during the Late Jurassic. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the mineralization occurred at ambient conditions of 100–135 °C and pressures of 150–200 bar. The Touissit-Bou Beker district deposits are epigenetic and strata-bound. Mineralised breccias form the dominant ore structure in the Touissit-Bou Beker district deposits, comprising saddle dolomite-cemented crackle, mosaic and rubble breccias, and rock-matrix ("trash") breccias, with the ore forming the matrix between angular clasts of host dolostone. Gangue includes ferroan and non-ferroan dolomite and minor calcite, with subordinate quartz, while secondary gypsum resulting from oxidation of sulfides may be locally abundant.

The primary sulfide mineralization is essentially composed of galena and sphalerite with pyrite and/or marcasite and lesser chalcopyrite, bornite, and tetrahedrite, with minor amounts of Pb-Sb sulphosalts, such as bournonite and stephanite, and Ag-bearing species, such as “argentite” and native silver. Galena is the principal economic mineral in the Mekta and Beddiane deposits in the west, whereas sphalerite becomes more abundant in the Touissit and Bou Beker deposits in the center, and dominates to the east of the district at El Abed in Algeria.

Mines operated by the CMT (Compagnie Minière de Touissit) shut down in 2002. Now artisanal production continues, totaling less than 100 t/year. Total production from the Touissit-Bou Beker-El Abed group of deposits between 1926 and 2002 was ~70 Mt @ 4 % Pb, 3.5 % Zn, <1% Cu and 120 g/t Ag.
(compiled from several sources, including http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn445).

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate
Northwest Africa MeteoritesMeteorite Fall Location
Atlas Mountains, North AfricaMountain Range

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

38 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Aragonite var: Plumboan Aragonite
Formula: (Ca,Pb)CO3
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu)
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Descloizite ?
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
'Descloizite-Mottramite Series'
Devilline ?
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Dolomite var: Ferroan Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Dundasite
Formula: PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Galena
Formula: PbS
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Massicot
Formula: PbO
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Nadorite
Formula: PbSbClO2
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Paralaurionite
Formula: PbCl(OH)
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Vanadinite var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Nadorite3.DC.30PbSbClO2
Paralaurionite3.DC.05PbCl(OH)
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Massicot4.AC.25PbO
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
var: Plumboan Aragonite5.AB.15(Ca,Pb)CO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
var: Ferroan Dolomite5.AB.10Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Dundasite5.DB.10PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite5.BE.20Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu)7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Devilline ?7.DD.30CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Descloizite ?8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Descloizite-Mottramite Series'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Massicot4.2.7.1PbO
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A(O,OH)Xq
Nadorite10.2.5.2PbSbClO2
Paralaurionite10.2.3.1PbCl(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite16a.3.4.1Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Dundasite16b.2.1.1PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu)30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Devilline ?31.6.1.1CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Descloizite ?41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
var: Plumboan Aragonite-(Ca,Pb)CO3
'Descloizite-Mottramite Series'-
Dolomite
var: Ferroan Dolomite
-Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Gypsum
var: Selenite
-CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Vanadinite
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
-Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
H DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CerussitePbCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Aragonite (var: Plumboan Aragonite)(Ca,Pb)CO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
C Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
O PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O CerussitePbCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O AragoniteCaCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
O Aragonite (var: Plumboan Aragonite)(Ca,Pb)CO3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O CalciteCaCO3
O ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
O Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O NadoritePbSbClO2
O MassicotPbO
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O CupriteCu2O
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
SiSilicon
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S BaryteBaSO4
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S SulphurS8
S Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S CovelliteCuS
S DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Cl PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
Cl NadoritePbSbClO2
CaCalcium
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Aragonite (var: Plumboan Aragonite)(Ca,Pb)CO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Ca DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
VVanadium
V Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ZnZinc
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
AsArsenic
As Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
SbAntimony
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb NadoritePbSbClO2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Pb PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb Aragonite (var: Plumboan Aragonite)(Ca,Pb)CO3
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb NadoritePbSbClO2
Pb MassicotPbO
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bouabdellah, M., Fontboté, L. Haeberlin, Y., Llinares, L., Leach., D., Spangenberg, J. (1999): Zoned sulphur isotope signatures at the Mississippi Valley-type Touissit - Bou Beker - El Abed District (Morocco-Algeria) - Evidence for thermochemical sulphate reduction and mixing of sulphur sources. In: C.J. Stanley et al. (eds.), Mineral deposits: processes to processing, Proceedings of the 5th biennial SGA meeting, London, England, 22-25 August 1999, p. 821-824.
Bouabdellah, M., Sangster, D.F., Leach, D.L., Brown, A.C., Johnson, C.A. and Emsbo, P. (2012) Genesis of the Touissit-Bou Beker Mississippi Valley-Type District (Morocco-Algeria) and Its Relationship to the Africa-Europe Collision. Econ. Geol., 107, 117-146.
Claveau, J., Paulhac, J. and Pellerin, J. (1952) The lead and zinc deposits of the Bou Beker-Touissit area, eastern French Morocco. Econ. Geol., 47, 481-493.
Dupuy, J.J., Touray, J.C. (1986) Multistage ore deposition at the Oued Mekta strata-bound Lead deposit, Touissit-Bou Beker district, eastern Morocco. Econ. Geol., 81, 1558-1561.
Makhoukhi, S., Schmitt, J.M., Bouabdelli, M., Bastoul, A. and Marignac, C. (2000) Modelling of an MVT deposit: Touissit-BouBeker district (eastern Morocco). J. of Geochemical Exploration, 69-70, 109–113.
Makhoukhi, S. et al. (2003) Aqueous and hydrocarbon inclusions in dolomite fromTouissit-Bou Beker district, Eastern Morocco: a Jurassic carbonate hosted Pb-Zn (Cu) deposit. J. of Geochemical Exploration, 78-79 (Proceedings of Geofluids IV), 545–551. (Abstract)
Rajlich, P. (1983) Geology of Oued Mekta, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit, Touissit-Bou Beker region, eastern Morocco. Econ. Geol., 78, 1239-1254.
Wadjinny, A. (1993) Le district plombo-zincifère de Touissit: un panorama paléogéographique type de type stratoïde en couverture carbonatée. Mines, Géologie & Energie, 53, 81-94.

Localities in this Region
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