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Valpiana - Castello della Marsiliana area slag locality, Massa Marittima, Grosseto Province, Tuscany, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Valpiana - Castello della Marsiliana area slag localitySlag Locality
Massa MarittimaCommune
Grosseto ProvinceProvince
TuscanyRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
43° North , 10° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~13km
Locality type:
Name(s) in local language(s):
Località di scorie dell'area Valpiana - Castello della Marsiliana, Massa Marittima, Provincia di Grosseto, Toscana, Italia


The Marsiliana smelting site is located 6 km west of Massa Marittima, near the Pecora stream.

According to “Ordinamenta super artem fossarum rameriae et argenteriae civitatis Massae”, as well as to archaeological dating, this smelting site was active for two centuries (13th and 14th). Remains of a hydraulic system near the slag heaps at Marsiliana suggest that in the Middle Ages hydraulic power was used to ventilate furnaces and/or crush mineral charges. According to the traditional interpretation of “Ordinamenta super artem ...”, the Marsiliana site was specialised in copper smelting.

Three slag heaps are known in the woods near the road: the two larger heaps are practically undisturbed, whereas the third one has been partially removed in modern times (slags were reused as road ballast).

The Marsiliana slag heaps consist of stratified, cake-sized fragments intermixed with rare remains of the furnace walls. The largest fragments have an irregular, flat, triangular shape, with a maximum size of 40×30×10 cm. Slags are often glassy in aspect; their colour ranges from dark grey to brownish-red, and flow textures are evident on the upper surface. The common occurrence of weathered copper phases is testified by the frequent green coatings (Manasse & Mellini, 2002).

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


27 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Chenite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Elyite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Reference: Manasse A., Mellini M. (2002): Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). J. Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.
Ferrihydrite
Formula: Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Reference: ko jansen
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Kirschsteinite
Formula: CaFe2+SiO4
Reference: Manasse A., Mellini M. (2002): Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). J. Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Manasse A., Mellini M. (2002): Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). J. Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: ko jansen
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: ko jansen
Spangolite
Formula: Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
Reference: Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Manasse A., Mellini M. (2002): Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). J. Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Ferrihydrite4.FE.35Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Litharge4.AC.20PbO
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Chenite7.BC.70Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Elyite7.DF.65Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Serpierite7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Spangolite7.DD.15Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcophyllite8.DF.30Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Fayalite9.AC.05Fe2+2SiO4
Kirschsteinite9.AC.05CaFe2+SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Litharge4.2.4.1PbO
A2X3
Ferrihydrite4.3.2.2Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chenite30.1.16.1Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Elyite30.1.2.1Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Spangolite31.1.5.1Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Serpierite31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Chalcophyllite43.5.14.1Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Fayalite51.3.1.1Fe2+2SiO4
Kirschsteinite51.3.2.2CaFe2+SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
H ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
OOxygen
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O LithargePbO
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O AragoniteCaCO3
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
O ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
O FayaliteFe22+SiO4
O KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
O SpinelMgAl2O4
MgMagnesium
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
AlAluminium
Al SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
Al ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Si KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
SSulfur
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
S ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ClChlorine
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cl SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
FeIron
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
Fe FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Fe KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
Cu ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
ZnZinc
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
AsArsenic
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
PbLead
Pb LithargePbO
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bonaini, F. (ed.) (1850) Ordinamenta super artem fossarum rameriae et argenteriae civitatis Massae [A.D. 1294-1328] - Statuto delle miniere d'argento e di rame della Città di Massa. Archivio Storico Italiano, tomo VIII, Appendice n. 27, pp. 631-699.
Panella, A., Casella, C., and Rodolico, N. (eds.) (1938) Ordinamenta super artem fossarum rameriae et argenteriae civitatis Massae [A.D. 1294-1328]. Le Monnier, Firenze, 100 pp.; anastatic reprint, 1983, Amministrazione Provinciale, Grosseto.
Baldinacci, S. and Fabretti, G. (1989) L'arte della coltivazione del rame e dell’argento a Massa Marittima nel XIII secolo. Cantini Ed., Firenze, 183 pp.
Jansen, H. and van den Berg, W. (1998) Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
Manasse, A. and Mellini, M. (2002) Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). Journal of Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.

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