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Old Mine Park (Lane’s Mine of Trumbull; Lane's New Stratford mine; Hubbard Mine; Long Hill Mine; Old Tungsten Mine), Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 41° 17' 21'' North , 73° 13' 37'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 41.28917,-73.22722
GeoHash:G#: dr7fvsmwf
Locality type:Park
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate


This locality (a town park), like the neighboring Old Mine Plaza (now Home Depot), is unique in Connecticut for its varied mineralogy and the area was prospected since the early 19th century. The park encompasses a number of unrelated deposits with separate prospecting and mining history and mineralogy. The town of Trumbull took the property in lieu of back taxes on October 4, 1937 and named it Old Mine Park on January 4, 1940 (Sullivan, 1985). When opened, the town parks commissioner wrote that the “portion of it which was formerly worked and exposed during mining operations will be left open to residents and non-residents who are interested in Geology or Mineralogy for the study and removal of specimens” (Whitney, 1938). Collecting is no longer allowed, however.

The area is underlain by gently dipping, interlayered amphibolite and marble (metamorphosed during the Acadian Orogeny) with a zone of pegmatite below. The amphibolite, which surrounds the park area, hosts zones of alteration to a quartz, clinozoisite, actinolite, scheelite, marialite, albite and/or calcite rock (formed during an Alleghenian reheating event). Within the park only, some of the scheelite at the contact with the marble is pseudomorphed by ferberite (all crystals tested are Fe-dominant and use of the obsolete term "wolframite" should be abandoned here), and was the subject of short-lived mining efforts around 1900. According to Sullivan (1985), this was after Ephraim Lane and later his son Charles, prospected it in the early to mid-1800s, and after Thomas Hubbard had searched in vain for copper, lead and silver deposits, not tungsten, in the late 1880s.

Sullivan also states that it should be the first tungsten deposit identified in North America (it was the first mined) and the correct type locality for tungstite, rather than the typically referenced Ephraim Lane's Mine in Monroe: http://www.mindat.org/loc-14012.html. Hobbs (1901) states that "The confusion which has arisen has been due largely to the propinquity of the two localities and to the fact that both mines were owned by men bearing the same surname." These men were Ephraim and son Charles. No tungsten mineralization occurs at Lane's Mine in Monroe, the type tungstite occurs as an alteration of ferberite pseudomorphs and scheelite unique to the Trumbull mine (see specimens in Yale-Peabody Museum collection). Early reports by Silliman (1819a, 1819b, 1819c, 1821, 1822a, 1822b), Bowen (1822), and Hitchcock and Silliman (1826), which describe minerals initially attributed to Lane's Mine in Monroe, are actually describing minerals from the Trumbull deposit. This was eventually corrected by Hitchcock (1828) and is further discussed in Hitchcock (1835).

Mining of tungsten from the ferberite pseudomorphs after scheelite, and associated unaltered scheelite, from a quartz/clinozoisite-rich zone just below an amphibolite/marble contact was undertaken by the American Tungsten Mining and Milling Company starting in 1899. They mined for a short time and built a mill that used a dry process that produced a 5% yield, but by 1902 they shut down because this process could not separate pyrite from the tungsten minerals (without additional roasting). A proven wet process was suggested by Gurlt, but not undertaken. The mine was also poorly laid out. The buildings lay idle until 1916 when they were destroyed by a fire. Had they realized that scheelite is much more widespread in the amphibolite (than at the ferberite pseudomorph area), which is generally flat-lying and extends at least 1 km around their shaft (and well outside the park), a significant mine could have been developed. A SW UV light survey of the park and surrounding area for scheelite was conducted by Fisher (1942, see map in Kerr, 1946).

According to Sullivan (1985), this site is also the first known North American topaz locality. The topaz occurs in numerous cross-cutting, steeply-dipping, +/-1m thick, hydrothermal veins that crop out in the park and surrounding area and also associated with the Alleghenian reheating event. Their mineralogy varies but all show a similar metasomatic alteration of the host amphibolite to fine-grained, brownish phlogopite/marialite with pyrite/pyrrhotite, minor ilmenite, fluorapatite, and tiny scheelite grains. The last two minerals are really only obvious under SW UV light. The most common contain a core assemblage of coarse-grained quartz+/-topaz+/-fluorite var. chlorophane with a fine to medium-grained, sub-parallel muscovite (variety margarodite) wall zone. In some veins, the topaz, which may commonly have a coarse muscovite coating, has altered to a very soft, compact and granular to peripherally parallel-fibrous or lamellar habit of margarite (confirmed in 2014 using Raman spectroscopy). A predominantly quartz cored vein, called the Champion Lode, was mined for quartz for use in wood processing (Hobbs 1901, Trumbull Historical Society 1966). Some veins contain mostly albite+/-clinochlore+/-marialite. Very rare are calcite-cored veins with beryl and albite along the contact. Outcrops of the veins are generally small and the veins may in fact grade in composition between these extremes both laterally and vertically as some off-site veins show a mix of these compositions.

Later, early Mesozoic brittle faulting and associated hydrothermal activity deposited purple to green fluorite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tabular calcite in veins and fractures in a manner similar to that seen at the Thomaston Dam railroad cut.

Other minerals are found in the marble (amphiboles, pyroxenes, titanite, grossular, phlogopite), in small Alpine-clefts, and in the pegmatites (albite, microcline, quartz, muscovite, rarely schorl).

Sullivan reports various mineral misidentification through the years, such as topaz being called beryl (though it is present along the contact of rare calcite-rich veins), Hoadley's (1918) unconfirmed report of cronstedtite, zoisite (epidote, though the 'epidote' associated with the scheelite/ferberite is clinozoisite), and diaspore "mistakenly identified as euclase".

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


59 valid minerals. 7 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: semi-fibrous
Colour: dark green
Description: Formed from alteration of magnesio-hornblende in the amphibolite at the upper mine pit adjacent to the quartz-clinzoisite zone that hosts the ferberite after scheelite pseudomorphs.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: equant to slightly elongated
Colour: white to creamy
Description: Mostly as a rock forming mineral primarily in the amphibolite as variety oligoclase. But several cross-cutting veins are rich in albite associated with clinochlore, chlorophane, and quartz and good crystals can form where surrounded by chlorophane.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Habit: anhedral grains
Description: A rock forming component of the amphibolite.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Almandine ?
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi only, no details. Not mentioned as an accessory in the amphibolite, marble or pegmatite by Hobbs or Gurlt.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Description: Gurlt (1894) appears to be the only one to report this mineral, which is very unlikely and never found since. Schairer (1931) included it with other minerals reported by Hobbs (1901) in a very generalized paraphrased summary taken as fact by Schooner (1961) and Januzzi (1976) but never substantiated.
Reference: Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242; Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Description: Speculation by Januzzi about garnet reported in the marble by Hobbs and others. These have been shown to be grossular.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: crusts
Colour: white
Description: Formed from dissolution of marble with reprecipitation as crusts.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Habit: massive, columnar
Description: Massive material in the amphibolite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Augite ?
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi with no details.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: blades
Colour: white to gray
Description: Few details provided by Januzzi and Sullivan, but a photo included in Januzzi (1994). Probably in brittle fault mineralization.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Habit: elongated prismatic
Colour: pale green
Description: Small crystals found along the contact zone of some calcite-rich cross-cutting veins, not in the pegmatites and not confused with topaz as speculated by Sullivan. Associated with quartz, calcite, albite.
Reference: Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.; Former Bill Shelton and Ronald Januzzi collections.
'Biotite'
Description: As a rock forming component of the amphibolite and as an accessory in the pegmatites.
Reference: Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Description: Januzzi reports it from the quartz-rich contact of the amphibolite with the marble at the tungsten mine.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Description: Januzzi found it with native copper and other copper minerals in small quantities in the dump for the tungsten mine.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Description: Micro crystal from the upper mine pit coated with rutile. May have formed from Ti liberated by the alteration of magnesio-hornblende to actinolite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: cleavable masses to granular
Colour: white to gray
Fluorescence: orange-red under SW and MW UV
Description: A major component of the marble, also an accessory in the quartz-rich contact zone between the marble and amphibolite at the upper mine pit.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: grains
Colour: brassy
Description: An accessory in the tungsten ore pit, Januzzi found it with small amounts of native copper and other copper minerals, and in the topaz veins. In tiny grains in rusty-yellow weathered albite-rich rock at the base of the marble in the large quarry.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Harold Moritz collection.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Habit: double cones applied base to base, curved to spherical aggregates of radiating plates
Colour: dark green to black
Description: Accessory in the marble or along contacts of cross-cutting veins with country rock, especially veins rich in calcite, albite and scapolite. In voids as micaceous aggregates up to 2 cm shaped like “double cones applied base to base” (Shepard, 1837) or generally spherical. Good albite and clinochlore crystals are found in small voids in these veins or where they formed in contact with chlorophane "in joints in marble in the bottom of the main pit, some narrow veins filled with a greenish black chlorite, which formed fine granular friable aggregates of small variously oriented crystals. Where free surfaces are present the chlorite exhibits the vermiform curved prismatic crystals commonly called helminthe forms. These free surfaces are usually coated with manganese oxide." (Shannon, 1921b). Called prochlorite in some old literature.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Habit: acicular to massive
Colour: gray to gray-brown, brownish-green
Description: The "epidote" and "zoisite" reported by Gurlt, Hobbs, Shannon, Schairer and Sullivan in the amphibolite is actually clinozoisite. It is abundant in the altered amphibolite and at the quartz-rich contact with the marble associated with the scheelite and ferberite. Non-terminated acicular crystals typically found in small vugs where calcite dissolved out. Shannon's (1921b) wet chemical analyses and RI values fall into the clinozoisite range, even though he called the mineral epidote. Otherwsie he described them thus: "columnar ash gray to brownish gray or nearly white mineral in prismatic crystals imbedded in glassy quartz. There is a small amount of green hornblende in the quartz and patches of calcite occur as the last deposit in cavities. By dissolving out the calcite, clear brown to gray crystals of the prismatic mineral are obtained." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Habit: thin lenses, masses, arborescent
Colour: copper
Description: From Januzzi (1994): "Native copper was originally found by the author at the upper working of the old tungsten mine where it occurs in exceedingly thin lenses and masses, at times distinctly arborescent in habit. Further research indicates that a series of copper minerals occur, in small amounts, as a component of the tailings, these species include: native copper, malachite, cuprite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite(?), and covellite(?). The latter two species have been reported but not confirmed. Native copper has been observed as inclusions in massive, iron stained, quartz. The most interesting occurrence takes the form of dendritic overgrowths on crystal faces of wolframite pseudomorphs after scheelite. This native element has also been observed in a matrix containing quartz, clinozoisite, pyrrhotite, and limonite." A photo is included in this reference.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Cronstedtite ?
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Habit: rhombohedral hemimorphic, with the forms c (0001) and x (bar2021)
Colour: black
Description: This is all the information provided by Hoadley on the purported cronstedtite: "On a recent trip of the New York Mineralogical Club, under the guidance of the writer, to the Hubbard tungsten mine at Long Hill (Trumbull Township), Connecticut, Mr. George E. Ashby found a specimen of a chlorite, determined by Mr. Lazard Cahn as cronstedtite, 4FeO.2Fe2O3.3SiO2.4H2O. The specimen shows a group of black crystals 1/8 inch in diameter with perfect basal cleavage, hardness = 3.5, and rhombohedral hemimorphic, with the forms c (0001) and x (bar2021). This is believed to be the first occurrence of the mineral in the United States..." Identity questioned by Manchester (1931), p. 38. Description sounds like the common clinochlore found here.
Reference: Hoadley, Charles W. (1918): An American Occurrence of Cronstedtite. American Mineralogist: 3:6.; Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. Afferton Press. 168 p.
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Habit: thin or 6-sided tables flattened parallel to the shorter diagonal
Colour: yellowish-white
Description: First reported by Shepard (1842) as euclase forming "thin, transparent, yellowish-white tabular crystals, lining cavities in a silvery white mica, and sometimes imbedded in a dark purple fluor" in the topaz veins. Later retracted and confirmed to be diaspore by Shepard (1851) and Dana (1851): H=7-7.5, SG=3.29, alumina 84.9%, water 15.1% and described as "thin or 6-sided tables flattened parallel to the shorter diagonal". May be more common than reported because who has really looked?
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen, and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.; Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.; Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Habit: granular to prismatic
Colour: pale green
Description: Reported as "coccolite" by Shannon (1921a, 1921b) and repeated by Januzzi, Schooner, Sullivan, etc. Found as an accessory in the marble, generally fine-grained.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Habit: subhedral blocky
Colour: brown-green
Description: A blocky crystal in quartz/clinozoisite rock with most of the interior altered to a mass of actinolite. Pictured in Januzzi (1994) with caption that it was "x-rayed" with probable enstatite ID (not sure why he qualified it). He did not note the alteration of the crystals' interiors.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Habit: massive
Colour: pistachio green
Description: The "epidote" and "zoisite" reported by Gurlt, Hobbs, Schairer and Sullivan in the amphibolite and quart-rich contact zone with the marble, associated with the scheelite and ferberite, is actually clinozoisite. However, pistachio green, fine-grained masses that are likely epidote from retrograde metamorphism (common in most Connecticut metamorphic rocks) do occur in the amphibolite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Description: First reported by Shepard (1842), later retracted and confirmed to be diaspore by Shepard (1851) and Dana (1851).
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen, and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.; Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.; Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Habit: pseudomorphs after bipyramidal scheelite
Colour: black to dark brown
Description: The only US locality for ferberite after scheelite crystals, with only about 8 other world-wide localities. First described by Silliman (1819-1822) but not recognized as pseudomorphic after scheelite for a few decades. Pseudomorph occurrence is locally restricted to the quartz/clinzoisite-rich contact between the amphibolite and marble at the upper mine pit, sometimes in small open spaces formed from the dissolution of calcite in that zone, and perhaps a nearby locality northeast of the "Burnett place" by Hobbs (1901). Occurs as anhedral lumps to euhedral crystals <1 to >10 cm, the latter size usually aggregates, in the amphibolite. Intermixed scheelite/ferberite partial replacement crystals are common. Some crystals reported with "spongy" texture, probably where tungstite formed and was weathered out. Typically called "wolframite" in most reports but Silliman's original wet chemical analysis shows it is what we now call ferberite and the use of the obsolete term "wolframite" should be abandoned. Januzzi (1994) confirms Silliman's Fe-dominant analysis: "Chemical analysis (Grand Junction Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado - Bauer) gave the following results: Tungsten 60.1%, Iron 17.8%, Manganese 0.21%. Non-fibrous material yielded 16.3% iron and 0.95% manganese."
Reference: Silliman, Benjamin. (1819c): Additional notice of the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 405-10.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Ferricopiapite ?
Formula: Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Description: Details of the find needed.
Reference: Jeremy Zolan
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Habit: mostly granular, rarely elongated hexagonal prism terminated by pinacoid.
Colour: white
Fluorescence: yellow-white under SW UV
Description: An accessory in the amphibolite and probably in the marble. A specimen formerly in Ronald Januzzi collection of an altered contact rock in the amphibolite shows a rare terminated fluorapatite about 1 cm long with an anhedral ilmenite crystal about 3 cm across plus clinochlore and quartz.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; former Ronald Januzzi collection.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Habit: cubic with tetrahexahedral modifications
Colour: colorless with purple zones
Description: "Fluorite, varying abruptly from rose pink to deep purple in color, occurs at the upper mine opening intimately intergrown with fibrous scapolite. At the Limekiln Vein fluorite of a purple color occurs in granular masses of considerable size. Veinlets of coarse foliated margarodite, made up of interlocking crystals, have the crystals separated by thin layers of fluorite, and deep purple fluorite forms thin plates between the plates of mica." (Shannon, 1921b). Besides the abundant, massive chlorophane variety found in the topaz veins, micro-crystals of cubic fluorite have been found in cracks and seams in other rocks. As thin purple coatings on topaz. These occurrences do not fluoresce.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Fluorite var: Chlorophane
Formula: CaF2
Habit: cleavable masses
Colour: purplish-red to red-brown, salmon, colorless to grey, pale green, blue
Fluorescence: Fluoresces blue-green under SW UV, with purer emerald green phosphorescence. Purple fluorescence under LW UV. Also thermoluminescent with emerald green color, but this will destroy any further fluorescence or thermoluminescence once cooled.
Description: In cleavable masses up to 15 cm or more in the topaz-rich and albite-rich veins. Daylight color may fade to colorless on exposure to light with loss of fluorescence, though colorless material may still fluoresce. Keep this material in light-proof containers or wrapped in foil.
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.; Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy, Second Part, vol. 2, p. 237.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: Minor accessory in the rocks and/or veins.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: Included in a list by Januzzi with no details, apparently based on early reports by Silliman of minerals actually from Lane's mine of Monroe. No modern data regarding the Ag content of galena from Connecticut has been published.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: massive, pseudomorphous after rhombic siderite
Colour: dark brown
Description: Chunks of goethite after siderite, showing the rhombohedral form or the latter, found in the dumps at the upper mine shaft. Also from the weathering of pyrite, marcasite and/or pyrrhotite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Gold ?
Formula: Au
Description: Included in a list by Januzzi with no details.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Graphite
Formula: C
Description: Included in a list by Januzzi, no details provided but a common accessory in marble.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: dodecahedral
Colour: cinnamon to clove brown
Description: Accessory in calc-silicate layers in the marble. Well-formed, gemmy crystals to 1.5 cm or so. Reported by Shannon (1921b) as "garnet" thus: "Brownish red granular garnet occurs both in the main pit and in the lime-kiln opening in nodular or lenticular masses in marble which may reach a foot in greatest diameter. Where such masses have had the surrounding calcite dissolved away small dodecahedral crystals are revealed."
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Dave Bodnar collection.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: prismatic
Colour: colorless to white, grey
Description: Forming drusy crusts of radiating aggregates in sheltered ledges at the upper mine shaft. Formed from the reaction of weathered sulfides in the amphibolite with the marble.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Ronald Januzzi collection
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Description: Minor accessory in the veins.
Reference: Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Habit: tabular anhedral
Colour: dark gray to black
Description: A specimen formerly in Ronald Januzzi collection of an altered contact rock in the amphibolite shows an anhedral ilmenite crystal about 3 cm across with clinochlore, fluorapatite and quartz. to Reported by Hobbs (1901) in the amphibolite as included cores in accessory titanite grains.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; former Ronald Januzzi collection.
Jarosite ?
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Details of the find are needed.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut, 224-6.; Specimens collected by Jeremy Zolan 4/28/2006
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Habit: massive, ocherous
Colour: brown
Description: Stains and alterations from various iron-rich sulfides and partial pseudomorphs after ferberite.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: black to dark greenish black
Description: The major component of the amphibolite in the park and adjacent areas. This is a very common species of amphibole in Connecticut based on various TEM-EDS analyses.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Colour: green
Description: Trace occurrence. Alteration of copper minerals.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: botryoidal, mammillary, granular
Description: "Large nodules of botryoidal marcasite, small vein fillings of the same material" (Hobbs, 1901), "Marcasite, more or less weathered, is abundant in the upper mine opening and in the north end of the lower opening. Here it occurs in granular masses and also as internally fibrous mammillary crusts a half inch in thickness on the walls of narrow open cracks in the lower limestone bed. It is very prone to oxidize under the action of the weather, and most of the abundant ocherous limonite stains present have come from its alteration." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Habit: micaceous, fibrous, compact
Colour: white, gray, pale green
Description: As bands of soft but brittle parallel fibers with pearly luster surrounding and/or replacing some topaz crystals. Grading to micaceous to granular, the latter especially in the cores of altered crystals. Associated with unaltered topaz, muscovite, quartz, fluorite in cross-cutting hydrothermal veins. Confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by Paul Bartholomew, U. New Haven, 2014.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Habit: radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals
Colour: white, grey, pale green
Fluorescence: lavender to pink
Description: Radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals found in the amphibolite and along the contact with the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins associated with phologpite. Some veins contain mostly albite, marialite, quartz, calcite, and clinochlore with minor fluorite. "Radiated scapolite occurs in quartz, intimately associated with pink to purple fluorite, in blocks of material in the dump of the upper mine. The scapolite is faintly brownish-white in color and has a somewhat wax-like luster. The aggregates are coarse to fine columnar and are made up of elongated prismatic crystals from 1 to 5 millimeters in diameter, which sometimes reach 6 centimeters in length. These prisms only rarely exhibit well-defined prismatic planes and are never terminated in the specimens collected. The fluorite, which is intimately intergrown with the scapolite, is in part rose pink and in part deep purple, the colors varying abruptly." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Harold Moritz collection.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Habit: coatings
Colour: greenish-yellow
Description: coatings under ledges of gneiss and in protected places
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Habit: anhedral to subhedral prismatic
Colour: white to tan
Description: A major component of the pegmatite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: anhedral tabular, fine-grained replacements of topaz
Colour: silvery
Description: Abundant as a pure micaceous layer along the contacts of the topaz-fluorite-quartz veins with the amphibolite, reported as the hydrous variety "margarodite" by Shannon (1921b). However, this mica matches the physical properties of muscovite and was also identified by Raman spectroscopy. As flakes in the veins, and as coatings and replacement of topaz, also reported by Shannon (1921b) as "margarodite", but which is a mixture of muscovite and paragonite. Also an accessory in the pegmatites. "A foliated and radiated pearly mica from this locality has been widely distributed in old collections, labeled margarodite. This mica is very abundant in the limekiln vein, where it occurs as an alteration product of the topaz as aggregates of scales often grouped in spherical or fan-shaped bunches. In color the margarodite ranges from pale yellow to smoky brownish gray. The yellowish variety occurs replacing the large crystals of topaz. The grayish type is coarser and occurs in open spaces lined by topaz crystals and as narrow veins in which the crystals grow from either wall and inter¬lock loosely in the center of the vein, the space of which are filled with colorless to purple fluorite. Some of the coarsest of the mica is deep blue, apparently from thin layers of deep blue fluorite inserted between the laminae. The margarodite is in plates which uniformly show the structure found in commercial mica deposits and known as feathering evidently due to twinning. In appearance this twinning is more pearly than ordinary muscovite and laminae are more brittle...Mica of this foliated type occurs in practically all of the quartz veins of this vicinity, as seen especially in the main pit and in small openings along the tramway." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi, details lacking but plausible as it is very common in Connecticut.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi, details lacking but plausible as it is very common in Connecticut.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Pargasite ?
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Colour: bright green
Description: Included in lists, with no details. Probably confusion with diopside.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: granular flakes
Colour: brown
Description: An accessory in the marble. Also metasomatically formed in the amphibolite in contact with the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Habit: coatings, druses
Colour: colorless to pale yellow
Description: found under overhanging ledges or other protected places, from the alteration of sulfides.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: massive, granular, cubo-octahedral
Colour: pale brassy
Description: Common accessory in the amphibolite, quartz-rich contact zone with the marble, associated with ferberite and scheelite, and marble.
Reference: Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Description: A black earthy mineral which has never been submitted for technical identification.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Habit: massive
Colour: reddish-bronze
Description: Common accessory in the amphibolite, quartz-rich contact zone with the marble, associated with ferberite and scheelite, and minor amounts in the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive, drusy crystals rare
Colour: colorless to white, smoky
Description: As a major, but massive, component of the cross-cutting topaz-quartz-fluorite veins. One nearly pure quartz veins was mined as the "Champion Lode" around 1900. An accessory component of the amphibolite, particularly where altered and along the contact with the marble, where it hosts scheelite and ferberite. Component of the pegmatites.
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: capillary micro-crystals on brookite
Description: Januzzi (1994) includes a photo, found at the upper mine shaft pit.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
'Scapolite'
Habit: radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals
Colour: white, grey, pale green
Description: Radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals found in the amphibolite and along the contact with the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins associated with phologpite. Species determined to be marialite via Raman spectroscopy.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Habit: anhedral to bipyramidal, often modified by prism and pinacoid faces
Colour: colorelss, white, pale yellow, pale grey
Fluorescence: blue-white
Description: An accessory in the amphibolite (3 to 5%), small grains to crystals up to a several cm. Commonly pseudomorphed, partly or completely, by ferberite. Best crystals found in the quartz-rich contact with the marble. Hobbs gives this crystal description: "second order pyramid, e (101), alone or this form giving the habit to the crystal but modified by combination with one or more of the first order pyramids and the third order pyramid, s (311). Inasmuch as the wolframite of the locality always occurs in the form of scheelite and is clearly pseudomorphic after it, the forms are better studied on wolframite crystals. These show several types of which the most common is probably the unmodified pyramid e. Next in order of frequency is the combination of the forms e (101) with c (001), o (102), p (111), and s (311), to which the forms e and o give, the habit. Warren [1901] has recently figured one of these crystals".
Reference: Silliman, Benjamin. (1819c): Additional notice of the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 405-10.; Bowen, George T. (1822): Analysis of the calcareous oxide of tungsten from Huntington. American Journal of Science: series 1: 5: 118-21.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Habit: anhedral, massive, hemispherical individuals and aggregates, curved rhombic
Colour: brown
Description: Januzzi (1994) reports: "in hemispherical individuals and aggregates associated with quartz, fluorite, galena, and sphalerite as well as curved rhombic crystals of the same species associated with crystals of quartz". Much of this material is actually altered to goethite.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Included in lists by Januzzi, but without details and never substantiated. Confusion with purported silver or silver minerals at Lane's mine in Monroe, which was confused with this locality in very early reports.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: massive
Colour: black
Description: Minor accessory in the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins. Identified as brilliant, black cleavages to 5 cm in the lower pit. "A brilliant coarse granular and very black sphalerite occurs in aggregates up to 3 inches in diameter in the narrow quartz-topaz veins in the main pit, especially where these veins cut the marcasite layer at the north end of the pit. The sphalerite, which upon weathering assumes an iridescent tarnish, occurs in vitreous grayish quartz associated with margarodite, margarite, and topaz." (Shannon, 1921b)
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Szomolnokite ?
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Description: Januzzi includes it in a list with this footnote: "Recent (1994) confirmation of the following mineral species, either by x-ray and or chemical analyses."
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Description: A minor accessory.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Habit: anhedral grains, prismatic
Colour: brown
Description: As a minor accessory in the amphibolite and marble.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Habit: prismatic with square to rhombic section
Colour: colorless, white, grey, green, yellow-brown, blue
Description: A common, but locally variable component of the cross-cutting veins with quartz, fluorite, and muscovite, the latter commonly coating the crystals, even replacing them. Rarely gemmy. Crystals usually anhedral to subhedral prisms rarely terminated, up to 6 to 8 inches in diameter, with a length of 3 to 7 inches; micro crystals can be found that are transparent and show a great perfection of form and beauty. "Topaz is present in the quartz veins in quite unusual amount. The best locality is that described as the Limekiln Vein. This vein, which has been opened for a distance of some 75 feet, is from 1 to 5 feet wide. The vein originally consisted almost entirely of quartz and topaz, the quartz being considerably more abundant than the topaz...The topaz occurs in coarse crystalline masses of gray to pale yellow or white color, with well-defined cleavage, some of the cleavage surfaces being a foot in diameter. Most of the topaz contains veins and disseminated scales of margarodite, and large masses of margarodite contain cores of corroded and embayed topaz. Where the topaz abuts against small open cavities in the center of the vein it is bounded by rough crystal planes. Many of these cavities have been filled with coarse foliated margarodite not derived from the adjacent topaz crystals, as the surfaces of these crystals corroded." (Shannon, 1921b)
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Habit: acicular
Colour: black
Description: "Large blocks of a rock consisting of quartz and acicular black tourmaline occur in the dump but these were not seen in place." (Shannon, 1921a). "Some large blocks on the dump of the main pit are composed of fine acicular black tourmaline embedded in vitreous grayish quartz." (Shannon, 1921b). Sullivan (1985) reports it in the pegmatite.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
'commodity:Tungsten'
Formula: W
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Tungstenite
Formula: WS2
Description: The original report is from Schairer (1931), who included it in a list of minerals, without including tungstite, which is long well-known from here. Probably confusion or misspelling. Others simply repeat this report, no finds have been confirmed.
Reference: Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Tungstite
Formula: WO3 · H2O
Habit: massive
Colour: orange-yellow, chrome yellow, yellowish gray
Description: An alteration of ferberite pseudomorphs after sheelite, coating and occupying cavities in these crystals from the upper mine pit. Looks like "broken sulfur". Very little of this material has been found since the mid-19th century as the highly weathered portion of the outcrop worked then by Charles Lane has long been removed by subsequent mining. Originally and incorrectly attributed to Lane's mine in Monroe, neither ferberite pseudomorphs after scheelite, nor scheelite occur there and so the type locality for this mineral is actually here.
Reference: Silliman, Benjamin. (1822a): Native yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 52.; Silliman, Benjamin. (1822b): Massive yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 187-88.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Habit: cubo-octahedral
Colour: black
Description: Januzzi (1994): "This micro-uraninite crystal (B14) was found embedded in dark purple fluorite occurring in the country rock zone (pegmatite) at the upper working of the old tungsten mine at Trumbull." Photos included in the reference.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Habit: bipyramidal pseudomorphs after scheelite
Colour: dark brown to black
Description: Actually long known to be the iron-rich end-member species ferberite. The use of the term "wolframite" for crystals from here should be abandoned. See more description under ferberite.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: The "epidote" and "zoisite" in the amphibolite and its quartz-rich contact with the marble mentioned in many reports is actually clinozoisite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold ?1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Silver ?1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tungstenite ?2.EA.30WS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
var: Chlorophane3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brookite4.DD.10TiO2
Diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
Ferberite4.DB.30FeWO4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite ?4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Tungstite4.FJ.10WO3 · H2O
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Ferricopiapite ?7.DB.35Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite ?7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Szomolnokite ?7.CB.05FeSO4 · H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Almandine' ?9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Analcime' ?9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
'Andradite' ?9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Augite ?9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cronstedtite ?9.ED.15Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Euclase ?9.AE.10BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Magnesio-hornblende9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Margarite9.EC.30CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Marialite9.FB.15Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pargasite ?9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Zoisite ?9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Biotite-
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Scapolite-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Wolframite-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold ?1.1.1.1Au
Silver ?1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Tungstenite ?2.12.10.3WS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Pyrolusite ?4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
AX3
Tungstite4.5.2.1WO3 · H2O
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Diaspore6.1.1.1AlO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Szomolnokite ?29.6.2.2FeSO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite ?30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Ferricopiapite ?31.10.5.4Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Ferberite48.1.1.2FeWO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine ?51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite ?51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Euclase ?52.2.1.1BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Zoisite ?58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite ?65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Pargasite ?66.1.3a.12{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Cronstedtite ?71.1.4.7Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Margarite71.2.2c.1CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework with other Be/Al/Si frameworks
Marialite76.3.1.1Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime ?77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-
Fluorite
var: Chlorophane
-CaF2
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
-PbS
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnesio-hornblende-☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
H DiasporeAlO(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
H FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H TungstiteWO3 · H2O
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O BaryteBaSO4
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O BrookiteTiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
O DiasporeAlO(OH)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
O FerberiteFeWO4
O FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
O MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O SideriteFeCO3
O SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O TungstiteWO3 · H2O
O UraniniteUO2
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FFluorine
F Fluorite (var: Chlorophane)CaF2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Mg Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al DiasporeAlO(OH)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Al MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Si MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
S TungsteniteWS2
ClChlorine
Cl MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Fluorite (var: Chlorophane)CaF2
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe FerberiteFeWO4
Fe FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
CuCopper
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W FerberiteFeWO4
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W TungsteniteWS2
W TungstiteWO3 · H2O
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthBi
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Silurian
419.2 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 2865451
Basal member [of The Straits Schist]

Age: Silurian (419.2 - 443.8 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: The Straits Schist

Description: ( = Russell Mountain Formation of Massachusetts) - Distinguished by presence of layers of amphibolite, marble, calc-silicate rock, and quartzite within more uniform schist like that on either side. Minor, unevenly distributed mineralization in W, Bi, Cu, Ni, and other metals.

Comments: Part of Central Lowlands; Iapetus (Oceanic) Terrane - Connecticut Valley Synclinorium; Hartland Belt Original map source: Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, DEP, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, 2000, Bedrock Geology of Connecticut, shapefile, scale 1:50,000

Lithology: Major:{schist,amphibolite,marble}, Minor:{calc silicate rock,quartzite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Ordovician - Neoproterozoic
443.8 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3190671
Precambrian-Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Neoproterozoic to Ordovician (443.8 - 1000 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone-carbonate-sandstone-conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Silliman, Benjamin. (1819a): Discovery of American tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 312.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1819b): Additional note concerning the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 316.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1819c): Additional notice of the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 405-10.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1821): Notice of an argentiferous galena from Huntington and another lead ore from Bethlehem. American Journal of Science: series 1: 3: 173-76.
Bowen, George T. (1822): Analysis of the calcareous oxide of tungsten from Huntington. American Journal of Science: series 1: 5: 118-21.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1822a): Native yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 52.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1822b): Massive yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 187-88.
Robinson, Samuel. (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities; Including All Which Are Known to Exist in the United States and British Provinces, And Having the Towns, Counties, and Districts in Each State and Province Arranged Alphabetically. With an Appendix, Containing Additional Localities and a Tabular View. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co., Boston.
Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.
Hitchcock, Edward. (1828): Miscellaneous notice of mineral localities. American Journal of Science: series 1: 14: 215-30.
Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy: Second Part: 2: 237.
Shepard, Charles U. (1837): A Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut.
Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen [MA], and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.
Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.
Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.
Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. U.S Geological Survey Annual Report 22: 7-22.
Warren, C. H. (1901): Mineralogical notes. American Journal of Science: 4th series: 11: 373.
Hoadley, Charles W. (1918): An American Occurrence of Cronstedtite. American Mineralogist: 3: 6.
Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 6: 126-128.
Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. Afferton Press.
Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Blatz, Paul T. (1938): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 13(8): 236-237.
Whitney, Harold F. (1938), Trumbull Park Notice: Rocks and Minerals: 13(8): 237.
Fisher, Joseph O. (1942), Structure and origin of the old tungsten mine near Trumbull, Conn.: Unpublished MA thesis, Columbia U.
Kerr, Paul F. (1946), Tungsten Mineralization in the United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 15.
Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Trumbull Historical Society. (1966): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park.
Shelton, William. (1967), Notes on Trumbull, Connecticut. Rocks and Minerals: 42(10): 768-9.
Ryerson, Kathleen. (1972): Rock Hound's Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Webster, Bud. (1978): Mineral Collector's Field Guide Connecticut. Privately published.
Webster, Bud and Bill Shelton. (1979): Mineral Collector's Field Guide The Northeast. Mineralogy, Wallingford, Conn.
Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995) Connecticut Mineral Locality Index, Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6).

External Links

http://diva.library.cmu.edu/ajs/search.jsp - 19th century American Journal of Science search page:
http://www.mindat.org/photo-443497.html - Topaz crystal illustrations in: Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy, Second Part, vol. 2, p. 237.
http://www.mindat.org/photo-443142.html - Topaz crystal illustration by James D. Dana in American Journal of Science 18:419-420, November, 1854.


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