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Old Mine Park (Lane’s Mine of Trumbull; Lane's New Stratford mine; Hubbard Mine; Long Hill Mine; Old Tungsten Mine), Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 41° 17' 21'' North , 73° 13' 38'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 41.28917,-73.22722
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate

This locality (a town park), like the neighboring Old Mine Plaza, is unique in Connecticut for its varied mineralogy and the area was prospected since the early 19th century. Although officially referred to as Tungsten Mine Park, the park encompasses a number of unrelated deposits with separate prospecting and mining history and mineralogy.

It is underlain by gently dipping, interlayered amphibolite and marble. The amphibolite, which surrounds the park area, is host to a stratiform deposit of scheelite. Within the park only, some of the scheelite at the contact with the marble is pseudomorphed by ferberite (all crystals tested are Fe-dominant and use of the term "wolframite" should be abandoned here), and was the subject of short-lived mining efforts around 1900. According to Sullivan (1985), this was after Ephraim Lane and later his son Charles, prospected it in the early to mid-1800s, and after Thomas Hubbard had searched in vain for copper, lead and silver deposits, not tungsten, in the late 1880s. According to Sullivan (1985), this site is also the first known North American topaz locality.

Sullivan also states that it should be the first tungsten deposit identified in North America (it was the first mined) and the correct type locality for tungstite, rather than the typically referenced Ephraim Lane's Mine in Monroe: Hobbs (1901) states that "The confusion which has arisen has been due largely to the propinquity of the two localities and to the fact that both mines were owned by men bearing the same surname." These men were Ephraim and son Charles. No tungsten mineralization occurs at Lane's Mine in Monroe, the type tungstite occurs as an alteration of ferberite pseudomorphs and scheelite unique to the Trumbull mine (see specimens in Yale-Peabody Museum collection). Early reports by Silliman (1819a, 1819b, 1819c, 1821, 1822a, 1822b), Bowen (1822), and Hitchcock and Silliman (1826), which describe minerals initially attributed to Lane's Mine in Monroe, are actually describing minerals from the Trumbull deposit. This was eventually corrected by Hitchcock (1828) and is further discussed in Hitchcock (1835).

Mining of tungsten from scheelite in the amphibolite and the ferberite pseudomorphs after scheelite near the quartz-rich amphibolite/marble contact was undertaken by the American Tungsten Mining and Milling Company starting in 1899. They mined for a short time and built a mill that used a dry process that produced a 5% yield, but by 1902 they shut down because this process could not separate pyrite from the tungsten minerals (without additional roasting). A proven wet process was suggested by Gurlt, but not undertaken. The mine was also poorly laid out. The buildings lay idle until 1916 when they were destroyed by a fire. Had they realized that the scheelite apparently is present throughout the amphibolite, which is generally flat-lying and extends at least 1 km around their shaft (and well outside the park), a significant mine could have been developed. The town of Trumbull took the property in lieu of back taxes on October 4, 1937 and named it Old Mine Park on January 4, 1940 (Sullivan, 1985).

Numerous cross-cutting, steeply-dipping, +/-1m thick, hydrothermal veins crop out in the park and surrounding area. Their mineralogy varies but all show a similar metasomatic alteration of the host amphibolite to fine-grained, brownish phlogopite/marialite. The most common contain a core assemblage of coarse-grained quartz+/-topaz+/-fluorite var. chlorophane with a fine to medium-grained, sub-parallel muscovite (variety margarodite) wall zone. In some veins, the topaz, which may commonly have a coarse muscovite coating, has altered to a very soft, compact and granular to peripherally parallel-fibrous or lamellar habit of margarite (confirmed in 2014 using Raman spectroscopy). A predominantly quartz cored vein, called the Champion Lode, was mined for quartz for use in wood processing (Hobbs 1901, Trumbull Historical Society 1966). Some veins contain mostly albite+/-clinochlore+/-marialite. Very rare are calcite-cored veins with beryl and albite along the contact. Outcrops of the veins are generally small and the veins may in fact grade in composition between these extremes both laterally and vertically as some off-site veins show a mix of these compositions.

Later, brittle faulting and associated hydrothermal activity deposited purple to green fluorite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tabular calcite in veins and fractures in a manner similar to that seen at the Thomaston Dam railroad cut.

Other minerals are found in the small marble quarries (amphiboles, pyroxenes, titanite, grossular, chlorite, phlogopite) and cross-cutting pegmatites (albite, microcline, quartz, muscovite, beryl). Veins and pods of plagioclase and scapolite are also present.

Sullivan reports other confusion through the years, such as topaz being called beryl (though it is present in the pegmatites), Hoadley's (1918) unconfirmed report of cronstedtite, zoisite (epidote, though the 'epidote' associated with the scheelite/ferberite is clinozoisite), and diaspore "mistakenly identified as euclase".

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

57 valid minerals. 8 erroneous literature entries.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

419.2 - 443.8 Ma

ID: 2865451
Basal member [of The Straits Schist]

Age: Silurian (419.2 - 443.8 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: The Straits Schist

Description: ( = Russell Mountain Formation of Massachusetts) - Distinguished by presence of layers of amphibolite, marble, calc-silicate rock, and quartzite within more uniform schist like that on either side. Minor, unevenly distributed mineralization in W, Bi, Cu, Ni, and other metals.

Comments: Part of Central Lowlands; Iapetus (Oceanic) Terrane - Connecticut Valley Synclinorium; Hartland Belt

Lithology: Major:{schist,amphibolite,marble}, Minor:{calc silicate rock,quartzite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Silliman, Benjamin. (1819a): Discovery of American tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 312.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1819b): Additional note concerning the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 316.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1819c): Additional notice of the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 405-10.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1821): Notice of an argentiferous galena from Huntington and another lead ore from Bethlehem. American Journal of Science: series 1: 3: 173-76.
Bowen, George T. (1822): Analysis of the calcareous oxide of tungsten from Huntington. American Journal of Science: series 1: 5: 118-21.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1822a): Native yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 52.
Silliman, Benjamin. (1822b): Massive yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 187-88.
Robinson, Samuel. (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities; Including All Which Are Known to Exist in the United States and British Provinces, And Having the Towns, Counties, and Districts in Each State and Province Arranged Alphabetically. With an Appendix, Containing Additional Localities and a Tabular View. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co., Boston.
Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.
Hitchcock, Edward. (1828): Miscellaneous notice of mineral localities. American Journal of Science: series 1: 14: 215-30.
Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy: Second Part: 2: 237.
Shepard, Charles U. (1837): A Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut.
Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen [MA], and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.
Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.
Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.
Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. U.S Geological Survey Annual Report 22: 7-22.
Warren, C. H. (1901): Mineralogical notes. American Journal of Science: 4th series: 11: 373.
Hoadley, Charles W. (1918): An American Occurrence of Cronstedtite. American Mineralogist: 3: 6.
Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 6: 126-128.
Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. Afferton Press.
Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Blatz, Paul T. (1938): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 13(8): 236-237.
Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Trumbull Historical Society. (1966): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park.
Shelton, William. (1967), Notes on Trumbull, Connecticut. Rocks and Minerals: 42(10): 768-9.
Ryerson, Kathleen. (1972): Rock Hound's Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Webster, Bud. (1978): Mineral Collector's Field Guide Connecticut. Privately published.
Webster, Bud and Bill Shelton. (1979): Mineral Collector's Field Guide The Northeast. Mineralogy, Wallingford, Conn.
Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995) Connecticut Mineral Locality Index, Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6).

External Links - 19th century American Journal of Science search page: - Topaz crystal illustrations in: Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy, Second Part, vol. 2, p. 237. - Topaz crystal illustration by James D. Dana in American Journal of Science 18:419-420, November, 1854.

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