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Middletown lead mines (Middletown Mine), Middletown, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Middletown lead mines (Middletown Mine)Group of Mines
Middletown- not defined -
Middlesex Co.County
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 33' 32'' North , 72° 36' 42'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Mines
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Portland5,862 (2017)2.9km
Middletown46,756 (2017)3.3km
Cromwell13,750 (2017)4.9km
Higganum1,698 (2017)8.2km
East Hampton2,691 (2017)9.3km


Mineralization occurring along the Eastern Border Fault of the Hartford Basin of the Newark Supergroup and exposed along Butler's Creek. The veins occur in heavily sheared Collins Hill schist and dip westward at about 35 to 45 degrees.

According to Field (1853) and Harte (1945) - Somewhat prior to the outbreak of the Revolutionary War “foreigners” opened and operated a lead mine on the east bank of the Connecticut River and in the Town of Middletown, expending, so it is said, much money in connection with it. It is not clear whether the British Colonel James, who was in possession of the mine when war was declared, and who had a large quantity of ore ready to send abroad, was, or was not, one of the “foreigners,” but be that as it may, Connecticut at once seized the mine and ore.

The vein ran northerly towards the river, was followed thirty or forty rods, and in some places was very rich. But the vein being enclosed in granitic rock it was very difficult to get the ore, and as it approached the river it sunk abruptly into the earth.

In May of 1775 a committee of three, including Hosmer, was appointed: “to work the ore at the lead mine at Middletown, and the sum of 500 pounds appropriated for that purpose."

The mine and furnace remained in the hands of the State Committee for the next three years…It was some time in 1776 when it was reported there were 5,140 pounds of lead “in the care of the committee appointed to improve the furnace at Middletown.” In 1778, however, the Committee informed the Assembly “that the manufacture of said ore was unprofitable to the State,” and they were advised to discontinue any further smelting of lead at the mine as soon as they finished with the ore on hand.

"The deposits near Middletown, Conn. were reopened in 1852 by the Middletown Silver and Lead Mining Company [headed by Eugene Francfort], but the enterprise was soon abandoned, the results being far from satisfactory." (Pulsifer, 1888). This was coupled with the high cost of mining labor at the time (Tenney, 1855). McElrath et al (1853) provides some overly rosy reports on the mine's fortunes at that time, but also some interesting geological and internal details of the mine.


Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


27 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Min.: 16:279.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Min.: 16:279.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Linarite ?
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Colour: bright blue
Description: From Schooner (circa 1980s): "At the exposed galena-sphalerite-calcite veins near the lead mine tunnels, between River Road and the Connecticut River, seams and vugs contain traces of secondary minerals. One of them is linarite, as bright blue microcrystals."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Colour: tan
Description: From Schooner (circa 1980s): "Massicot was the most abundant of the lead oxides from the now-collapsed tunnel of the lead mine nearest the river. X-ray study, however, showed the presence of minor litharge. A sample of weathered galena, picked up on the cobalt mine dump below Great Hill, had a rather thick tan crust. It gave a very good X-ray pattern of litharge."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Massicot
Formula: PbO
Colour: yellowish
Description: From Schooner (circa 1980s)" "Some rich specimens, showing soft yellowish massicot in cellular quartz, derived from the alteration of galena, were found in the last lead mine tunnel toward the river. X-ray study indicates a mixture of massicot and litharge, with massicot predominating."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Minium
Formula: Pb3O4
Colour: orange-red
Description: From Schooner (circa 1980s): "Dull orange-red minium is one of the lead oxides found at the lowest of the tunnels between River Road and the Connecticut River, in Middletown. This material did not yield the good X-ray pattern of the other lead oxides, massicot, litharge, and plattnerite. It is assumed to be fine-grained or impure. Interestingly, no hematite peaks were seen."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Plattnerite
Formula: PbO2
Colour: sooty black
Description: From Schooner (circa 1980s): "Plattnerite formed a sooty black coating on altered galena, with considerable massicot and litharge, at one of the Middletown lead mines. The identity was established by X-ray study."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: The pyrite is frequently found in cubes, elongated parallel to one axis.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Min.: 16:279.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Smithsonite ?
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Wurtzite ?
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Wurtzite var: Voltzite ?
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Wurtzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
var: Voltzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Litharge4.AC.20PbO
Massicot4.AC.25PbO
Minium4.BD.05Pb3O4
Plattnerite4.DB.05PbO2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite ?5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Linarite ?7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite ?2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Litharge4.2.4.1PbO
Massicot4.2.7.1PbO
AX2
Plattnerite4.4.1.6PbO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Minium7.2.8.1Pb3O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite ?14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite ?30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Wurtzite
var: Voltzite ?
-(Zn,Fe)S

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O MiniumPb3O4
O MassicotPbO
O LithargePbO
O PlattneritePbO2
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S AcanthiteAg2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S GreenockiteCdS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb MiniumPb3O4
Pb MassicotPbO
Pb LithargePbO
Pb PlattneritePbO2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Devonian - Silurian
358.9 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3186140
Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Age: Paleozoic (358.9 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone-carbonate-sandstone-conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Ordovician - Middle Ordovician
443.8 - 470 Ma



ID: 2844516
Collins Hill Formation

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 470 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Collins Hill Formation

Description: ( = Partridge Formation of New Hampshire) - Gray, rusty-weathering, medium- to coarse-grained, poorly layered schist, composed of quartz, oligoclase, muscovite, biotite, and garnet, and commonly staurolite, kyanite, or sillimanite, generally graphitic, interlayered with fine-grained two-mica gneiss, especially to the west, and with calc-silicate and amphibolite layers, also rare quartz-spessartine (coticule) layers.

Comments: Part of Eastern Uplands; Iapetus (Oceanic) Terrane - Bronson Hill Anticlinorium; Brimfield Schist and equivalent formations (includes Collins Hill Formation) (Upper? and Middle Ordovician). Original map source: Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, DEP, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, 2000, Bedrock Geology of Connecticut, shapefile, scale 1:50,000

Lithology: Major:{schist}, Minor:{gneiss}, Incidental:{amphibolite, calc silicate rock}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Polehampton, Edward T. W. (1815), The Gallery of Nature and Art: II: 314.
Field, David D. (1819), A Statistical Account of the County of Middlesex, Connecticut; 37.
Porter, T. D. (1825), T. D. Porter's Localities of Minerals on Connecticut River. American Journal of Science: series 1, 9: 177 and figure at end plate.
Robinson, Samuel. (1825), A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities; Including All Which Are Known to Exist in the United States and British Provinces, And Having the Towns, Counties, and Districts in Each State and Province Arranged Alphabetically. With an Appendix, Containing Additional Localities and a Tabular View. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co., Boston.
Shepard, Charles Upham. (1837), Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut. Hamlem, New Haven.
Field, David. (1853), The Middletown Lead Mine. Middletown First Society, Middletown, Conn.
McElrath, Thomas, William Jewett Tenney, William Phipps Blake. (1853), Middletown Silver and Lead Mines (including report by James Percival, and account of a visit by Middletown Sentinel editor). Journal of Silver and Lead Mining Operations: 1: 185-9.
Whitney, Josiah D. (1854): The Metallic Wealth of the United States. Lippincott, Grambo & Co.
Tenney, William J. (1855), Commercial Aspect of the Mining Interest. Mining Magazine: 4: 69.
Pulsifer, William H. (1888), Notes for a History of Lead. Van Rostrand, New York: 78.
Sanford, Samuel and R. W. Stone. (1914), Useful Minerals of the United States. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 585.
Foye, W. G., (1922), Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 7: 4-12.
Schairer, John F. (1931), Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Bulletin 51.
Harte, Charles Rufus. (1945), Connecticut's Minor Metals and Her Minerals. Proceedings of the Connecticut Society of Civil. Engineers, 61st Annual Report.
Sohon, Julian A. (1951), Connecticut Minerals. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Bulletin 77.
Schooner, Richard. (1958), The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Jones, Robert W. (1960), Luminescent Minerals of Connecticut, a Guide to Their Properties and Locations. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Schooner, Richard. (1961), The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Hiller, John, Jr. (1971), Connecticut Mines and Minerals. Privately published.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury.
Ryerson, Kathleen H. (1976), Rock Hound’s Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 403.


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