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Sulphur Mine (Crenshaw Mine; Victoria Furnace Mine), Mineral, Gold-Pyrite Belt, Louisa Co., Virginia, USAi
Regional Level Types
Sulphur Mine (Crenshaw Mine; Victoria Furnace Mine)Mine
Mineral- not defined -
Gold-Pyrite BeltBelt
Louisa Co.County
VirginiaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
38° 3' 42'' North , 77° 52' 54'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Mineral483 (2017)6.1km
Louisa1,621 (2017)11.5km
Blue Ridge Shores813 (2011)13.4km
Gordonsville1,577 (2017)28.1km
Orange4,947 (2017)28.6km


A volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit thought to be of the Kuroko type, hosted by the Chopawamsic Formation. In the rather linear trend where the massive sulphides of the Mineral District occur the Chopawamsic is predominantly metamorphosed intermediate and felsic volcanics. The ore bodies are stratiform lenses, often dominantly pyritic, that contain variable amounts of sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite. A variety of minor minerals occurs thinly scattered among the major ore minerals. Gangue minerals include quartz, carbonate, silicates, magnetite, and gahnite. Gahnite is widespread within the ores. Its occurrence in the Mineral District has been described by Sandhaus and Craig (1986).

The massive sulphides of the Mineral District were mainly mined for pyrite to produce sulphur and sulphuric acid. Pyrite mining ended when cheaper, and more abundant sources of elemental sulphur were developed in the early 20th century. Copper, lead, and zinc were generally byproducts.

Like the other massive sulphide mines of the area, the Armenius has been "reclaimed". Recent air photos suggest that the mineral-bearing dumps have been bulldozed, recontoured, heavily limed, covered and revegetated leaving little or nothing of mineralogical interest.

Minerals can still be found in some parts of the mine, however the parcel is privately owned and posted no trespassing.

The most substantial effort to reclaim the property happened in the late 1970s into the early 1980s. The dumps were leveled and biosolids and lime were utilized to create a medium on which trees and vegetation could establish themselves. The State of Virginia closed several open mine shafts at the property in 2011 or 2012. However, unseen underground hazards may still exist at the property.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


58 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Aluminocopiapite
Formula: Al2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Description: On slag.
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Description: On slag.
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Coquimbite
Formula: Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Ferricopiapite
Formula: Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Ferrinatrite
Formula: Na3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Ferrohexahydrite
Formula: FeSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Fibroferrite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Hematite var: Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
'Hornblende'
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Magnesiocopiapite
Formula: MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Paracoquimbite
Formula: Fe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Pentahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Description: Zincian
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Rozenite
Formula: FeSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Siderotil
Formula: FeSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Szomolnokite
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60:167.
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Martite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Aluminocopiapite7.DB.35Al2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Antlerite7.BB.15Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite7.CB.55Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Ferricopiapite7.DB.35Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Ferrinatrite7.CC.35Na3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
Ferrohexahydrite7.CB.25FeSO4 · 6H2O
Fibroferrite7.DC.15Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hexahydrite7.CB.25MgSO4 · 6H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Magnesiocopiapite7.DB.35MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Paracoquimbite7.CB.55Fe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
Pentahydrite7.CB.20MgSO4 · 5H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Rozenite7.CB.15FeSO4 · 4H2O
Siderotil7.CB.20FeSO4 · 5H2O
Szomolnokite7.CB.05FeSO4 · H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
var: Fassaite9.DA.15(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Chloritoid9.AF.85(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Ferrinatrite29.4.4.1Na3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Ferrohexahydrite29.6.8.3FeSO4 · 6H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hexahydrite29.6.8.1MgSO4 · 6H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Pentahydrite29.6.7.3MgSO4 · 5H2O
Rozenite29.6.6.1FeSO4 · 4H2O
Siderotil29.6.7.2FeSO4 · 5H2O
Szomolnokite29.6.2.2FeSO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Coquimbite29.8.3.1Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Paracoquimbite29.8.4.1Fe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Antlerite30.1.12.1Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Fibroferrite31.9.12.1Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Miscellaneous
Aluminocopiapite31.10.5.7Al2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Ferricopiapite31.10.5.4Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Magnesiocopiapite31.10.5.2MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chloritoid52.3.3.1(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Augite
var: Fassaite
-(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
Hematite
var: Martite
-Fe2O3
var: Specularite-Fe2O3
'Hornblende'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
H MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
H FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
H FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
H FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
H PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
H SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
H SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O CupriteCu2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O QuartzSiO2
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
O MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
O FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
O FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
O FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O Hematite (var: Martite)Fe2O3
O HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
O PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
O Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
O SideriteFeCO3
O SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
O SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
Na Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Mg MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Mg HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
Mg PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
Mg Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
SiSilicon
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
PPhosphorus
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
S MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
S FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
S FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
S FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
S ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
S PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
S SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
S SulphurS8
S SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Fe MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Fe FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
Fe FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
Fe FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
Fe Hematite (var: Martite)Fe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
Fe ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
Fe Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
Fe SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
ZnZinc
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn SphaleriteZnS
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Watson (1907) Mineral Resources of Virginia, p. 201-202.
Katz, A.S. (1961) The mineralogy of the Sulphur Mine, Mineral, Virginia - Including a history of the property. Masters Thesis, University of Virginia: 104 p.
Luttrell, G.W. (1966) Virginia Mineral Resources Report 7, p. 125.
Mitchell, R. S. & A. Katz (1977) Minerals from the Sulphur Mine, Louisa County, Virginia: Rocks & Minerals, 52 (5), 275-278.
Penick, D. (1985) Virginia Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals, 60(4), 167.
Sandhaus, D.J. and Craig, J.R. (1986) Gahnite in the metamorphosed stratiform massive sulfide deposits of the Mineral District, Virginia, USA. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 35, 77-98.

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