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Sulphur Mine (Crenshaw Mine; Victoria Furnace Mine), Mineral, Gold-Pyrite Belt, Louisa Co., Virginia, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 3' 42'' North , 77° 52' 54'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 38.0616666667, -77.8816666667

A volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, thought to be of the Kuroko type, hosted by the Chopawamsic Formation. In the rather linear trend where the massive sulphides of the Mineral District occur the Chopawamsic is predominantly metamorphosed intermediate and felsic volcanics. The ore bodies are stratiform lenses, often dominantly pyritic, that contain variable amounts of sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite. A variety of minor minerals occurs thinly scattered among the major ore minerals. Gangue minerals include quartz, carbonate, silicates, magnetite and gahnite. Gahnite is widespread within the ores. Its occurrence in the Mineral District has been described by Sandhaus and Craig (1986).

The massive sulphides of the Mineral District were mainly mined for pyrite to produce sulphur and sulphuric acid. Pyrite mining ended when cheaper, and more abundant sources of elemental sulphur were developed in the early 20th century. Copper, lead and, zinc were generally byproducts.

Like the other massive sulphide mines of the area the Armenius has been "reclaimed". Recent air photos suggest that the mineral-bearing dumps have been bulldozed, recontoured, heavily limed, covered and revegetated leaving little or nothing of mineralogical interest.

Mineral List

58 valid minerals.

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Watson (1907) Mineral Resources of Virginia, p. 201-202.

Katz, A. S. (1961) The mineralogy of the Sulphur Mine, Mineral, Virginia - Including a history of the property: Masters Thesis, University of Virginia: 104 p.

Luttrell, G.W. (1966) Virginia Mineral Resources Report 7, p. 125.

Penick, D. (1985) Virginia Mineral Locality Index: Rocks & Minerals: 60(4): 167.

Sandhaus, D. j. & J. R. Craig (1986) Gahnite in the metamorphosed stratiform massive sulfide deposits of the Mineral District, Virginia, USA: Tshermaks Min. Petr. Mitt: 35: 77-98.

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