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Huron Shale burn site, Huron River, Huron Co., Ohio, USAi
Regional Level Types
Huron Shale burn site- not defined -
Huron RiverRiver
Huron Co.County
OhioState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 16' 41'' North , 82° 40' 27'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Monroeville1,370 (2017)4.2km
Milan1,347 (2017)6.1km
Norwalk16,827 (2017)6.3km
Bellevue8,005 (2017)14.0km
Collins631 (2017)15.4km


The shale fire, non-anthropogenic in origin, occurred in the Late Devonian Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale Formation along River Road, northeast of the town of Monroeville in Ridgefield Township, Huron County, near the village of Milan (which also extends across the county border). The fire started in September 2009 as the result of spontaneous combustion in an oil-bearing shale exposed at the interface between an eroded stream cliff and its talus pile along the Huron River in north-central Ohio, approximately 5.6 km west of Milan and roughly 850 m south of the border of Erie County (41°16′41.4″N 82°40′27″W). The shale fire burned until March 2011 and created a variety of exotic mineral species, such as boussingaultite and lonecreekite, as well as the never-before-observed carlsonite and huizingite-(Al). The surface temperatures at the vent surrounding the condensate minerals was measured to be in the 204-260°C range, while the temperature reading at 0.5 m below the ground was as high as 426°C.

The Ohio Shale formation is a dark gray to black marine, carbon-rich shale containing ironstone concretions, finely divided pyrite and pyrite nodules and >10% organic matter.

NOTE: The species listed here are only those found in the fire suite. For minerals in the local concretions and pyrite nodules, please see - http://www.mindat.org/loc-266400.html

Located between Norwalk and Huron, about 60 miles west of Cleveland, and 3.5 miles west of center of Milan (5.3 miles by road).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


22 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Adranosite-(Fe)
Formula: (NH4)4NaFe3+2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Boussingaultite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Carlson, E. (2010), Analysis of Huron River shale fire minerals reveals two specimens New to Ohio: Ohio Geology, 2010, volume 2: 7.
Carlsonite (TL)
Formula: (NH4)5Fe3+3O(SO4)6·7H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Richards, R.P., Nash, B.P. and Murowchick, J.B. (2015) Carlsonite, IMA 2014-067. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 53; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 51-58.
Clairite
Formula: (NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Huizingite-(Al) (TL)
Formula: [(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Richards, R.P., Nash, B.P., Rakovan, J. and Murowchick, J.B. (2015) Huizingite-(Al), IMA 2015-014. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 534; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Kremersite
Formula: (NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Lonecreekite
Formula: (NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Carlson, E. (2010), Analysis of Huron River shale fire minerals reveals two specimens New to Ohio: Ohio Geology, 2010, volume 2: 7.
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Metavoltine
Formula: Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Pyracmonite
Formula: (NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Sabieite
Formula: (NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
Description: A documented occurrence of 2 new polytypes mixed together (Sabieite-2H, Sabieite-3R)
Reference: Richards, Pete (2014), "What's New" short presentations before the 41st. Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.; Kampf, A.R., Richards, R.P., Nash, B.P. (2014): The 2H and 3R polytypes of sabieite, NH4Fe3+(SO4)2, from a natural fire in an oil-bearing shale near Milan, Ohio. American Mineralogist, 99, 1500-1506. ; Kampf, A., Richards, R., and B., Nash (2014), The 2H and 3R polytypes of sabieite, NH4Fe3+(SO4)2, from a natural fire in an oil-bearing shale near Milan, Ohio: American Mineralogist: 99(7): 1500–1506.
'Sabieite-2H'
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
'Sabieite-3R'
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
Salammoniac
Formula: NH4Cl
Reference: Dr Pete Richards collection
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Dr Pete Richards collection
Tschermigite
Formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards
'Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))' (FRL)
Formula: [(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Richards, R.P., Nash, B.P., Murowchick, J.B., Rakovan, J.R. (2016): Carlsonite, (NH4)5Fe3+3O(SO4)6·7H2O, and huizingite-(Al) (NH4)9Al3(SO4)8(OH)2·4H2O, two new minerals from a natural fire in an oil-bearing shale near Milan, Ohio. American Mineralogist, in press
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: Dr Pete Richards

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 3 - Halides
Kremersite3.CJ.10(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
Salammoniac3.AA.25NH4Cl
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Adranosite-(Fe)7.BC.(NH4)4NaFe3+2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite7.CC.25(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Boussingaultite7.CC.60(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Clairite7.DF.55(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lonecreekite7.CC.20(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Mascagnite7.AD.05(NH4)2SO4
Metavoltine7.DF.35Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pyracmonite7.AC.08(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
Sabieite7.AC.20(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
Tschermigite7.CC.20(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Voltaite7.CC.25K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Carlsonite (TL)-(NH4)5Fe3+3O(SO4)6·7H2O
Huizingite-(Al) (TL)-[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
'Sabieite-2H'-
'Sabieite-3R'-
'Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))' (TL)-[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Salammoniac9.1.3.1NH4Cl
Group 11 - HALIDE COMPLEXES
AmBX5·xH2O
Kremersite11.4.1.2(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
Mascagnite28.2.1.1(NH4)2SO4
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Sabieite28.3.5.1(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
Miscellaneous
Pyracmonite28.4.6.1(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Boussingaultite29.3.7.2(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Metavoltine29.4.6.1Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Lonecreekite29.5.5.4(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Tschermigite29.5.5.3(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Miscellaneous
Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite29.9.1.4(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Voltaite29.9.1.1K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Clairite31.10.8.1(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Adranosite-(Fe)-(NH4)4NaFe3+2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
Carlsonite (TL)-(NH4)5Fe3+3O(SO4)6·7H2O
Huizingite-(Al) (TL)-[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
'Sabieite-2H'-
'Sabieite-3R'-
'Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))' (FRL)-[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Carlsonite(NH4)5Fe33+O(SO4)6·7H2O
H Huizingite-(Al)[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
H Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)
H SalammoniacNH4Cl
H Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
H Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe23+(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
H Kremersite(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
H Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
H Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
NNitrogen
N Carlsonite(NH4)5Fe33+O(SO4)6·7H2O
N Huizingite-(Al)[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
N Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)
N SalammoniacNH4Cl
N Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
N Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
N Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
N Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe23+(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
N Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
N Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
N Kremersite(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
N Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
N Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
N Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
OOxygen
O Carlsonite(NH4)5Fe33+O(SO4)6·7H2O
O Huizingite-(Al)[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
O Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)
O Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
O Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe23+(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
O Kremersite(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
O Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
O Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
NaSodium
Na Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe23+(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
Na MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Mg Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
AlAluminium
Al Huizingite-(Al)[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
Al Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
SSulfur
S Carlsonite(NH4)5Fe33+O(SO4)6·7H2O
S Huizingite-(Al)[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Al,Fe3+)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6]
S Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)
S SulphurS8
S Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
S Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe23+(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
S Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
S Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
ClChlorine
Cl SalammoniacNH4Cl
Cl Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe23+(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
Cl Kremersite(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
K VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe Carlsonite(NH4)5Fe33+O(SO4)6·7H2O
Fe Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Huizingite-(Al))[(NH4)9(SO4)2][(Fe3+,Al)3(OH)2(H2O)4(SO4)6] (?)
Fe Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
Fe Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Fe Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe23+(SO4)4Cl(OH)2
Fe Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Fe Kremersite(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
Fe Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
Fe VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 228.
American Mineralogist (1968): 53: 455-463.
Carlson, E., 1991, Minerals of Ohio: Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey Bulletin 69.
Larsen, G.,, 2010, Survey inspects a rare Ohio geohazard: Ohio Geology, 2010, v. (1), 7.
Carlson, E., 2010, Analysis of Huron River shale fire minerals reveals two specimens New to Ohio: Ohio Geology, 2010, v. (2), p. 7.
Richards, Pete (2012) Minerals from a natural shale fire. The 39th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 19 - 22, 2012, Contributed Papers, 41.
Richards, Pete (2014), "What's New" short presentations before the 41st. Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.
Kampf, A.R., Richards, R.P., Nash, B.P. (2014): The 2H and 3R polytypes of sabieite, NH4Fe3+(SO4)2, from a natural fire in an oil-bearing shale near Milan, Ohio. American Mineralogist, 99, 1500-1506.
Blake, D. (2015) Carlsonite: New mineral species discovered in northern Ohio: Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Ohio Geology Extra. http://geosurvey.ohiodnr.gov/extra-news-archives/2015-articles/carlsonite.
Kampf, A.R., Richards, R.P., Nash, B.P., Murowchick, J.B., Rakovan, J.R. (2016): Carlsonite, (NH4)5Fe3+3O(SO4)6·7H2O, and huizingite-(Al) (NH4)9Al3(SO4)8(OH)2·4H2O, two new minerals from a natural fire in an oil-bearing shale near Milan, Ohio. American Mineralogist (in press).


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