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Sulfur Spring (Sulphur Spring), Haddam, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 41° 28' 11'' North , 72° 31' 19'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 41.46972,-72.52194
GeoHash:G#: drk7vtr4s
Locality type:Spring
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate


A locality at the eastern base of Tim's Hill where a spring is apparently flowing out through sulfide-rich rock and creating bog iron ore. It is shown on a crude 1845 map of Haddam by the words "iron pyrites".

"Wonderfully perfect cubes and octahedrons [of pyrite] have been found at a locality called the sulphur spring in the Beaver meadow district at the base of Tim's hill." and "BOG-IRON ORE is found at the sulphur spring, associated with iron pyrite." (Davis, 1901).

Williams (1899) mentions it briefly: "At Sulphur Springs Pyrite, Pyrrhotite, Limonite and Melanterite." More detail is provided in Williams (circa 1945): "At the Sulphur Springs. Large Pyrite crystals imbedded in Pyrrhotite; Chalcopyrite, Limonite pseudomorphed after roots and leaves; Limonite is the Iron gossen over a large vein of Iron and Copper sulphides."

Schooner (1958) mentions that "Good crystals are supposed to have been obtained at Sulfur Spring, below Tim’s Hill in Haddam, many years ago. Horace Williams, a mineral dealer and native of the area, drained the rock basin and put in a small charge."

Located on April 5, 2012, there is a small (approx. 2 by 4 meter) pit just south of a small spring-fed stream where limonitic stains are abundant on rocks and soil. The spoil from the pit shows abundant brown and yellow goethite bog ore fragments, but whatever sulfide crystals were present are long gone.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


5 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: massive
Reference: Williams, Horace S. (circa 1945): Article For New York Society Of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: massive
Colour: brown
Description: Forming bog iron ore encrusting plant debris.
Reference: Williams, Horace S. (circa 1945): Article For New York Society Of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Description: Alteration of pyrite, pyrrhotite.
Reference: Williams, Horace S. (1899): Letter to Miss Eveline Brainerd of Haddam, February 18, 1899. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: cubic and octahedral
Description: Large crystals imbedded in pyrrhotite; wonderfully perfect cubes and octahedrons.
Reference: Davis, James W. (1901): The Minerals of Haddam, Conn. Mineral Collector, v. 8, no. 4, pp. 50-54, and no. 5, pp. 65-70.; Williams, Horace S. (circa 1945): Article For New York Society Of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Habit: massive
Reference: Williams, Horace S. (circa 1945): Article For New York Society Of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Pyrrhotite'2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Melanterite'7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
OOxygen
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Devonian - Silurian
358.9 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3186140
Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Age: Paleozoic (358.9 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone-carbonate-sandstone-conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Middle Ordovician
458.4 - 470 Ma



ID: 2982862
Upper member [of Middletown Formation]

Age: Middle Ordovician (458.4 - 470 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Middletown Formation

Description: Light-gray, generally rusty weathering, well-layered gneiss and granofels, composed of oligoclase, quartz, biotite, and amphibole (cummingtonite, anthophyllite, gedrite, or hornblende, or several of these), also garnet and chlorite. Many layers of amphibolite and biotite gneiss throughout.

Comments: Part of Eastern Uplands; Iapetus (Oceanic) Terrane - Bronson Hill Anticlinorium Original map source: Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, DEP, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, 2000, Bedrock Geology of Connecticut, shapefile, scale 1:50,000

Lithology: Major:{gneiss,granofels}, Minor:{amphibolite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Map of Haddam (1845): Haddam Historical Society, Thankful Arnold House, Haddam.
Williams, Horace S. (1899): Letter to Miss Eveline Brainerd of Haddam, February 18, 1899. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Davis, James W. (1901): The Minerals of Haddam, Conn. Mineral Collector, v. 8, no. 4, pp. 50-54, and no. 5, pp. 65-70.
Williams, Horace S. (1945 [circa]): Article for New York Society of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.

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