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Alleghany Mining District (Forest Mining District), Sierra Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Alleghany Mining District (Forest Mining District)Mining District
Sierra Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Locality type:


NOTE: There is no file in the USGS MRDS database for this district. The USGS MRDS database gives priority to the name of Forest District while Clark (1970a) gives priority to the name of Alleghany District. Since Clark is the authority on California gold mining districts, Mindat gives deference to that reference.

Location: Alleghany is in southwestern Sierra County. This district is in a belt of gold mineralization that extends from Goodyear's Bar, S and SE through Forest, Alleghany, Chip's Flat, and Minnesota. This gold-bearing belt continues south to the Washington district in Nevada County. This district continues S across the Middle Yuba River, taking in a slice of land along the S side of the river. The Downieville and American Hill districts are to the east, and the Pike district is to the west.

History: The streams in the area were placer-mined soon after the beginning of the gold rush, and the Forest diggings were discovered in the summer of 1852 by some sailors. Some of these sailors were "Kanakas" or Hawaiians who also had deserted their ships in San Francisco. Forest, first known as Brownsville and then Elizaville, got its present name in 1853. The Bald Mountain and other drift mines were highly productive from then until around 1885. Hydraulic mining was done at Minnesota and Chip's Flat during these years. The town of Alleghany was named for Alleghany, Pennsylvania. Quartz mining was reported to have begun in the district in 1853 at the German Bar and Irelan mines. Although the quartz mines were moderately productive until the 1870's, drift mining was the principal source of gold then. The rediscovery of the Tightner vein in 1904 by H. F. Johnson (erroneously given as 1907 in many reports) led to the revival of lode mining, which continued until 1965.

Alleghany was the only town in California after World War II where gold mining was the principal segment of the economy. After 1960, production from the district, which had been averaging more than 1,500,000 (period values) per year, decreased greatly as more and more mining operations were curtailed. By 1963, the output was less than 1,100,000 (period values) per year. The Sixteen-to-One mine, the largest gold source in the district, curtailed normal operations late in 1962, and the Brush Creek mine, the second largest operation, was shut down in 1964. At the end of 1965 the Sixteen-to-One Mine was completely shut down, ending an operation that had lasted more than 60 years. Intermittent operations have continued at several mines, such as the Kate Hardy, Oriental, El Dorado-Plumbago, and Mugwump mines. Several of the mines received Federal exploration loans. Skin divers are active in the streams of the area.

Alleghany was the most famous high-grade gold mining district in California. The value of the total output is unknown, estimated at $50 million (period values). Much of this production was from small but spectacularly rich ore bodies.

Geology: The district is underlain by N and NW-trending beds of metamorphic rocks of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian), serpentine and greenstone. In the vicinity of Alleghany and Forest this formation has been divided into six units: Blue Canyon Slate, Tightner Formation (chiefly amphibolite and chlorite schist), Kanka Formation (conglomerate, chert, and slate), Relief Quartzite, Cape Horn Slate, and the Delhi Formation (phyllite and slate). These rocks have been invaded by many basic and ultra-basic intrusions; the ultra-basic rocks have been largely serpentinized. Mariposite-bearing rock, locally known as "bluejay," is commonly adjacent to the serpentine. Also present are fine to medium-grained dioritic dikes. The higher ridges are capped by andesite and basalt, which in places overlies auriferous Tertiary channel gravels.

Ore deposits: The gold-quartz veins strike in a northerly direction, dip either E or W, and usually range from two to five feet in thickness. They occupy minor reverse faults, and occur in all of the rocks of the Calaveras Formation, and in the greenstone. The largest number of mines are in amphibolites of the Tightner Formation. The most characteristic features of the ore deposits are the extreme richness, erratic distribution and small size of the ore shoots. They range from small masses of gold and quartz yielding a few hundred dollars to ore bodies that have yielded hundreds of thousands of dollars. One ore body at the Sixteen-to-One mine, which had a pitch length of 40 feet, contained nearly $1 million (period values), while another at the Oriental mine about 14 feet long yielded $1,734,000 (period values).

The gold occurs in the native state commonly with arsenopyrite but only small amounts of other sulfides. In a few places pyrite is abundant. The numerous serpentine bodies and associated mariposite rock are structurally important in the localization of the ore bodies. The quartz veins tend to fray or bend near serpentine, and it is in these frayed or bend portions of the veins that the high-grade ore bodies are often found. High-grade ore also is found in vein junctions or in sheared portions of the veins.

Channel gravels: A major tributary of the Tertiary
Yuba River extended S from Rock Creek through Forest and Alleghany and then SE through Chip's Flat and Minnesota to Moore's Flat in Nevada County. This is commonly known as the "Great Blue Lead" or Forest channel. It was uniformly rich except where cut by later channels. The largest gold producers were the Ruby, Live Yankee, and Bald Mountain drift mines, where many coarse nuggets were recovered. During the late 1930's a number of fist-sized gold nuggets were recovered from the Ruby mine. These were displayed for many years in the Sierra County exhibit at the California State Fair in Sacramento.

Mines: Lode: Brush Creek ($4 million+), Dreadnaught ($50,000 to $100,000), Docile ($100,000 to $200,000), Eclipse ($20,000 to $50,000), El Dorado ($325,000), German Bar ($200,000), Gold Canyon ($750,000 to $1 million), Gold Crown, Golden King ($250,000), Irelan ($350,000 to $500,000), Kate Hardy ($700,000), Kenton ($1 million to $1.25 million), Mariposa ($50,000), Morning Glory ($80,000 to $100,000), Mugwump [both lode and placer] ($50,000), North Fork [both lode and placer] ($125,000), Oriflamme, Ophir *, Oriental *($2.85 million), Osceola *, Plumbago ($3.5 million), Rainbow * ($2.5 million), Rainbow Extension*, Red Ledge, Red Star-Osceola* ($200,000), Rising Sun ($58,000), Shannon, Sixteen-to-One ($25 million+), South Fork [both lode and placer], Spoohn, Tightner *, Twenty One*, Wyoming, Yellowjacket.

Drift: Bald Mountain ($3.1 million), Bald Mountain Extension ($500,000 to $1 million), Gold Star ($250,000+), Highland & Masonic ($300,000+), Live Yankee ($750,000 to $1 million), Ruby ($1 million+).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

37 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Description: Occurs at a composition of about An10 in vein material & in wall rock of gold mines in the district.
Reference: Ferguson, Henry G. & R.W. Gannett (1932), Gold quartz veins of the Alleghany district, California: USGS PP 172: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 365.
'Amphibole Asbestos'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10103098.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
'Asbestos'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10164915.
Beidellite
Formula: (Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Colour: Gray
Description: Occurs as microscopically crystalline masses in cavities in veins of the district.
Reference: Ferguson, Henry G. & R.W. Gannett (1932), Gold quartz veins of the Alleghany district, California: USGS PP 172: 45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 441.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10116707.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Occurs in very minor amounts.
Reference: MacBoyle, Errol (1920b), Mines and mineral resources of Sierra County: Calif. In. Bureau Report 16, 144 pp. (published as separate chapter): 4; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 130.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Dawsonite
Formula: NaAlCO3(OH)2
Habit: Fibrous
Colour: Pale green or tan tint
Description: Occurs as clusters of minute fibers as daughter products in fluid inclusions of gold-quartz veins. Individual crystals 5-20 microns long and 1 to 3 microns thick, although some as large as 200 x 5 microns noted.
Reference: Ferguson, Henry G. & R.W. Gannett (1932), Gold quartz veins of the Alleghany district, California: USGS PP 172: 45; Coveney, R.M. & W.C. Kelly (1971), Dawsonite as a daughter mineral in hydrothermal fluid inclusions: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 32: 334-342, 335; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 198.; Raymond M. Coveney Gold quartz veins and auriferous granite at the Oriental Mine, Alleghany District, California Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists (December 1981), 76(8):2176-2199; J. S. Stevenson and L. S. Stevenson (1977) Dawsonite-fluorite relationships at Montreal-area localities. The Canadian Mineralogist 15:117-120
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310678.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 111 localities in this region.
Graphite
Formula: C
'Hornblende'
Habit: "Needle" crystals.
Description: Occurs in a amphibolite schist.
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10034796.
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnesiochromite
Formula: MgCr2O4
Reference: Rynearson, G.A. (1953) California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 134, part 3, chapter 5: 259, 260, 316, Pl. 13; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 159.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
'Mariposite'
Formula: K(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
'Mica Group'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310678.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310678.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10116707.
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Description: Occurs as tough, felt-like sheets filling small veins.
Reference: Ferguson, Henry G. & R.W. Gannett (1932), Gold quartz veins of the Alleghany district, California: USGS PP 172: 13; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 442.
Paragonite
Formula: NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Raymond M. Coveney Gold quartz veins and auriferous granite at the Oriental Mine, Alleghany District, California Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists (December 1981), 76(8):2176-2199
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310678.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 90 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Lindgren, Waldemar (1911), The Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada of California: USGS pp 73, 226 pp.: 52; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 333.
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 354.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Ferguson, Henry G. (1914b), Lode deposits of the Alleghany district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 153-182
Uvarovite
Formula: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Description: Occurs as minute crystals in veinlets of serpentine in gold mines of the district.
Reference: Ferguson, Henry G. & R.W. Gannett (1932), Gold quartz veins of the Alleghany district, California: USGS PP 172: 40; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 499.
'Wad'

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Jamesonite2.HB.15Pb4FeSb6S14
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stromeyerite2.BA.40AgCuS
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnesiochromite4.BB.05MgCr2O4
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dawsonite5.BB.10NaAlCO3(OH)2
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Beidellite9.EC.40(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Phengite9.EC.15KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Palygorskite9.EE.20(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Paragonite9.EC.15NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Uvarovite9.AD.25Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Asbestos'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Asbestos'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mariposite'-K(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
'Mica Group'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Stromeyerite2.4.6.1AgCuS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
2 < ø < 2.49
Jamesonite3.6.7.1Pb4FeSb6S14
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnesiochromite7.2.3.1MgCr2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Dawsonite16a.3.8.1NaAlCO3(OH)2
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Uvarovite51.4.3b.3Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Paragonite71.2.2a.2NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Beidellite71.3.1a.1(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Palygorskite74.3.1a.1(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Amphibole Asbestos'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Asbestos'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mariposite'-K(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
'Mica Group'-
Muscovite
var: Phengite
-KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
H Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
H MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
H Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C GraphiteC
OOxygen
O RutileTiO2
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O QuartzSiO2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O CalciteCaCO3
O SideriteFeCO3
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4
O DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
O Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
O MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4
Mg Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
Al Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Al MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Si MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S PyriteFeS2
S TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
S ChalcociteCu2S
S StromeyeriteAgCuS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4
Cr MaripositeK(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Cr UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Muscovite (var: Phengite)KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
CuCopper
Cu TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu StromeyeriteAgCuS
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag StromeyeriteAgCuS
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Sb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Simkins, William A. (1893), The Alleghany district of California: in Pacific Mining News, Engineering & Mining Journal: 2: 288-291.
Turner, Henry Ward (1897), Description of the gold belt: description of the Downieville sheet: USGS Geol. Atlas Downieville folio (Folio No. 37), 8 pp.
Lindgren, Waldemar (1900), Description of the Colfax sheet, California: USGS Geological Atlas, Colfax folio (Folio No. 66), 10 pp.
Lindgren, Waldemar (1911), The Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada of California: USGS Professional Paper 73, 226 pp.: 52, 142.
Ferguson, Henry G. (1914b), Lode deposits of the Alleghany district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 153-182; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 28: 76 (1922)]: 163, 165.
MacBoyle, Errol (1920b), Mines and mineral resources of Sierra County: California Mining Bureau. Report 16, 144 pp. (published as separate chapter): 1-5.
Logan, Clarence August (1922), Quartz mining in the Alleghany district: 18th Report of the California Mining Bureau. (Report 18): 18: 499-519.
Logan, Clarence A. (1923), Quartz mining in the Alleghany district: California Mining Bureau (Report 18): 18: 499-519.
Logan, Clarence August (1929), Alleghany District: California Mining Bureau (Report 25): 156-159.
Ferguson, Henry G. & R.W. Gannett (1932), Gold quartz veins of the Alleghany district, California, USGS Professional Paper 172, 139 pp.: 39, 40, 44, 45, 46, 49, 109, 130.
Averill, Charles V. (1942a), Mineral resources of Sierra County: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division Mines (Report 38): 38(1): 17-48.
Cooke, H. R., Jr. (1947), The Original Sixteen-to-One gold quartz vein, Alleghany, California: Economic Geology: 42(3): 211-250.
Rynearson, Garn Arthur (1953), Chromite deposits in the northern Sierra Nevada, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 134, part 3 chapter 5: 171-321.
Carlson, D.W. & W.B. Clark (1956), Lode gold mines of the Alleghany-Downieville area, Sierra County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 52): 52(3): 237-272.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 87, 130, 191, 333, 543, 544.
Clark, W. B., and Fuller, W. P., Jr. (1968), The Original Sixteen to One Mine: California Division of Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service: 21(5): 71-75, 78.
Clark, W.B. (1970a) Gold districts of California: California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 193: 19.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 31, 33, 77, 365, 427, 441, 499.

Localities in this Region


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