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Berg Aukas Mine (Berg Aukus Mine), Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region, Namibiai
Regional Level Types
Berg Aukas Mine (Berg Aukus Mine)Mine (Abandoned)
GrootfonteinConstituency
Otjozondjupa RegionRegion
NamibiaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
19° 30' 59'' South , 18° 14' 57'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Mine (Abandoned) - last checked 2020
Deposit first discovered:
1913
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Grootfontein24,099 (2014)15.0km


Zn-Pb-V deposit, discovered in 1913 and mined until 1978.
Famous for excellent and large descloizite crystals.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


36 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Description: Found as small crystals some have a pale red colour.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 452 pp (in English);
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Reference given below mentions beudantite at this locality comes from a personal comment to the author by Claus Hedegaard.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 491 pp (in English).
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Description: Found with cerussite and natrojarosite.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 497 pp (in English).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Description: Small scalenohedral to rhombohedral crystals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 500 pp (in English).
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Colour: White
Description: Although uncommon is associated with either willemite or smithsonite, crystals to 5mm.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 68 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 527 pp (in English).
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Occur as microscopic components.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp;
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: Found as an accessory mineral of the hypogene minerals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Description: From ore dumps found associated with tangeite and calcite.
Reference: Bezing, L. von., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2016) Namibia Minerals and Localities II. Edition Krüger-Stiftung, Bode Verlag GmbH, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 661 pp (in English)
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: Occurs as microscopic components in the supergene minerals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Habit: Frequently spear-shaped, in subparallel groups, also prismatic, pseudocubic, pyramidal and tabular.
Colour: Metallic black to green-black, orange-brown to golden brown, often iridescent bornite-like, occasionally red (<5mm)
Description: Associated minerals are calcite and/or dolomite, smithsonite & willemite.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 814; Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 515-516 (in English);
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Description: Dolomite is relatively rare but is found with descloizite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 523 pp (in English);
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 536 pp (in English);
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 116-117;
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp;
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Description: Is a microscopic component in the supergene minerals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
Jordanite
Formula: Pb14(As,Sb)6S23
Description: Found in thin sections of the ore.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 611 pp (in English);
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Noted in a single identification of small hexagonal crystals.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 637 pp (in English);
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Minium
Formula: Pb3O4
Description: As a red crust on galena.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 652 pp (in English);
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 814; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 658 pp (in English);
Natrojarosite
Formula: NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Found with cerussite and boulangerite.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 665 pp (in English).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Description: In the northern ore horizon limonite pseudomorphs after pyrite and willemite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 116-117; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 683 pp (in English).
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: Hexagonal, prismatic
Colour: Colourless, green, brown.
Description: Small (<1mm) on willemite identified as calcium-rich pyromorphite.
Reference: Raade, G. (2005): Ca-reicher und zonierter Pyromorphit vom Berg Aukas, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 16 (6), 58-59. (in German); Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 684 pp (in English).
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Found associated with descloizite also secondary quartz is common particularly in the breccias.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
Renierite
Formula: (Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Description: An accessory mineral of hypogene origin.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Description: Found with cerussite and malachite.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 746 pp (in English).
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Description: Found with malachite and willemite.
Reference: Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 750 pp (in English).
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Habit: Botryoidal, sheaf-like aggregates
Colour: Colourless to white, tan
Description: Most common in the upper parts of the central ore body. Always opaque white to tan in colour. Composite crystals up to 4cm occur.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 119 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 780 pp (in English).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Colour: Honey
Description: Crystals up to 1cm.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 781 pp (in English).
Tangeite
Formula: CaCu(VO4)(OH)
Description: From the ore dumps, veinlets of scaly aggregates and rosette apple green crystals to 0.1mm associated with chrysocolla and calcite
Reference: Bezing, L. von., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2016) Namibia Minerals and Localities II. Edition Krüger-Stiftung, Bode Verlag GmbH, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 661 pp (in English)
'Tennantite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp
Tsumcorite
Formula: PbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Stieglitz, B. and Stieglitz, H. (1995): Die Vanadium-Erzlagerstätte am Berg Aukas, Namibia. Lapis, 20 (9), 26-32 (in German) [no information on identification method]; several collections (mislabeled descloizite, see http://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,7,304581,304581#msg-304581)
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Colour: Yellow
Description: Crystals to 7cm in the British Museum of Natural History collection, coated by descloizite and small yellow (vanadinite) crystals. Descloizite pseudomorphs after vanadinite are known.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 118 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 806 pp (in English).
Vésigniéite
Formula: BaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
Description: From ore dumps associated with vanadinite and descloizite on witherite-calcite matrix as dark green pseudohexagonal crystals to 0.1mm.
Reference: Bezing, L. von., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2016) Namibia Minerals and Localities II. Edition Krüger-Stiftung, Bode Verlag GmbH, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 661 pp (in English)
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Habit: Massive, needle-like prismatic hexagonal
Colour: White, pale yellow-white, red-brown.
Description: Crystals up to 1cm found in vugs, as aggregate bundles or radiating rosettes.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 119 pp; Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 815 pp (in English)

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Boulangerite2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Jordanite2.JB.30aPb14(As,Sb)6S23
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Renierite2.CB.35a(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
'Tennantite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Minium4.BD.05Pb3O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Natrojarosite7.BC.10NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Descloizite8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Tangeite8.BH.35CaCu(VO4)(OH)
Tsumcorite ?8.CG.15PbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Vésigniéite8.BH.45BaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Renierite2.9.4.1(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Jordanite3.3.1.1Pb14(As,Sb)6S23
'Tennantite Subgroup'3.3.6.2Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Minium7.2.8.1Pb3O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O
Tsumcorite ?40.2.9.1PbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Descloizite41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Tangeite41.5.1.6CaCu(VO4)(OH)
Vésigniéite41.5.13.1BaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Natrojarosite-NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
H VésigniéiteBaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
H TsumcoritePbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
OOxygen
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O AnglesitePbSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O QuartzSiO2
O AragoniteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MiniumPb3O4
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
O VésigniéiteBaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
O TsumcoritePbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
NaSodium
Na NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S GalenaPbS
S JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
S PyriteFeS2
S Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
S SphaleriteZnS
S Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)As4S12S
S Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)Sb4S12S
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S GreenockiteCdS
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
S NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
VVanadium
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
V TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
V VésigniéiteBaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Cu Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)As4S12S
Cu Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)Sb4S12S
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Cu VésigniéiteBaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Zn Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn TsumcoritePbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
GeGermanium
Ge Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
As Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
As Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)As4S12S
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As TsumcoritePbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
SbAntimony
Sb JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
Sb Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4C22+)Sb4S12S
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
BaBarium
Ba VésigniéiteBaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
PbLead
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MiniumPb3O4
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Pb TsumcoritePbZn2(AsO4)2 · 2H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Korn, H. and Martin, H. (1937) Geological report on the vanadium deposits of Abenab, Baltika, Uitsab and Berg Aukas. Windhoek 8 pp.
Anonymous. (1965). Mining and floating complex sulphide oxide vanadium, lead and zinc ores at Berg Aukas. World Mining October 1965, 28-32.
Emslie, D. P. (1980). The mineralogy and geochemistry of the copper, lead and zinc sulphides of the Otavi Mountainland. Report No. 2056, National Institute of Metallurgy, Randburg, South Africa.
Van der Westhuizen, W. A. (1984). The nature, genesis and geochemistry of the supergene vanadium ores of the Otavi Mountain Land. Doctoral thesis (unpublished). University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
Misiewicz, J. E. (1988). The geology and metallogeny of the Otavi Mountain Land, Damara Orogen, SWA/Namibia, with particular reference to the Berg Aukas Zn-Pb-V deposit – a model for ore genesis. Masters thesis (unpublished). Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.
Wartha, R. R. and C. P. Schreuder. (1992). Vanadium: In The Mineral Resources of Namibia, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Windhoek Namibia 2.10-1 – 2.10-14.
Chadwick, P.J. (1993). A study of the Berg Aukas-type Pb-Zn-V deposits in the Otavi Mountain Land, Namibia. Master of Science thesis (unpublished). University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
Pickford, M. (1993). Age of supergene ore bodies at Berg Aukas and Harasib 3a, Namibia. Communications of the Geological Survey of Namibia 8, 157-160.
Stieglitz, B. and Stieglitz, H. (1995) Die Vanadium-Erzlagerstätte am Berg Aukas, Namibia. Lapis, 20(9), 26-32 (in German).
Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record, 28(2), 109-130.
Melcher, F. (2003): The Otavi mountain land in Namibia: Tsumeb, germanium and snowball earth. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 148, 413-435. [https://www.uibk.ac.at/mineralogie/oemg/bd_148/148_413-435.pdf]
Raade, G. (2005) Ca-reicher und zonierter Pyromorphit vom Berg Aukas, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt, 16(6), 58-59 (in German).
Boni, M., Terracciano, R., Evans, N.J., Laukamp, C., Schneider, J. and Bechstädt, T. (2007) Genesis of Vanadium Ores in the Otavi Mountainland, Namibia. Economic Geology, 102, 441-469.
von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S. (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern (in English).
Schneider, J., Boni, M., Laukamp, C., Bechstädt, T., and Petzel, V. (2008). Willemite (Zn2SiO4) as a possible Rb–Sr geochronometer for dating nonsulfide Zn–Pb mineralization: Examples from the Otavi Mountainland (Namibia). Ore Geology Reviews, 33, 152-167.
Terracciano, R. (2008). Willemite mineralization in Namibia and Zambia. Doctoral thesis, Department of Earth, Environmental and Resources Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
Mapani, B., R. Ellmies, B. Kříbek, F. Kamona, V. Majer, I. Knésl, J. Pašava, J. Konopásek, and L. Kawali. (2009). Human health risks associated with historic ore processing at Berg Aukas, Grootfontein area, Namibia. Communications of the Geological Survey of Namibia 14, 25-40.
Sracek, O., M. Mihaljevič, B. Kríbek, V. Majer, J. Filip, A. Vaněk, V. Penížek, V. Ettler, and B. Mapani. (2014). Geochemistry and mineralogy of vanadium in mine tailings at Berg Aukas, northeastern Namibia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 96, 180-189.

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