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Danburite type locality, Danbury, Fairfield County, Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Danburite type locality- not defined -
DanburyMunicipality
Fairfield CountyCounty
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 23' 45'' North , 73° 27' 15'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Danbury84,657 (2017)0.1km
Bethel9,549 (2017)4.3km
New Fairfield14,126 (2017)8.2km
Putnam Lake3,844 (2017)10.6km
Peach Lake1,629 (2017)10.8km


Shepard (1839) gives a brief (and the only) description of the type locality of danburite:

This mineral here described I found upwards of two years ago while engaged in the geological survey of Connecticut. It was collected in the town of Danbury near the manufactory of Col. White. The mineral occurred in small masses of a delicate bluish white and in lightly colored crystalline feldspar found among fragments of dolomite coming from a bed in place near the mills. The feldspar is extremely fetid, when rubbed or broken: in which respect it resembles the same mineral found in a thin vein of dolomite at a locality a few miles distant, in the town of Brookfield, - a circumstance which leaves little room to doubt that the specimen found at Danbury, though found detached, was nevertheless derived from the dolomite.

The mineral, believed to be new, is observed disseminated in small amounts or quantities throughout the feldspar (with which is likewise associated a small quantity of quartz) in fissures and cavities having the shape apparently of oblique prisms. Owing to the partial decomposition of the mineral (a change to which it appears particularly liable) these cavities are sometimes entirely empty. The largest of them noted was above one inch in one direction by one-fifth of an inch in another.

Whether the mineral will be found in any considerable quantity I am unable to say. The specimens collected have been barely sufficient to afford the following notice.


Shepard reports finding the danburite in 1837. Fortunately, Dana (1850) reports that George Brush apparently obtained more material. And Brush (1858) also reports the site "was re-opened during the past year". Sadly, none of these investigators made a better description of the locality than Shepard's brief and vague initial one and the spot has become lost. Consequently, 20th-century collectors and investigators have taken up the search.

According to Januzzi (1976), a proposed site is near the intersection of North Street and Padanaram Road.

I would like to make it perfectly clear at this time that I am not attempting to pinpoint the exact spot where Prof. Shepard collected his specimens of danburite; more importantly, I am endeavoring to establish the geologic, mineralogic, and geochemical environment in which Prof. Shepard was working at the time he made his discovery; of course, there was no such designation as North Street in 1837.

Most of the rock exposures in the vicinity of North Street and Padanaram Road where Shepard is believed to have discovered danburite has, for years, been covered by topsoil and vegetation, and such rock outcrops that are free of overburden are greatly discolored. This fact made it very difficult, if not impossible, for anyone to locate the exact environment of Shepard’s find. About two years ago considerable removal of rock began to take place at the end of North Street and the beginning of Padanaram Road for the construction of a small commercial site. The minerals that came to light during this operation leave no doubt in my mind that this was the geologic local of Shepard’s discovery.


Januzzi (1994) commented further about the type locality:

Over the years the classic type locality for danburite has continued to elude discovery by all those interested in solving the enigma.

The area in question is a plutonic - marble contact situated on the western side of the intersection of Hayestown Avenue, North Street, and Padanaram Road in the city of Danbury, Connecticut. The outcrop was exposed during construction for a commercial building.

The exact site of Col. White’s Factory is the crucial clue, especially since there was more than one establishment that bore this name.

Danburite could have possibly been found at two different areas within a relatively short distance of each other (note the dissimilarities occurring in two specimens of the species, both collected in the hamlet of Danbury - see photographs No. 5 and 29, series A); the two samples might have also originated in differentially localized areas of the same petrologic environment.

Shepard might have given a preview of danburite before his official publication on the species (1839) in the American Journal of Science; this could have been accomplished by personal correspondence between Shepard and collectors, both professional and amateur, with whom he had an acquaintance in the state, particularly in the New Haven area which was one of the centers of culture in New England, with Yale College being at the hub of geologic and mineralogic exploration, led by the internationally eminent Professor James Dwight Dana.

Because of the stature of the men involved it is not beyond the parameters of reason that lines of communication were kept open, especially through mutual correspondence.

It is therefore well within the realm of possibility that others interested in the survey and with the information that Shepard could have supplied visited a number of areas in which field work had been done. Natural outcrops, from North Street on one side of town to Edgewood Street on the other, could have been examined for several miles from the center of what, at that time, (1837-1839) was a tiny hamlet. This hypothesis becomes more credible when we consider that danburite has been listed as being discovered at several sites within the city, none more distant than about two miles of the center, they include: Edgewood Street, the end of Cleveland Street, the Sugar Hollow Road in Danbury, Brookfield, and of course the supposed type locality near Col. White’s factory in the vicinity of the Hayestown Ave., North St., Padanaram Rd. epicenter! In 1837, in Danbury, the only familiar geographical landmark might have been a “road” that was called “North Avenue”; the other two “roads” did not exist, as far as is known, using their modern designation (Padanaram Road and Hayestown Avenue)...

During my investigation, over many years, it is my personal opinion that the North Street area is the site of the original find; in fact I have listed danburite as one of the minerals found in the area during my research on species collected at a construction area there; whether I am right or wrong I take full responsibility for that statement, regardless of what my critics might say. I firmly believe that danburite is part of that unique mineral assemblage even if, in the end, I am proven wrong about it being the original site. It appears that the exact type locality becomes more ambiguous with time and preoccupation with historical anomalies that have superseded scientific fact.

Was it possible that more than one danburite site was uncovered in the area based upon Shepard’s word of mouth or possible correspondence before his official announcement in the American Journal of Science, if so, it might be impossible today to pinpoint exactly which specimen came from where, especially if the paragenesis, petrologic and mineralogic assemblages replicated themselves within a radius of several miles; in this case it would become an academic question whose exact solution might actually never become manifest, especially since the ravages and elements of time have conspired against us, both on a human and environmental level; with this in mind the mystery of the location of the type locality continues to persist 157 years later!


The major problem with this proposed locality is that Januzzi does not mention actually finding or describing any danburite from there. Another problem is that in the early to mid 19th century, according to maps from the 1840s and 1856 (see links below), all the mills were located on the Still River about a mile south of Januzzi's proposed locality. Even the map from as late as 1856 does not even include areas that far north of the Still River, strongly suggesting nothing of significance there. Januzzi does not mention how he came to determine that Col. White had a factory at his proposed location when maps from that era do not even include that part of town.

Instead, the White family had many properties along the river and near White Street, near the center of town, not on Padanaram Brook a mile north. The 1840s map of Danbury shows “Col. E.M. White” at the corner of Prospect and White, and also along Main Street south of White. On the 1856 map of Danbury, "E.M. White" is shown at the corner of Main and White, on Main Street, and next to the Still River where West Street crosses it, just west of Beaver Street. All these places are within the part of the city underlain by calcite and dolomite of the Stockbridge marble, seemingly a more likely formation for the paragenesis of the type locality than the granitic Proterozoic rocks of Januzzi's proposed location. In particular, the area of the Still River just west of Beaver Street has good relief and Clarke (1958) shows strikes and dips of marble exposures there. Weber and Sullivan (1995) give the general White Street area as the likely source. Consequently, the coordinates given below are for the center of the city at the intersection of Main and White Streets, which is also central to the various White properties shown on historic maps. This is still admittedly an approximation.

Of the other localities in Danbury Januzzi reports danburite finds, they all have different geology. According to Clarke (1958), only the one on Edgewood Steet is in the same formation (Proterozoic granitic rocks) as Januzzi's proposed locality. But Clarke (1958) does not mention dolomitic rocks in any formation other than the Stockbridge (Inwood) marble and only the reported locality at the "end of Cleveland Street" is within the Stockbridge marble and not far from outcrops mapped by Clarke (1958).

The list of minerals from the type locality in the 19th century literature includes only a few mentioned by Shepard (1839) (danburite, dolomite, "feldspar", quartz) and (1851) (thorite - later claimed to be "parathorite" by Dana (1857) but that is not a valid species, titanite, and augite), and Smith and Brush (1853a) (oligoclase and "potash feldspar" later found chemically to be "orthoclase" (Brush 1858) though it could be microcline). The "fetid" feldspar is mentioned by Shepard (1837) as occurring "at Danbury near Col. White's factory". This was before he identified the danburite in these rocks. Schairer (1931) mentions that brown tourmaline was reported from the type locality, but that mineral is not mentioned in the 19th-century literature. Manchester (1931) reports it too, but only for Danbury in general.

Material from the type locality preserved at the Yale Peabody Museum (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) consists of 11 specimens (small cabinet to miniature size) and small pieces shed from them. These specimens consist mostly of white albite matrix and contain abundant danburite up to about 5 cm and so are more likely from the 1850s, a belief shared by the staff. These specimens contain the following primary assemblage (generally in decreasing order of abundance): albite (presumably the oligoclase variety reported in the literature), danburite, olivine (presumably forsterite - which is mentioned by Clarke and others to occur in the Stockbridge), fluorapatite, tremolite, dolomite, and quartz. Some secondary aragonite crust coats part of a couple of pieces. This photo is very typical of the type material at Yale: http://www.mindat.org/photo-272202.html. Nothing resembling augite, K-feldspar, thorite, titanite or tourmaline (of the habits or color in the old literature) was visible. No mica is present on them either. See the mineral info for these minerals for details.

Other minerals reported by Januzzi (1976 and 1994) near the intersection of North Street and Padanaram Road cannot be verified as from the type locality and so are covered by a Mindat page for that locality found at http://www.mindat.org/loc-213272.html.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


12 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: granular, massive to subhedral
Colour: white to pale bluish-white
Fluorescence: pale yellow-white
Description: In dolomite and intimately associated with a K-spar and rarely danburite. Specimens preserved at Yale Peabody Museum range from coarse-granular to elongated subhedral (to a few cms), are white, opaque to translucent, with abundant polysynthetic twinning and adamantine luster on the abundant cleavage. Rather dull fluorescence under LW UV, pale yellow-white.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1839): Notice of Danburite, a new mineral species. American Journal of Science: series 1, 35 (1): 137-139; Smith, Lawrence J. and George J. Brush. (1853a): Reexamination of American Minerals, Part II. American Journal of Science: series 2, 16 (46): 44.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Habit: granular, massive to subhedral
Colour: white to pale bluish-white
Fluorescence: pale yellow-white
Description: In dolomite and intimately associated with a K-spar and rarely danburite. Specimens preserved at Yale Peabody Museum range from coarse-granular to elongated subhedral (to a few cms), are white, opaque to translucent, with abundant polysynthetic twinning and adamantine luster on the abundant cleavage. Rather dull fluorescence under LW UV, pale yellow-white.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1839): Notice of Danburite, a new mineral species. American Journal of Science: series 1, 35 (1): 137-139; Smith, Lawrence J. and George J. Brush. (1853a): Reexamination of American Minerals, Part II. American Journal of Science: series 2, 16 (46): 44.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: encrustation
Colour: white
Description: Minor white crust on fracture surfaces of two specimens.
Reference: Yale Peabody Museum collection
Augite ?
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Description: Mentioned by Shepard, but no details provided. Not seen on specimens preserved at Yale Peabody Museum.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1851): On new localities of American minerals. American Association for the Advancement of Science Proceedings 4th Meeting: 319. (see also American Journal of Science (1851): series 2, 12: 220).
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Habit: weathered masses and partial "oblique rhombic" prisms
Colour: whitish, pale to honey-yellow to tan
Description: Generally dull-lustered, translucent, subhedral crystals with some degree of alteration and tan to yellowish color grading to corroded masses and voids in white to pale white albite. Crystals or masses generally less than 2.5 cm.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1839): Notice of Danburite, a new mineral species. American Journal of Science: series 1, 35 (1): 137-139; Dana, James D. (1850): On Danburite. American Journal of Science: series 2, 9: 286-287; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Description: Host rock for the assemblage, but no descriptions provided. Fine granular material on one specimen at Yale Peabody collection.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1839): Notice of Danburite, a new mineral species. American Journal of Science: series 1, 35 (1): 137-139.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Habit: granular to subhedral hexagonal prisms
Colour: pale green to dark blue-green
Description: A few specimens at Yale Peabody Museum have minor amounts of granular material, isolated to aggregates a few cm across some showing hexagonal cross-sections. It does not fluoresce.
Reference: Yale Peabody Museum collection
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Habit: granular
Colour: green-brown to dark brown
Description: A few specimens at Yale Peabody Museum show granular, resinous, glassy green-brown to brown material as isolated grains and aggregates to 2 cm or so.
Reference: Yale Peabody Museum collection
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Habit: massive
Colour: white
Description: In dolomite, intimately associated with oligoclase and with rare danburite. Not seen on specimens preserved at Yale Peabody Museum. A specimen labeled "orthoclase" was predominantly albite based on the abundance of polysynthetic twinning.
Reference: Smith, Lawrence J. and George J. Brush. (1853a): Reexamination of American Minerals, Part II. American Journal of Science: series 2, 16 (46): 44.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive
Colour: gray
Description: Mentioned by Shepard but no description provided. Minor amounts on Yale Peabody Museum specimens.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1839): Notice of Danburite, a new mineral species. American Journal of Science: series 1, 35 (1): 137-139.
Thorite ?
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Habit: minute square prisms with truncated edges and pyramidal terminations
Colour: black to garnet red
Description: With oligoclase, danburite, titanite, and augite. Often embedded in the danburite. The original literature gives crystallographic data but no chemical analyses. Given that thorite is isostructural with the much more common mineral zircon, these crystals could be that mineral. The literature predates radiological knowledge and testing, type specimens of danburite with this mineral should be checked for radioactivity. Nothing matching Shepard's description is visible on specimens at Yale Peabody Museum.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1851): On new localities of American minerals. American Association for the Advancement of Science Proceedings 4th Meeting: 319. (see also American Journal of Science (1851): series 2, 12: 220); Dana, James D. (1857): Fourth Supplement to Dana's Mineralogy. American Journal of Science: series 2, 24: 124.
Titanite ?
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Description: Mentioned by Shepard but no description provided. Not seen on specimens preserved at Yale Peabody Museum.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1851): On new localities of American minerals. American Association for the Advancement of Science Proceedings 4th Meeting: 319. (see also American Journal of Science (1851): series 2, 12: 220).
'Tourmaline' ?
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Colour: brown
Description: No details given by Manchester (1931) or Schairer (1931) except color. Not found in descriptions from 19th century American Journal of Science. Not seen on specimens preserved at Yale Peabody Museum.
Reference: Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. New York Mineralogical Club Bulletin: 3 (1): 70.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: needle-like fibrous bundles and aggregates
Colour: white
Description: Several Yale Peabody Museum specimens show radiating to parallel aggregates of fine, brittle needle-like fibrous crystals to less than 1 cm. Typically associated with fluorapatite, dolomite and forsterite.
Reference: Yale Peabody Museum collection

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Augite ?9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Danburite9.FA.65CaB2Si2O8
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Thorite ?9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
Titanite ?9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Tourmaline' ?-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite ?51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite ?52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with[Si2O7] with borate groups
Danburite56.3.1.1CaB2Si2O8
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite ?65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Tourmaline' ?-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
BBoron
B DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
OOxygen
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O QuartzSiO2
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
ThThorium
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Shepard, Charles U. (1837) Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut. Hamlem, New Haven.
Shepard, Charles U. (1839) Notice of Danburite, a new mineral species. American Journal of Science: series 1, 35 (1): 137-139.
Shepard, Charles U. (1840) Der Danburit, eine neue Mineralspecies, Annalen der Physik und Chemie: 126 (2/050): 182.
Dana, James D. (1850) On Danburite. American Journal of Science: series 2, 9: 286-287.
Shepard, Charles U. (1851) On new localities of American minerals. American Association for the Advancement of Science Proceedings 4th Meeting: 319. (see also American Journal of Science (1851): series 2, 12: 220.
Smith, Lawrence J. and George J. Brush. (1853a) Reexamination of American Minerals, Part II. American Journal of Science: series 2, 16 (46): 44.
Smith, Lawrence J. and George J. Brush. (1853b) Reexamination of American Minerals, Part III. American Journal of Science: series 2, 16 (46): 365-366.
Dana, James D. (1857) Fourth Supplement to Dana's Mineralogy. American Journal of Science: series 2, 24: 124.
Brush, George J. (1858) Mineralogical Notices - 4. Feldspars from the Danburite locality. American Journal of Science: series 2, 26: 70.
Manchester, James G. (1931) The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. New York Mineralogical Club Bulletin: 3 (1): 70.
Schairer, John F. (1931) Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Bulletin 51.
Clarke, James W. (1958) The Bedrock Geology of the Danbury Quadrangle. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Quadrangle Report No. 7.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994) Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995) Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70 (6): 396.

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