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Gorge River, Westland District, West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 44° 11' 20'' South , 168° 18' 18'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -44.18895,168.30514
GeoHash:G#: r8pstgshd
Locality type:River
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Originally arawuite was found in stream sediments in this river, derived from a belt of serpentinised ultramafic rocks in the Red Hills, in which it occurs in situ (Rodgers and Hey, 1980).

Type locality for awaruite. The mineral was named after the Awarua River, or the Awarua Bay it flows into, however the species is not found in either site.

The species was initially identified from heavy black sand given to the local warden by alluvial gold miners, and first described by government analyst William Skey in 1885. There was confusion, and a lack of information as to where the samples came from. A Government geologist named Park investigated in 1886, stating the material was found in the Gorge and Hope Rivers in gravel wash, and insitu in serpentinite in the valleys (Park, 1887). Morgan (1927) in Minerals and Mineral Substances of New Zealand, later confirmed the alloy is found as water worn grains in these rivers and other watercourses in the same area, south west of Jackson Bay. See also Rodgers and Hey, 1980.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


12 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Awaruite (TL)
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Skey, W. (1885) Article LXL - On a New Mineral (Awaruite) from Barn Bay. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, Vol 18, pp 401-402. Ulrich, G.H.F. (1890) On the Discovery, Mode of Occurrence, and Distribution of the Nickel-iron Alloy Awaruite, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 46(1-4), 619-NP.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
'Ferro-Actinolite-Tremolite Series' ?
Reference: Ulrich, G.H.F. (1890) On the Discovery, Mode of Occurrence, and Distribution of the Nickel-iron Alloy Awaruite, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 46(1-4), 619-NP.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
'Jade' ?
Reference: Ulrich, G.H.F. (1890) On the Discovery, Mode of Occurrence, and Distribution of the Nickel-iron Alloy Awaruite, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 46(1-4), 619-NP.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Happy, A.J.; Carlson, J.R.; Gregg, R.C. 1970: Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
'Nephrite' ?
Reference: Ulrich, G.H.F. (1890) On the Discovery, Mode of Occurrence, and Distribution of the Nickel-iron Alloy Awaruite, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 46(1-4), 619-NP.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Platinum
Formula: Pt
Reference: Farquharson, R.A. (1910) Art. XLII.—The Platinum Gravels of Orepuki. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Vol. 43, 448-482.
'Pumpellyite'
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Ulrich, G.H.F. (1890) On the Discovery, Mode of Occurrence, and Distribution of the Nickel-iron Alloy Awaruite, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 46(1-4), 619-NP.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Taenite (TL)
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Am Min 51 (1966), 37

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Awaruite' (TL)1.AE.20Ni3Fe
'Platinum'1.AF.10Pt
'Taenite' (TL)1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Pentlandite'2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Chromite'4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Siderite'5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
'Chamosite'9.EC.55(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
'Clinozoisite'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Ferro-Actinolite-Tremolite Series' ?-
'Jade' ?-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Nephrite' ?-
'Pumpellyite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Awaruite (TL)1.1.11.4Ni3Fe
Taenite (TL)1.1.11.2(Fe,Ni)
Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Platinum1.2.1.1Pt
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Chamosite71.4.1.7(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Ferro-Actinolite-Tremolite Series' ?-
'Jade' ?-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Nephrite' ?-
'Pumpellyite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CCarbon
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O SideriteFeCO3
MgMagnesium
Mg Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AlAluminium
Al Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SiSilicon
Si Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
CaCalcium
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe AwaruiteNi3Fe
Fe Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Taenite(Fe,Ni)
NiNickel
Ni AwaruiteNi3Fe
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni Taenite(Fe,Ni)
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
PtPlatinum
Pt PlatinumPt
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ulrich, G.H.F. (1890) On the Discovery, Mode of Occurrence, and Distribution of the Nickel-iron Alloy Awaruite, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 46(1-4):619-NP.
Park, J., (1887). Rep. Geol. Explor. N.Z. 18, I21-36 (for 1886-7).
Morgan, P. G., (1927) in Minerals and Mineral Substances of New Zealand. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. 32.
Railton, G.L., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin No. 104.
Happy, A.J., Carlson, J.R., Gregg, R.C. (1970) Geological report on the Gorge-Jerry rivers area: Layton & Associates (NZ) Ltd for Nickel Spoon Mining Co. Ltd. Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report MR1629.
Rodgers, K.A., Hey, M.H. (1980) On the type locality and other occurrences of awaruite(FeNi₃) in Westland, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine, 43:329, pp 647-650.


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