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Betam mine, Wadi Allaqi district, Eastern Desert, Red Sea, Egypti
Regional Level Types
Betam mine- not defined -
Wadi Allaqi districtDistrict
Eastern DesertDesert
Red SeaGovernorate
EgyptCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 22° 16' 41'' North , 34° 30' 30'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 22.27833,34.50861
GeoHash:G#: sgbw9r8ks
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate


Gold in quartz veins.

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate
Sahara Desert, North AfricaDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


18 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
'Biotite'
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Zoheir, B. A. (2008). Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Andesine9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Andesine
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
var: Oligoclase-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O CalciteCaCO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
AgSilver
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Ediacaran - Cryogenian
541 - 720 Ma



ID: 3308532

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 720 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary and volcaniclastic

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Stenian - Ectasian
1000 - 1400 Ma



ID: 3184727
Mesoproterozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1400 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Zoheir, B.A., El-Shazly, A.K., Helba, H., Khalil, K.I., and Bodnar, R.J. (2008) Origin and evolution of the Um Egat and Dungash orogenic gold deposits, Egyptian Eastern Desert; evidence from fluid inclusions in quartz. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 103, 405-424.
Zoheir, B.A. (2008) Structural controls, temperature–pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 43(1), 79-95.
Abdelnasser, A. and Kumral, M. (2017) The nature of gold-bearing fluids in Atud gold deposit, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. International Geology Review, 59(15), 1845-1860.


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