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Slag dumps, Sitio do Cobre Mine, Ingadanais Mines, Tostão, Vila Velha de Rodão, Castelo Branco District, Portugal

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Name(s) in local language(s):Escórias, Mina Sitio do Cobre, Minas dos Ingadanais, Tostão, Vila Velha de Rodão, Distrito de Castelo Branco, Portugal
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 39° 41' 12'' North , 7° 39' 34'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 39.68668,-7.65964
GeoHash:G#: ez49c8wrt
Locality type:Mine Dump
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate

In Sitio do Cobre mine and along the Açafal riverside near a Roman bridge, there is a slag dump resulting from the smelting of copper ore. These foundry works are prior to registration of the concession in 1904. The slags of the Ingadanais mines were studied and analyzed by João Carvalho and Miguel Gaspar (2009), who identified another slag dump in Enxarrique riverside mine with works of foundry in fifties (separate locality:

The slags from the old foundry of Sitio do Cobre mine are more dense, less porous, more devitrified and much more rich in copper when compared with the slags of the 1950s, suggesting a less efficient reduction and that this ancient smelting dates back to the period of Roman occupation in Lusitania.

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Ruins of Ingadanais Mines by Martins da Pedra

Regions containing this locality

Iberian Peninsula

Peninsula - 1,587 mineral species & varietal names listed

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

4 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Rui Nunes collection
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: SXRD-analysed by Dr. Uwe Kolitsch
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Uwe Kolitsch SXRD- and EDS-analyses ("chalcophyllite" samples were wrongly identified - they are in fact the "unnamed Cu-S-Si-O-H" phase)
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Rui P. Nunes and Martins da Pedra collections
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Rui Nunes and Martins da Pedra collections
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Rui Nunes collection
Reference: Automatically generated from locality name
'Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)'
Formula: Cu-S-Si-O-H
Reference: SXRD- and SEM-EDS-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch; Kolitsch, U. (2016): 1965) Gearksutit, nadeliger Magnetit und die unbenannte Cu-Si-S-O-H-Phase aus der Schlacke von St. Martin am Silberberg, Kärnten. Pp. 210-211 in Walter, F. et al. (2016): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXV. Carinthia II, 206./126., 203-250. [mentions that the phase is confirmed also from the slag dumps of the Sitio do Cobre Mine]

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Chalcophyllite' ?8.DF.30Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)-Cu-S-Si-O-H

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Chalcophyllite ? · 36H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
var: Chalcotrichite
'Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)'-Cu-S-Si-O-H

List of minerals for each chemical element

H AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)Cu-S-Si-O-H
O AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)Cu-S-Si-O-H
Al ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Si Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)Cu-S-Si-O-H
S AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)Cu-S-Si-O-H
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu Unnamed (Cu-S-Si-O-H)Cu-S-Si-O-H
As ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

485.4 - 541 Ma

ID: 3187107
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cambrian (485.4 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Middle Cambrian - Neoproterozoic
501 - 1000 Ma

ID: 3136325
Xisto-Grauvaquico Complex

Age: Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (501 - 1000 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Xisto-Grauvaquico Complex

Description: flysch (sediments)

Lithology: Shale/slate

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


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João Carvalho and Miguel Gaspar (2009)
Uwe Kolitsch (unpublished analyses)

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