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Soloviejo Mines, Almonaster la Real, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 45' 16'' North , 6° 41' 46'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 37.75444,-6.69611
GeoHash:G#: eyenz8up9
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Grupo minero Soloviejo, Almonaster la Real, Huelva, Andalucía, España

Currently not operational Manganese deposit northwest of the Rio Tinto mining complex.

Description from http://www.igme.es/internet/patrimonio/geosites/chapter_04_sgfg.pdf (Chapter 4, THE IBERIAN PYRITE BELT by Tornos, F., López Pamo, E., Sánchez España, F.J.; slightly edited):

The mine of Soloviejo (Ramírez Copeiro and Maroto, 1985) was the biggest of a high number of small manganese deposits in the area. Currently, none of them is worked, but at the end of the XIX century, Spain was the largest producer of manganese in the world, with more than 2/3 of the global production. Most of this production came from the lenses of manganese and jasper oxides interbedded within the upper part of the purple slate of the Volcano-Sedimentary Complex. These stratabound manganese deposits are related to oxidizing environments and low-temperature exhalites, spatially and genetically independent from the massive sulphides.
The mineralization and associated jasper are hosted by purple slate underneath felsic volcanoclastic rocks and slates below the Culm Group. This level has channeled an important shear deformation, so deformation structures, breccias and quartz veins are very common. This deposit includes a primary mineralization dominant in depth, consisting of fine-grained rhodonite and rhodochrosite, with abundant sericite and chlorite replacing or interbedded within the jasper. The supergene alteration is economically more interesting and includes variable proportions of pyrolusite, romanechite, lithiophorite, vernadite, cryptomelane, todorokite and hematite (Jorge, 2000), which are especially abundant in the later fractures.


During a field trip in 1989 most of the described minerals could be found, the deposit yielded excellent quartz var rock crystals up to 20 cm and botryoidal manganese oxides (romanechite). The open pit is labeled in google maps La Joya o Soloviejo.


Group of mines that consists of the following nine concessions: nº 32 “Nuestra Señora del Rosario”, nº 744 “La Rapiña”, nº 756 “La Joya”, nº 808 “La Grulla”, nº 874 “San Francisco de Asís”, nº 6095 “San Francisco”, nº 12777 “San Antonio”, nº 12781 “Consuelo”, nº 13992 “Ampliación a Consuelo”. The collection specimens could be likely collected in La Joya Mine.

Regions containing this locality

Iberian Peninsula

Peninsula - 1,540 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

11 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Calvo, M (2009) Minerales y minas de España. Tomo IV. Óxidos e Hidróxidos, pp. 195
Formula: (Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: - Calvo, M (2009) Minerales y minas de España. Tomo IV. Óxidos e Hidróxidos
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Calvo, M. (2016). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VIII.Cuarzo y otros minerales de la sílice. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 399 págs.
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: Jorge (2000)
Formula: (Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Jorge (2000)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Vernadite4.FE.40(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Group 9 - Silicates
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Vernadite4.4.9.1(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
var: Sericite

List of minerals for each chemical element

H Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Li Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
O CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O HematiteFe2O3
O Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Mn CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Mn Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous - Late Devonian
323.2 - 382.7 Ma

ID: 3158068
Late Devonian meta-rhyolite

Age: Paleozoic (323.2 - 382.7 Ma)

Description: low grade metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{meta-rhyolite}, Minor{meta-basalt group,shale/slate,quartzite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma

ID: 2511221

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Description: Volcanics and volcaniclastic rocks

Lithology: Volcanics and volcaniclastic rocks

Reference: Mapa Geológico de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias a escala 1:1.000.000. Instituto Geológico y Minero de España. [77]

Neoproterozoic - Mesoproterozoic
541 - 1600 Ma

ID: 3191847
Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (541 - 1600 Ma)

Comments: Zona De Ossa Morena

Lithology: Orthogneiss/paragneiss/metavolcanic gneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
JORGE, R. (2000). Estudo mineralogico e metalogenetico de deposito
manganesifero de Soloviejo, Huelva, Espanha. (Dissertaçao Mestre Geología, Thesis) Universidad de Lisboa.
RAMÍREZ COPEIRO, R. and MAROTO, S. (1995). Metodología de investigación
aplicada a los yacimientos de manganeso en Huelva. Boletin Geologico Minero, Vol. 106, p. 125-135
- Calvo, M (2009) Minerales y minas de España. Tomo IV. Óxidos e Hidróxidos, pp. 285-286.

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