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Cassandra Lakes, Airale Valley, Torreggio Valley, Torre di Santa Maria, Malenco Valley, Valtellina, Sondrio Province, Lombardy, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Cassandra LakesGroup of Lakes
Airale ValleyValley
Torreggio ValleyValley
Torre di Santa Maria- not defined -
Malenco ValleyValley
Valtellina- not defined -
Sondrio ProvinceProvince
LombardyRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
46° 14' 56'' North , 9° 45' 45'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Lakes
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Primolo125 (2014)6.7km
Chiesa in Valmalenco2,203 (2014)6.9km
Torre di Santa Maria396 (2014)7.1km
Santa Elisabetta123 (2014)7.6km
Vassalini247 (2014)7.8km
Name(s) in local language(s):
Laghi di Cassandra, Val Airale, Valle Torreggio, Torre di Santa Maria, Valmalenco (Val Malenco), Valtellina, Sondrio, Lombardia, Italia


Minerals are found in rodingite and amphibolite rocks.

The former are mainly found to the NW of the lake located at the altitude of 2464 m, where rodingite blocks are dispersed in the rocky debris. Garnet crystals appear in different colours and habits: red-brown to black icositetrahedral crystals often show faces of rhombododecahedron and hexakis octahedron, yellow rhombododecahedral crystals (which are traditionally referred to as topazolite) sometimes show a more complex habit with faces of tetrakishexahedron, cube, and icositetrahedron. The paragenesis includes epidote, clinochlore, and calcite (Sigismund, 1948; Gramaccioli, 1962; Bedogné et al., 1993). Vesuvianite, as coffee-brown or greenish crystals and as green iso-oriented crystals in association with greyish-yellow titanite and clinochlore, was described by Sigismund (1948). In the associated chloritic facies, the mineral assemblage comprises ilmenite, magnetite, apatite, and perovskite (brown cubes up to 3 cm).

The latter crop out at various sites above and below the lake mentioned above, in particular: to the S of the rocky spur, located between the two tongues of Cassandra glacier and culminating at the elevation of 2938 m, where the paragenesis includes crystals of pinkish or lilac titanite, albite, prehnite, and quartz; to the SW of it, where the paragenesis includes crystals of thomsonite-Ca, prehnite, titanite, albite, and amphibole; in the crags underneath the mentioned spur, where prehnite, chlorite, and a white radiated zeolite (scolecite?) have been found; below the lake, to the N of the path leading to Capanna Desio, where amphibolite beds intersected by albite veins and rich in fissures and cavities contain prehnite, titanite, epidote-clinozoisite, quartz, albite, and chlorite.

Note: the four (two larger and two smaller) Cassandra lakes are located to the SE of Cassandra glacier, which covers the southern slope of Mount Disgrazia (3678 m), and to the S of Pizzo Cassandra (3226 m). According to De Bernardi et al. (1993), the name of the lakes, as well as that of the neighbour Pizzo Cassandra, is not derived from the famous character of Greek mythology, but very likely from an archaic dialectal word indicating a gorge, a narrow ravine, and alludes to the couloir that descends from the lakes towards Torreggio stream.

Provided coordinates are approximate because the lakes are not visible in the available satellite images (winter season).

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
The Alps, EuropeMountain Range

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


14 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Andradite var: Topazolite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 87, 145-171. Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Giovanni Scapin Collection
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 87, 145-171. Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Scolecite ?
Formula: CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 87, 145-171. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 87, 145-171. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 87, 145-171. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Topazolite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Scolecite ?9.GA.05CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Thomsonite-Ca9.GA.10NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Scolecite ?77.1.5.5CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Andradite
var: Topazolite
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Thomsonite-Ca-NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
OOxygen
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O Andradite (var: Topazolite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
FFluorine
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
AlAluminium
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
SiSilicon
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si Andradite (var: Topazolite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
CaCalcium
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Andradite (var: Topazolite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Andradite (var: Topazolite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti della Società italiana di scienze naturali, 87, 145-171.
Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp.
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., and Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
De Bernardi, R., Fassin, I., Mosello, R., and Pelucchi, E. (1993) Laghi alpini di Valtellina e Valchiavenna. Edizioni CAI, sez. di Sondrio, Sondrio, 131 pp.

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