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Barewood Reefs, Hindon, Dunedin City, Otago Region, South Island, New Zealand

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 45° 40' 39'' South , 170° 17' 21'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -45.67777,170.28924
GeoHash:G#: pzch5h8gd
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Barewood is located 30 km northwest of Dunedin and was settled and mined for gold and scheelite from 1888-1919. A northwest-trending normal fault, the “Barewood Reefs Fault”, dips 55°NE and hosts two styles of mesothermal quartz veins. Massive, white, tabular quartz pods (1-10 m), with sparse gold and scheelite, occur sporadically in leftstepping dilational jogs associated with a normal+sinistral fault movement.

Also referred to as Barewood Creek workings.

Gold was discovered here in 1888. The provincial government had vested the Barewood pastoral station with the Otago University (Dunedin), and probably contributed to the late discovery. Initially the university granted mining leases to seven applicants- John Cunningham, Allan Scott, Robert Scott, Harry Hertslett, Henry Orbell, W.G. Mouatt, and George W. Pogson. It then received a further seventy applications. Initially it decided to refuse to have its land over-run by miners, but subsequently after public protest, granted the leases upon payment of a fee by each applicant. Pogson queried the university's legal authority to grant leases, and the government was approached. The Mines Department refused further requests to grant leases on the land, however existing leases which applied anyway to the auriferous reefs continued.

The individual leases were gradually consolidated, until around 1898, the Barewood Gold Mining Company controlled it. It was floated as a public company December 1902, with 8000 pounds capital. In 1899, the company gave an option over the lease to the Anglo-Continental syndicate, and the New Zealand Exploration Company for 1000 pounds. They expended 12 301 pounds sinking three shafts, finding a payable reef in one, and a lot of water in all. They agreed to continue for another year on payment of another 1000 pounds, but after expending a further 5670 pounds, abandoned the option. As the second 1000 pounds had not been paid, this ended in court.

The Barewood company continued developing the property using one of Anglo-Continental's shafts called Scott's Shaft. This was down to 200 feet, but only the upper 130 feet was worked. They erected a five head battery but the ore was not covering costs. Engineer, D.B. Waters was employed from Australia, who changed what ore was coming out of the mine, with improved results. W. Hitchcock is mine manager. This company continued operations until around 1911.

The increase of the price for tungsten during the World War One years, saw renewed interest at the site. Scheelite had been picked out of the ore, and dumped on the tailings as a nuisance by the early gold miners. The Pukerangi Company, and H.S. Molinaux were both mining scheelite, with processing plants. A new reef was discovered by Alex Ewart in 1919, and an option was secured over it by the Pukerangi Gold and Scheelite Mining Company Limited, who drove a tunnel to test the lode.

The Barewood site contains gold and scheelite bearing quartz veins within north-west striking faults, with mine workings covering an extent of 900 metres along three sub-parallel lodes, hosted in Otago schist. Quartz is found as early massive white, and later clear prismatic quartz crystals. Arsenopyrite dominates the sulphides, with lesser pyrite, and minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena.

Gold is found microscopically enclosed in arsenopyrite, pyrite, or chalcopyrite, or mobilised free from the sulphides due to near surface oxidation. Secondary gold up to 1 mm in diameter is found in fractures, shears and cavities in quartz veins, and associated sheared schist, intimately associated with goethite, and kaolinite near surface. Gold has not been enriched in the alteration zone.

There is a zone of kaolinization 10- 20 metres from the surface, containing pale coloured kaolinite, goethite patches, relict metamorphic quartz, and muscovite. Scorodite and pharmacosiderite is noted as grain size.

The site is on private property.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels from this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org.

Barewood Reefs

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


19 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Craw, D., MacKenzie, D.J. (1992) Near-surface secondary gold mobility and grain-size enhancement, Barewood Mine, east Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 35:2, 151-156.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Craw, D., MacKenzie, D.J. (1992) Near-surface secondary gold mobility and grain-size enhancement, Barewood Mine, east Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 35:2, 151-156.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Craw, D., MacKenzie, D.J. (1992) Near-surface secondary gold mobility and grain-size enhancement, Barewood Mine, east Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 35:2, 151-156.
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: Craw, D., MacKenzie, D.J. (1992) Near-surface secondary gold mobility and grain-size enhancement, Barewood Mine, east Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 35:2, 151-156.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Doyle, D., Lotter, E. (1999) Barewood ML 32 2304 and Castle Hill EP 40 288, Otago, New Zealand - technical report, Macraes Mining Co Ltd, New Zealand Petroleum & Minerals, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Wellington, unpublished open-file mineral report, MR3674, 203 pages.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Stibnite'2.DB.05Sb2S3
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
'Rutile'4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite'5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Siderite'5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Scheelite'7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Pharmacosiderite'8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
'Scorodite'8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StibniteSb2S3
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
SbAntimony
Sb StibniteSb2S3
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Evening Star newspaper (1889) University Council, issue 8033, 09 October 1889.
Lyttelton Times newspaper (1889) Dunedin University, LXX11, issue 8920, 10 October 1889.
Otago Daily Times newspaper (1889) University Council, issue 8578, 21 August 1889.
Evening Star newspaper (1895) The Barewood Reefs (to the Ed.), issue 9667, 09 April 1895.
Evening Star newspaper (1899) The Courts- To-Day, issue 10992, 24 July 1899.
Press newspaper (1899) Otago University Resources. A Singular Difficulty, Vol. XLV1, issue 7403, 31 August 1889.
Otago Daily Times newspaper (1903) Barewood Gold Mining Company, issue 12640, 18 April 1903.
Otago Witness newspaper (1906) Barewood Public Meeting, issue 2718, 11 April 1906.
Otago Witness newspaper (1908) The Barewood Reefs, issue 2844, 16 September 1908.
Otago Witness newspaper (1911) Gold Mining in Otago Central: The Battery at the Barewood Mine (picture), issue 2967, 25 January 1911.
Evening Star newspaper (1917) The Barewood Field, issue 16528, 13 September 1917.
Evening Star newspaper (1919) New Gold Reef at Barewood, issue 17222, 11 December 1919.
MacKenzie, D. J. (1990) Gold, tungsten and antimony mineralisation at Barewood, east Otago, New Zealand. MSc thesis (unpublished), University of Otago, Dunedin.
Craw, D., MacKenzie, D.J. (1992) Near-surface secondary gold mobility and grain-size enhancement, Barewood Mine, east Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 35:2, 151-156.
MacKenzie, D.J., Youngson, J., Craw, D. (2002) The Barewood-Hindon Vein System: A regionally extensive normal fault-hosted gold deposit in the Otago Schist. Conference paper: AusIMM New Zealand Branch Annual Conference 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.
Geological Society of New Zealand Annual Conference (2003) FIELD TRIP 1A & 1B EAST OTAGO GOLD Simon Cox and Dave Craw.

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