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Urstad Feldspar Mine, Hidra (Hitterø), Flekkefjord, Vest-Agder, Norway

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 58° 13' 39'' North , 6° 34' 29'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 58.22754,6.57474
GeoHash:G#: u4kem8584
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Urstad feltspatgruve, Hidra, Flekkefjord kommune, Vest-Agder fylke, Norge


A old feldspar mine in granite pegmatite. Especially noted for large Aeschynite-(Y) crystals (> 3 kg). Chunks of aeschynite-(Y) up to 20 kg have been found here. Worked in the period around 1870 to 1906.

Ulland (1994) mentions Husefjell and Bastfjell as alternative names. Considerable amounts of a red microcline have been extracted. The feldspar was transported with horse and wagon down to Urstadstrand, where it was loaded on ships.

The coordinates are based upon a reconstruction of information presented by Andersen, Ulland and study of an aerial picture of 1967. My estimate is that they are accurate within 20-30 m.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Urstad Feldspar Mine

Regions containing this locality

Scandinavia

Region - 1,994 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


13 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aeschynite-(Y) (TL)
Formula: (Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Habit: Platy after {010}, with the dominant form {010}, {130}, {001}. Forms also observed: {110}, {120}, {111}, {101}, [001}
Colour: Brownish black, metamict with thin brownish alteration
Description: Brøgger (1879) gave a crystallographic description of a black mineral from Urstad without chemical analysis. He thought it to be identical with aeschynite (From Miask, which later was named aeschynite-(Ce)). In Brøgger (1906) the mineral were described in detail, and gave it the name Blomstrandine. He states on p. 104 the that aeschynite from Miask is a Cerium-Aeschynit and that the blomstrandine from Hitterö was a "Yttrium-Aeschynit". A part of a crystal weighing 3kg and chunks up to 20 kg has been noted.
Reference: Brøgger, W.C. (1879): Untersuchungen norwegischer Mineralien I. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie 3, 471-487 (+ plates XI-XIII); Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6: 97- 104; Adamson (1942); Clark (1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition")
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Described by Schetelig (1922) as orthit
Reference: Schetelig, J. (1922): Orthit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, p. 128-138
'Biotite'
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
'commodity:Feldspar'
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Gadolinite-(Y)
Formula: Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Description: Up to 10 cm long crystals
Reference: Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123 [p.89]
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Perrierite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Habit: subhedral
Description: 5 cm long, metamict subhedral crystals. Identified by heating and XRD at NHM, Oslo
Reference: Berg, H.-J. (2000): News and rumors 2000. Stein 27 (2), 18
Polycrase-(Y)
Formula: Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Ulland, L. A. (1994): Gruvedrift. in Hanssen, J., Hansson, H. & Larsen, O. (eds): (1994) Ytterst mot havet. Kystmuseet Fedrenes Minne 50 år. Hidra 1994, 63-72
Zircon var: Malacon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Ulland, L. A. (1994): Gruvedrift. in Hanssen, J., Hansson, H. & Larsen, O. (eds): (1994) Ytterst mot havet. Kystmuseet Fedrenes Minne 50 år. Hidra 1994, 63-72

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Aeschynite-(Y)' (TL)4.DF.05(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Polycrase-(Y)4.DG.05Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Gadolinite-(Y)'9.AJ.20Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Perrierite-(Ce)9.BE.70Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
var: Malacon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Biotite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB2O6
Aeschynite-(Y) (TL)8.3.6.3(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Polycrase-(Y)8.3.8.1Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Gadolinite-(Y)54.2.1b.3Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Perrierite-(Ce)56.2.8.3Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Biotite'-
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)
Zircon
var: Malacon
-Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Polycrase-(Y)Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
BeBeryllium
Be Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
OOxygen
O Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Zircon (var: Malacon)Zr(SiO4)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
O Polycrase-(Y)Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
O QuartzSiO2
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
MgMagnesium
Mg Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Si Zircon (var: Malacon)Zr(SiO4)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
TiTitanium
Ti Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
Ti Polycrase-(Y)Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
FeIron
Fe Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
YYttrium
Y Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Y Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Y Polycrase-(Y)Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr Zircon (var: Malacon)Zr(SiO4)
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Nb Polycrase-(Y)Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
CeCerium
Ce Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe23+Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
ThThorium
Th Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Neoproterozoic
541 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3130266
Proterozoic III granite

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 1000 Ma)

Description: undifferentiated metamorphic

Lithology: Granite group

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Andersen, O. (1931): Feltspat II. Forekomster i fylkene Buskerud og Telemark, i flere herreder i Aust-Agder og i Hidra i Vest-Agder. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 128b, 86-107.
Brøgger, W.C. (1879): Untersuchungen norwegischer Mineralien I. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie 3, 471-487 (+ plates XI-XIII)[first crystallographic description on aeschynite-(Y) from Urstad]
Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6.[p.97-104- first description of blomstrandine = Aeschynite -(Y)]
Ulland, L. A. (1994): Gruvedrift. in Hanssen, J., Hansson, H. & Larsen, O. (eds): (1994) Ytterst mot havet. Kystmuseet Fedrenes Minne 50 år. Hidra 1994, 63-72


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