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Sahara Desert, North Africai
Regional Level Types
Sahara DesertDesert
North Africa- not defined -

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Giza2,443,203 (2016)
Nouakchott661,400 (2017)
Port Sudan489,725 (2015)
Luxor422,407 (2016)
Asyūţ420,585 (2016)
Biskra307,987 (2018)


Being the third largest desert after Antarctica and the Arctic, the Sahara covers most of North Africa.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

439 valid minerals. 9 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

'Actinolite schist'

Agglomerate

Albitized granite

'Alkali gabbro'

Alkali-feldspar-granite

Amphibolite

Andesite

'Andesitic tuff'

Angrite meteorite

'Anomalous CK3 chondrite meteorite'

'Anomalous EH7 chondrite meteorite'

'Anomalous ureilite meteorite'

Anorthosite

Anorthositic Lunar meteorite

'Aplite'

'Argillite'

'Arkose'

Ash

Aubrite meteorite

Banded iron formation

Basalt

Basaltic breccia Lunar meteorite

Bauxite

Beresite

'Biotite granite'

'Biotite schist'

'Birbirite'

'Bostonite'

Breccia

CH3 chondrite meteorite

CK4 chondrite meteorite

CO3 chondrite meteorite

'CO3.8 chondrite meteorite'

CR2 chondrite meteorite

CV3 chondrite meteorite

Calcrete

Carbonate rock

Chert

'Chlorite schist'

Chondrite meteorite

Chromitite

'Cipolin'

Clay

Coal

Conglomerate

Dacite

'Dacite-andesite'

Diatexite

Diogenite meteorite

Diorite

'Dolerite'

Dolostone

Dunite

'Dunitic diogenite meteorite'

EH3 chondrite meteorite

'EL7 chondrite meteorite'

'Episyenite'

Feldspathic breccia

Feldspathic breccia Lunar meteorite

'Felsite'

'Fine tuff'

'Fulgurite'

Gabbro

'Gabbrodiorite'

Gabbroid

Gabbronorite

'Garnet-mica schist'

Gneiss

Gossan

Granite

'Granitic gneiss'

Granitoid

Granodiorite

'Granophyric granite'

Granules

Granulite

'Graphitic schist'

Gravel

Greenschist

Greenstone

Greisen

'H3-5 chondrite meteorite'

'H3.9 chondrite meteorite'

H4 chondrite meteorite

H5 chondrite meteorite

'H5-melt breccia chondrite meteorite'

H6 chondrite meteorite

Harzburgite

'Hastingsite-biotite granophyric granite'

'Hornblende harzburgite'

Hornblende-gabbro

Hornblende-pyroxenite

Hornfels

Hyaloclastite

'Hydrothermal breccia'

IAB-sHL iron meteorite

IIAB iron meteorite

'Ignimbritic tuff'

Ironstone

'Jaspillite'

'L/LL3.10 chondrite meteorite'

L3 chondrite meteorite

L5 chondrite meteorite

L6 chondrite meteorite

'LL3.2 chondrite meteorite'

'LL3.9 chondrite meteorite'

LL5 chondrite meteorite

'LL5/6 chondrite meteorite'

LL6 chondrite meteorite

Lamprophyre

Lapilli-tuff

Laterite

'Leptynite'

'Leucogabbro'

'Leucogranite'

Limestone

Listvenite

Lunar achondrite meteorite

Lunar regolith

'Mafic volcanic rock'

Magnetitite

Marble

'Marl'

'Melagabbro'

Mesosiderite meteorite

Mesosiderite-B1 meteorite

Meta-agglomerate

Meta-andesite

Metabasalt

Metadacite

Metagabbro

Metagreywacke

Metamudstone

Metaperidotite

Metasedimentary rock

Metasiltstone

Metatuff

Metavolcanic rock

Metavolcaniclastic rock

Meteorite

'Mica schist'

'Microdiorite'

'Microgabbro'

'Microgranite'

'Microsyenite'

Migmatite

Minette

Monzodiorite

Monzogranite

Monzonite

Mudstone

Mylonite

Nepheline-syenite

Norite

Noritic Lunar meteorite

Olivine-gabbronorite

Ophicarbonate

'Ophiolite'

Orthopyroxenite

Para-amphibolite

'Pegmatite'

'Peralkaline alkali-feldspar-granite'

'Peralkaline syenite'

Peridotite

Phonolite

Phyllite

'Pillow lava'

'Polymict ureilite meteorite'

'Porphyry'

Primitive achondrite meteorite

Pyroxenite

'Quartz porphyry'

'Quartz schist'

Quartz-diorite

Quartz-syenite

Quartzite

'R3.8-5 chondrite meteorite'

'Rapakivi granite'

Regolith breccia

Rhyodacite

Rhyolite

Sand

Sandstone

Schist

Serpentinite

Shale

Shergottite meteorite

Silcrete

'Silexite'

Siltstone

Skarn

Sodalite-syenite

Spessartite

Spilite

Syenite

Syenogranite

Tektite

'Tillite'

Tonalite

Trachyandesite

Trachyte

Troctolite

Tuff

Tuffite

'Ultramafic-rock'

Ultramylonite

'Unbrecciated eucrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped Achondrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped C2 chondrite meteorite'

'Ungrouped iron meteorite'

Ureilite meteorite

'Volcanic rock'

Volcaniclastic rock

'itabirite'

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1984) 79:389-392
'Actinolite-Tremolite Series'
Reference: Abdelnasser, A., Kumral, M. (2017) The nature of gold-bearing fluids in Atud gold deposit, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. International Geology Review, 59:15, 1845-1860.
Addibischoffite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Al6Al6O20
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C. and Krot, A.N. (2015) Addibischoffite, IMA 2015-001. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 532; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535;Ma, C., Krot, A.N., Nagashima, K. (2017): Addibischoffite, Ca2Al6Al6O20, a new calcium aluminate mineral from the Acfer 214 CH carbonaceous chondrite: A new refractory phase from the solar nebula. American Mineralogist: 102: 1556-1560.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Hadj-Kaddour, Z., Liegeois, J. P., Demaiffe, D., & Caby, R. (1998). The alkaline–peralkaline granitic post-collisional Tin Zebane dyke swarm (Pan-African Tuareg shield, Algeria): prevalent mantle signature and late agpaitic differentiation. Lithos, 45(1), 223-243.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Reference: Hassan, K.M. (2018): Trace elements and REE enrichment at Seboah Hill, SW Egypt. Mineralogia 49, 47-65.
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
Reference: J. Fabriès and G. Rocci, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Cristallo., 1965, LXXXVIII, 319-340
Ahrensite (TL)
Formula: SiFe2O4
Reference: Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Liu, Y. and Sinogeikin, S. (2013) Ahrensite, IMA 2013-028. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2707; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709. ; Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., El Goresy, A., Ozawa, S., & Gillet, P. (2016). Phase transition processes of olivine in the shocked Martian meteorite Tissint: Clues to origin of ringwoodite-, bridgmanite-and magnesiowüstite-bearing assemblages. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 259, 18-28.
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion study of the molybdenum-uranium-fluorite deposit, Gebel Gattar area, Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Akimotoite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
Reference: Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Michael Zolensky et al. (2010). Mineralogy and Petrography of the Almahata Sitta ureilite, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, #10-11, 1618-1637. (Oct/Nov 2010).
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Albite var. Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Zoheir, Basem & Weihed, Pär. (2013) Greenstone-hosted lode-gold mineralization at Dungash mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2013.06.002.
Albite var. Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 54 localities in this region.
Description: Huge plagioclase laths (~ 1 mm in length)
Reference: Mikouchi, T., McKay, G., Le, L. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (200O) Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI. abstract no. 1970. (March 2000)
'Alkali Feldspar'
Reference: B.H. Ali, M.G. El-Feky, M.A. Ali and E.K. Abu Zeid, (2008) Mineralogical and Fluid Inclusions Studies on the Mineralized Bostonite Dykes at UM Guruf Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1: 158-167.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Hadj-Kaddour, Z., Liegeois, J. P., Demaiffe, D., & Caby, R. (1998). The alkaline–peralkaline granitic post-collisional Tin Zebane dyke swarm (Pan-African Tuareg shield, Algeria): prevalent mantle signature and late agpaitic differentiation. Lithos, 45(1), 223-243.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Shalaby, M., Osman, A., Ali, M., Ahamed, F., & Ali, B. (2002). Radioactive Mineralization in Pegmatites, of Dara-Um Swassi, Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Earth Sciences, 50(1), 51-66.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Aluminium
Formula: Al
Reference: Belyanin, G. A., Kramers, J. D., Andreoli, M. A., Greco, F., Gucsik, A., Makhubela, T. V., ... & Wiedenbeck, M. (2017). Petrography of the carbonaceous, diamond-bearing stone “Hypatia” from southwest Egypt: A contribution to the debate on its origin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Kolb, Jochen & Petrov, Nikolay. (2015). The Guelb Moghrein Cu–Au deposit: Neoarchaean hydrothermal sulfide mineralization in carbonate-facies iron formation. Ore Geology Reviews. 78. 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2015.09.003.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Andradite var. Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MinMag 63:821-836
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Mikouchi, T., McKay, G., Le, L. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (200O) Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI. abstract no. 1970. (March 2000); Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
Anorthite var. Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Description: An 60
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Anthophyllite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 72-84.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: Owocki, K. (2011) Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates in ordinary chondrites (in Polish). Acta Societatis Metheoriticae Polonorum 2, 112-116.
'Apatite var. Collophane'
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Reference: Saidou, H., Hamzaoui, A. H., & Mnif, A. (2015). Insoluble Content, Ionic Composition, Density, and X-Ray Diffraction Spectra of 6 Evaporites from Niger Republic. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 37 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Asbestos'
Reference: Journal of African Earth Sciences Volume 58, Issue 2, September 2010, Pages 305–320
Aspidolite
Formula: NaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry lost Mindat data).
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Mikouchi, T., McKay, G., Le, L. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (200O) Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI. abstract no. 1970. (March 2000)
Augite var. Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Mikouchi, T., McKay, G., Le, L. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (200O) Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI. abstract no. 1970. (March 2000)
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Gatto Rotondo, G., Darchuk, L., Swaenen, M., & Van Grieken, R. (2012). Micro-Raman and SEM analysis of minerals from the Darhib mine, Egypt. Journal of analytical sciences, methods and instrumentation, 2(1), 42-47.
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Reference: Fuganti, Andrea & Morteani, Giulio & Grundmann, Guenter. (1987). Gold Deposits in the Northern Nubian Desert, Sudan. Conference: Third Symposium on the Geology of Libya - 27 - 30 September 1987, At Tripoli, Libya, Volume: The Geology of Libya Volume VII, pages 2638 - 2642
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
Reference: Roman, S.G., Flach, G., Din, C., Wollenberg, P., Sanguinetti, H. (2018) DASA: Africa's Newest World Class Uranium Deposit in Niger, West Africa-A Global Atomic Corporation Project (No. IAEA-CN--261).
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin Database
'Bahariyaite' (FRL)
Formula: KMnO4
Type Locality:
Reference: Helmy, H.M., Euler, H.J., Tomaschek, F., Ballhaus, C., Friedrich, H.H. (2020): Bahariyite, IMA 2020-022. CNMNC Newsletter No. 57; European Journal of Mineralogy: 32
Barringerite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)2P
Reference: Ikeda, Y., Prinz, M. & Nehru, C. E. (2000) Lithic and mineral clasts in the Dar Al Gani (DAG) 319 polymict ureilite: Antarctic Meteorite Research. Twenty-fourth Symposium on Antarctic Meteorites, NIPR Symposium No. 13., Editor in Chief, Takeo Hirasawa. National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo. pp.177-221. (Mar 2000).
Barstowite
Formula: Pb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
Reference: Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P., Eggert, G., and Klapper, H. (1996) Die Struktur des Barstowits, 3PbCl2.PbCO3.H2O - bestimmt an einem Kristall aus einem Schiffswrack aus römischer Zeit. Zeitschrift für Kristallografie, Suppl. 11, 111.; Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P., and Eggert, G. (1997) Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.; Kutzke, H., Klapper, H., Merlino, S., Pasero, M., Perchiazzi, N., and Eggert, G. (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeitschrift für Kristallografie, 215, 110-113.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Bassanite
Formula: Ca(SO4) · 0.5H2O
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
'Bastnäsite'
Reference: Shalaby, M., Osman, A., Ali, M., Ahamed, F., & Ali, B. (2002). Radioactive Mineralization in Pegmatites, of Dara-Um Swassi, Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Earth Sciences, 50(1), 51-66.
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: Taylor, C.D. and Giles, S. A. (2012): Potentiel minéral pour des dépôts d’éléments incompatibles au sein des pegmatites, de roches alcalines et de carbonatites sur le territoire de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie.- Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie (PRISM-II), Phase V ; Livrable 87, USGS, 45 pages.
Becquerelite
Formula: Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Reference: Hussein, H. A., & Bakhit, F. S. (1988). Uranium-Bearing Alkaline Volcanics of North Wadi Kariem and Surroundings, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mining Geology, 38(207), 39-48.
Belyankinite
Formula: Ca1-2(Ti,Nb)5O12 · 9H2O (?)
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Benleonardite
Formula: [Ag6(Sb,As)2S6Te][Ag9Cu(S,Te)2Te2]
Reference: Ibrahim M. Shalaby, Eugen Stumpfl, Hassan M. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El Mahallawi and Omar A. Kamel (2004) Silver and silver-bearing minerals at the Um Samiuki volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Berryite
Formula: Cu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion study of the molybdenum-uranium-fluorite deposit, Gebel Gattar area, Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Berthierine
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Beryl var. Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976) Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262.; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; English ExtraLapis (2002) Emeralds of the World, 36-45.; Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008) Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50(2), 168-187.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 53 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: http://www.gras-sd.com/products/bro_basemetel.htm
'Bismuthinite-Stibnite Series'
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y. & Tlig, S. (1990): Caractérisaton minéralogique et signifiance métallogénique des sulfures bismuthifères des minéralisations de La Galite et du Jebel Chouichia (NW de la tunisie). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, Série 2, 311, 127-132.
'Bismuthinite-Stibnite Series var. Horobetsuite'
Formula: (Bi,Sb)2S3 to (Sb,Bi)2S3
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y. & Tlig, S. (1990): Caractérisaton minéralogique et signifiance métallogénique des sulfures bismuthifères des minéralisations de La Galite et du Jebel Chouichia (NW de la tunisie). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, Série 2, 311, 127-132.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Bridgmanite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., El Goresy, A., Ozawa, S., & Gillet, P. (2016). Phase transition processes of olivine in the shocked Martian meteorite Tissint: Clues to origin of ringwoodite-, bridgmanite-and magnesiowüstite-bearing assemblages. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 259, 18-28.
'Britholite Group'
Formula: (REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
Reference: El Monsef, M. A., Salem, I., Slobodník, M., & Ragab, A. (2018). Fluid evolution of Au-Cu zones in Um Balad area, North Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implications from mineral chemistry and fluid inclusions. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 143, 321-338.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: http://www.minport.com/showmrds-I000122.html
Burkeite
Formula: Na6(CO3)(SO4)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: Osman A. M., Pieczonka J., Piestrzyński A. 2002: Relationships between gold and tellurides in the El Sid gold deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 33, no 2, 15-26
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 78 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Calcite Group'
Formula: AXO3
Reference: El-Makky, A.M.; Khalil, K.I.; Ibrahim, I.M. (2012): Hydrothermal wall rock alteration at Kurdeman gold mine area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 189, 75-95.
'Calc-schist'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,◻)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Carnallite
Formula: KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Catapleiite
Formula: Na2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Riches, A.J.V. et. al. (2012) Rhenium–osmium isotope and highly-siderophile-element abundance systematics of angrite meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 353-354: 208-218, Angrite Appendix.
'Cerite'
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Cerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: Mohamed, A. (2013). Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Cervelleite
Formula: Ag4TeS
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Feb. 1999; Ibrahim M. Shalaby, Eugen Stumpfl, Hassan M. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El Mahallawi and Omar A. Kamel (2004) Silver and silver-bearing minerals at the Um Samiuki volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Zoheir, B., Emam, A., Pitcairn, I. K., Boskabadi, A., Lehaye, Y., & Cooper, M. J. (2018). Trace elements and isotope data of the Um Garayat gold deposit, Wadi Allaqi district, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 1-16.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 111 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y. & Tlig, S. (1990): Caractérisaton minéralogique et signifiance métallogénique des sulfures bismuthifères des minéralisations de La Galite et du Jebel Chouichia (NW de la tunisie). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, Série 2, 311, 127-132.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Chamosite var. Bavalite
Formula: (Fe,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn1027
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: No reference listed
Chenmingite (TL)
Formula: FeCr2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C. and Tschauner, O. (2017) Chenmingite, IMA 2017-036. CNMNC Newsletter No. 38, August 2017, page 1037; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1033–1038.
Cheralite
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
'Chevkinite Group'
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 73 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Chlormayenite
Formula: Ca12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]
Reference: Ma, C., Kampf, A.R., Connolly, H.C. Jr., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Sweeney Smith, A.A., Schrader, D.L. (2011) Krotite: a new refractory mineral from the NWA 1934 meteorite. American Mineralogist, 96, 709-715; Ma, C., Connolly, Jr., H.C., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Kampf, A.R., Zega, T.J., Tschauner, O., Sweeney Smith, S.A. and Schrader, D.L. (2010) Brearleyite, IMA 2010-062. CNMNC Newsletter No. 7, February 2010, page 31; Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 27-31. [as brearleyite, later discredited]
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 72-84.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin Database
Chromite var. Ferrian Chromite
Formula: Fe2+(Cr,Fe3+)2O4
Reference: Kharbish, S. (2020). Mineral chemistry, geochemistry, Raman spectroscopy and geotectonic significance of Neoproterozoic ophiolitic peridotites and pyroxenites from Kab Amiri district, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Frontiers in Scientific Research and Technology.
Chromite var. Ferrichromite
Formula: Fe2+(Cr3+,Fe3+)2O4
Reference: Abdel‐Karim, A. A. M., & El‐Shafei, S. A. (2018). Mineralogy and chemical aspects of some ophiolitic metaultramafics, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidences from chromites, sulphides and gangues. Geological Journal, 53(2), 580-599.
Chromite var. Titaniferous Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin Database
Chromium
Formula: Cr
Reference: Azer, M. K., & Stern, R. J. (2007). Neoproterozoic (835–720 Ma) serpentinites in the Eastern Desert, Egypt: fragments of forearc mantle. The Journal of Geology, 115(4), 457-472.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Zoheir, B., Emam, A., Pitcairn, I. K., Boskabadi, A., Lehaye, Y., & Cooper, M. J. (2018). Trace elements and isotope data of the Um Garayat gold deposit, Wadi Allaqi district, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 1-16.
Clinochlore var. Chromium-bearing Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 72-84.
Clinochlore var. Pyknochlorite
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Zoheir, B., Emam, A., Pitcairn, I. K., Boskabadi, A., Lehaye, Y., & Cooper, M. J. (2018). Trace elements and isotope data of the Um Garayat gold deposit, Wadi Allaqi district, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 1-16.
Clinochlore var. Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Zoheir, B., Emam, A., Pitcairn, I. K., Boskabadi, A., Lehaye, Y., & Cooper, M. J. (2018). Trace elements and isotope data of the Um Garayat gold deposit, Wadi Allaqi district, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 1-16.
Clinochlore var. Sheridanite
Formula: (Mg,Al,Fe)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Azer, M. K., & Stern, R. J. (2007). Neoproterozoic (835–720 Ma) serpentinites in the Eastern Desert, Egypt: fragments of forearc mantle. The Journal of Geology, 115(4), 457-472.
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Description: minor, but pervasive
Reference: McCoy, T. J., Keil, K., Bogard, D., Casanova, I. & Lindstrom, M. M. (1992) ILAFEGH 009: A New Sample of the Diverse Suite of Enstatite Impact Melt Rocks (Abstract). LPSC XXIII: page 869. (March 1992)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup var. Subcalcic augite'
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin Database
Clinosafflorite
Formula: CoAs2
Reference: Sakellaris, G.A., Meyer, F.M. (2008) A Metamorphic Origin of the Guelb Moghrein Fe Oxide-Copper-Gold-Cobalt Deposit, Mauritania. http://www.minsoc.ru/2008-1-101-1
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Emam, A. (2015) Geochemical Zonal Distribution Of Gold And Associating Elements At Site (S. Ii), Marahiq Gold Mineralization, Wadi Allaqi District, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 4, April 2015 pp 817-834
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Gian Paolo Sighinolfi, Chiara Elmi, Romano Serra, and Gabriele Contini (2014): High density silica phases as evidence of small-scale hypervelocity impacts: the Gebel Kamil Crater (Egypt). Periodico di Mineralogia 83, 299-312.
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Mining Annual Review(1985):448.; J. P. le Roux and P. D. Toens (1987) in Gondwana six: stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology, Volume 2 edited by Garry D. MacKenzie American Geophysical Union pp 139-146
Cohenite
Formula: Fe3C
Reference: Y. Aoyagi, T. Mikouchi, C. A. Goodrich, Michael E. Zolensky (2013). Mineralogy of Grain Boundary Metal in Ureilitic Fragments of Almahata Sitta. 76th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held July 29-August 7, 2013 in Edmonton, Canada. Published in Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, id.5231. (Sept 2013)
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Reference: Mohamed, A. (2013). Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: MinMag 63:821-836
'Columbite Group'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Raslan, M. F., El-Shall, H. E., Omar, S. A., & Daher, A. M. (2010). Mineralogy of polymetallic mineralized pegmatite of Ras Baroud granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of mineralogical and petrological sciences, 105(3), 123-134.
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Reference: Küster, D. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 68-86.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
'Copper Stain'
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. (1999). Mineralogy and fluid inclusion studies of the Au-Cu quartz veins in the Hamash area, South-Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogy and Petrology, 65(1-2), 69-86.
'Copper Sulphides'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.336)2)
Corrensite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Reference: Harraz, H. Z.; Hamdy, M. M. 2010. Interstratified vermiculite-mica in the gneiss-metapelite-serpentinite rocks at Hafafit area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: From metasomatism to weathering. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 58, Issue 2, p. 305-320.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Cotunnite
Formula: PbCl2
Reference: Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lehner, S. W., McDonough, W. F., & Németh, P. (2014). EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49(12), 2219-2240.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Taylor, C.D. and Giles, S. A. (2012): Potentiel minéral pour des dépôts d’éléments incompatibles au sein des pegmatites, de roches alcalines et de carbonatites sur le territoire de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie.- Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie (PRISM-II), Phase V ; Livrable 87, USGS, 45 pages.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: http://www.gras-sd.com/products/bro_basemetel.htm
Cummingtonite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Curite
Formula: Pb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Reference: Shalaby, M., Osman, A., Ali, M., Ahamed, F., & Ali, B. (2002). Radioactive Mineralization in Pegmatites, of Dara-Um Swassi, Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Earth Sciences, 50(1), 51-66.
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Péter Németh, Stephen W. Lehner, Michail I. Petaev, Peter R. Buseck (2013): Kumdykolite, a high-temperature feldspar from an enstatite chondrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1070-1073.; Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289; Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.
Dawsonite
Formula: NaAlCO3(OH)2
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
'Desert Rose'
Reference: Rui Nunes collection
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Mining Journal May 7, 1999, p.334
Diaphorite
Formula: Ag3Pb2Sb3S8
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Description: In amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOA).
Reference: Owocki, K. (2011) Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates in ordinary chondrites (in Polish). Acta Societatis Metheoriticae Polonorum 2, 112-116.; Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
Diopside var. Chromium-bearing Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Reference: http://www.rexmining.be/rdmc/Pressroom/1999/1999_06_29_E.htm; Rex Diamond Mining Corp. Investors Brief.
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Reference: Tom Praskier has been to the locality and confirmed dioptase with (unknown) tests
Djerfisherite
Formula: K6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl
Reference: Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Dolomite var. Iron-bearing Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Reference: Smillie (nee Taman), Z., Scott, P. W., Osman, A. M. M., & Hilmy, M. E. (2002). Mineralogy and geochemistry of some Proterozoic Banded Iron Formations from the Eastern Desert of Egypt. In 18th International Mineralogical Association Congress
Donwilhelmsite (TL)
Formula: CaAl4Si2O11
Type Locality:
Reference: Fritz, J., Greshake, A., Klementova, M., Wirth, R., Palatinus, L., Assis Fernandes, V., Böttger, U. and Ferrière, L. (2019) Donwilhelmsite, IMA 2018-113. CNMNC Newsletter No. 47, February 2019, page 201; European Journal of Mineralogy, 31: 199–204.
Edenite
Formula: NaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22OH2
Reference: Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 72-84.
'Eguëite'
Formula: CaFe14(PO4)10(OH)14 · 21H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 955.
Eitelite
Formula: Na2Mg(CO3)2
Reference: Sharygin, I. S., Golovin, A. V., Korsakov, A. V., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2013). Eitelite in sheared peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe (Russia)–a new locality and host rock type. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(5), 825-834.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y., Tlig, S. & Lévy, C. (1996): Sulfide geochemistry and genesis of Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper deposits in northwestern Tunisia. Mineralium Deposita 31, 188-200.
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289; Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.; Lehner, S. W., McDonough, W. F., & Németh, P. (2014). EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49(12), 2219-2240.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Description: Erlichmanite(Osmium sulfide) & Laurite (Ruthenium sulfide)form solid solutions and intimate intergrowths
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.336)
Eucryptite
Formula: LiAlSiO4
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Eudialyte
Formula: (Na3Na3Na3Na3Na3)Ca6(IVFe2+3)Zr3[Si3O9]2[Si9O27SiO][Si9O27SiO]Cl(H2O)
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Reference: Shalaby, M., Osman, A., Ali, M., Ahamed, F., & Ali, B. (2002). Radioactive Mineralization in Pegmatites, of Dara-Um Swassi, Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Earth Sciences, 50(1), 51-66.
Famatinite
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y., Tlig, S. & Lévy, C. (1996): Sulfide geochemistry and genesis of Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper deposits in northwestern Tunisia. Mineralium Deposita 31, 188-200.
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 56 localities in this region.
Description: skeletal olivine (& plagioclase) crystals suggest rapid cooling magma, Frequently zoned with Mg-free rims of Ca-rich Fayalite and Kirschteinite
Reference: Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Mikouchi, T., McKay, G., Le, L. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (200O) Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI. abstract no. 1970. (March 2000); Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Addi Bischoff, Mariam Horstmann, Andreas Pack, D. Herwatz, & S. Decker (2013). 76th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held July 29-August 7, 2013 in Edmonton, Canada. Published in Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, id.5104. (Sept 2013).; Bischoff, A., Horstmann, M., Barrat, J-A., Chaussidon, M., Pack, A., Herwartz, D., Ward, D., Vollmer, C.& Decker D. (2014) Trachyandesitic volcanism in the early Solar System: Proceedings National Academy Science 111 (35): 12689-12692.
'Feldspar Group var. Perthite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Shalaby, M., Osman, A., Ali, M., Ahamed, F., & Ali, B. (2002). Radioactive Mineralization in Pegmatites, of Dara-Um Swassi, Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Earth Sciences, 50(1), 51-66.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Suzaki, R., Kolli, O., Mokrane, K., Boutaleb, A., Taguchi, S., Yonezu, K., & Watanabe, K. (2013) Granite Related Mineralization of Tungsten in Hoggar, Southern Algeria. ASEAN Paper ID 109
'Ferganite'
Formula: LiH[(UO2)4[VO4]2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Fergusonite'
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Fergusonite-(Ce)
Formula: CeNbO4 · 0.3H2O
Reference: Hadj-Kaddour, Z., Liegeois, J. P., Demaiffe, D., & Caby, R. (1998). The alkaline–peralkaline granitic post-collisional Tin Zebane dyke swarm (Pan-African Tuareg shield, Algeria): prevalent mantle signature and late agpaitic differentiation. Lithos, 45(1), 223-243.
Fergusonite-(Y)
Formula: YNbO4
Reference: Sami, M., Ntaflos, T., Farahat, E.S., Mohamed, H.A., Ahmed, A.F., Hauzenberger, C. (2017): Mineralogical, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopes characteristics of fluorite-bearing granites in the Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield, Egypt: Constraints on petrogenesis and evolution of their associated rare metal mineralization. Ore Geology Reviews: 88: 1-22; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=13796 (2017)
Ferrihydrite
Formula: Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Reference: Greshake, A. (1997). The primitive matrix components of the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: A TEM study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (2): 437–452. (Jan 1997). ; Wasson, J. T. & Rubin, A. E. (2010). Matrix and whole-rock fractionations in the Acfer 094 type 3.0 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45 (1): 73-90. (Jan 2010).
'Ferritchromit'
Reference: Azer, M. K., & Stern, R. J. (2007). Neoproterozoic (835–720 Ma) serpentinites in the Eastern Desert, Egypt: fragments of forearc mantle. The Journal of Geology, 115(4), 457-472.
'Ferro-barroisite'
Formula: ◻{CaNa}{Fe2+3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Ferrohögbomite-2N2S (TL)
Formula: [(Fe2+,Mg,Zn,Al)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]2
Type Locality:
Reference: C. Hejny et al. (2002) Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 957-967
Ferro-katophorite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Ferro-richterite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Ferrosilite
Formula: FeSiO3
Reference: L. Latouche : "L'orthoferrosilite et les roches associées de la région des Gour Oumeladen (N.E. Ahaggar, Algérie)", Bull. Minéral. , 1983, 106, pp. 329-339.
Ferro-tschermakite
Formula: ◻{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: Mona Kabesh, Asran M. Asran and Ezzat Abdel Rahman (2012) Mineral chemistry of banded migmatites from Hafafit and Feiran areas, Egypt. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 1866-7511:1-13
'Fine-grained metafelsic-rock'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Fluocerite'
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Fluorapatite var. Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Fluorapatite var. Manganese-bearing Fluorapatite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Fluorite var. Yttrofluorite
Formula: (Ca1-xYx)F2+x where 0.05< x
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Description: A few grains of forsterite [sensu strictu, Fa<10] are found.
Reference: Bischoff, A., Sears, D.W.G., Benoit, P.H., Geiger, T., & Stoeffler, D. (1992) New Type 3 Ordinary Chondrites from the Sahara Desert: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Abstracts) 23: 107-108. (March 1992).
Francevillite
Formula: Ba(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Freibergite Subgroup'
Formula: ([Ag6]4+,(Ag,Cu)6)((Cu,Ag)4C2+2)Sb4S12S0-1
Reference: Ibrahim M. Shalaby, Eugen Stumpfl, Hassan M. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El Mahallawi and Omar A. Kamel (2004) Silver and silver-bearing minerals at the Um Samiuki volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Froodite
Formula: α-PdBi2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 83 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Garnierite'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Gaylussite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Gedrite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry lost Mindat data).
Geffroyite
Formula: (Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
Reference: El Monsef, M. A., Salem, I., Slobodník, M., & Ragab, A. (2018). Fluid evolution of Au-Cu zones in Um Balad area, North Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implications from mineral chemistry and fluid inclusions. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 143, 321-338.
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Reference: Methot, R. L. et al., (1975) Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of the Isna (C3) meteorite. Meteoritics 10 (2): 121-131. (Jun 1975)
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin Database
'Geikielite-Ilmenite Series'
Description: Ilmenite with up to 10 wt% MgO. Inclusions in intercumulus picotite (subsolidus quenching and exchange with picotite).
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
Genthelvite
Formula: Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Zoheir, B., & Emam, A. (2014). Field and ASTER imagery data for the setting of gold mineralization in Western Allaqi–Heiani belt, Egypt: A case study from the Haimur deposit. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 99, 150-164.
Geversite
Formula: PtSb2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Gibbsite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
'Glass'
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.
Glauberite
Formula: Na2Ca(SO4)2
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
'Glauconite'
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Godlevskite
Formula: (Ni,Fe)9S8
Reference: Zoheir, B. (2011). Transpressional zones in ophiolitic mélange terranes: potential exploration targets for gold in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 111(1), 23-38.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 62 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Gold var. Electrum
Formula: (Au,Ag)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Graftonite
Formula: Fe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2
Reference: V. V. Sharygin, N. S. Karmanov and N. M. Podgornykh (2016) Na-Fe-Phosphate Globules in Impact Metal-Troilite Associations of Chelyabinsk Meteorite. 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society (2016)
Graphite
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: G. Brandstetter collection; Service Geologique de Tunesie label and specimen
Grossite (TL)
Formula: CaAl4O7
Reference: Weber D, Bischoff A (1994) Grossite (CaAl4O7) - a rare phase in terrestrial rocks and meteorites, European Journal of Mineralogy 6, 591-594
Grunerite
Formula: ◻{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Denver Region Exploration Geologists Society October 6, 2008 Technical Presentation Alteration and Mineralization at the Guelb Moghrein Magnetite-Copper-Gold-Cobalt Deposit, Akjoujt, Mauritania. Michael J. Kirschbaum and Murray Hitzman. ; Mineralium Deposita (2006) 41:68-81
'Gummite'
Reference: El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.
Hastingsite
Formula: NaCa2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22OH2
Reference: L. Latouche : "L'orthoferrosilite et les roches associées de la région des Gour Oumeladen (N.E. Ahaggar, Algérie)", Bull. Minéral. , 1983, 106, pp. 329-339.
Hastingsite var. Alkali-ferrohastingsite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: J. Fabriès and G. Rocci, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Cristallo., 1965, LXXXVIII, 319-340
Haxonite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)23C6
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2: 632-634. University of California Press.
Heazlewoodite
Formula: Ni3S2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Reference: Keil, K. (2012) Angrites, a small but diverse suite of ancient, silica-undersaturated volcanic-plutonic mafic meteorites, and the history of their parent asteroid: Chemie der Erde, geochemistry 71:191-218.
Hedleyite
Formula: Bi7Te3
Reference: Kolb, J., Sakellaris, G. A., & Meyer, F. M. (2006). Controls on hydrothermal Fe oxide–Cu–Au–Co mineralization at the Guelb Moghrein deposit, Akjoujt area, Mauritania. Mineralium Deposita, 41(1), 68-81.; Sakellaris, Grigorios Aarne & Meyer, Franz & Kolb, Jochen & Voudouris, Panagiotis. (2009). Implications for exsolution of Bi-Au-Ag-Te minerals from sulf-arsenides during retrograde metamorphism. A case study: Guelb Moghrein, Mauritania. RMS Annual Session 2009, Ontogeny of minerals applied to scientific and industrial uses, At St Petersburg; Kolb, Jochen & Petrov, Nikolay. (2015). The Guelb Moghrein Cu–Au deposit: Neoarchaean hydrothermal sulfide mineralization in carbonate-facies iron formation. Ore Geology Reviews. 78. 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2015.09.003.
Heideite
Formula: (Fe,Cr)1.15(Ti,Fe)2S4
Reference: Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 96 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Hematite var. Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Hematite var. Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Emam, A. (2015) Geochemical Zonal Distribution Of Gold And Associating Elements At Site (S. Ii), Marahiq Gold Mineralization, Wadi Allaqi District, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 4, April 2015 pp 817-834
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Jemmali, N., Souissi, F., Vennemann, T. W., & Carranza, E. J. M. (2011). Genesis of the Jurassic Carbonate‐Hosted Pb–Zn Deposits of Jebel Ressas (North‐Eastern Tunisia): Evidence from Mineralogy, Petrography and Trace Metal Contents and Isotope (O, C, S, Pb) Geochemistry. Resource geology, 61(4), 367-383.
Herbertsmithite
Formula: Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
Reference: Gatto Rotondo, G., Darchuk, L., Swaenen, M., & Van Grieken, R. (2012). Micro-Raman and SEM analysis of minerals from the Darhib mine, Egypt. Journal of analytical sciences, methods and instrumentation, 2(1), 42-47.
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Hercynite var. Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Hexamolybdenum
Formula: (Mo,Ru,Fe,Ir,Os)
Reference: Ma, C., Kampf, A.R., Connolly, H.C. Jr., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Sweeney Smith, A.A., Schrader, D.L. (2011) Krotite: a new refractory mineral from the NWA 1934 meteorite. American Mineralogist, 96, 709-715.
Hibonite
Formula: CaAl12O19
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Weber D, Bischoff A (1994) Grossite (CaAl4O7) - a rare phase in terrestrial rocks and meteorites, European Journal of Mineralogy 6, 591-594 ; Weber, D., & Bischoff, A. (1992, March). Mineralogy and chemistry of refractory inclusions in CR-like chondrites from the Sahara desert. In Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts (Vol. 23, p. 1505).
Hoganite ?
Formula: Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Description: Suspected to be the result of cleaning copper minerals with acetic acid (vinegar). See discussion at: https://www.mineral-forum.com/message-board/viewtopic.php?t=5437 En español: https://www.foro-minerales.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=13247
Reference: In the collection of Brent Thorne. Acquired from Joy Desor. EDS and XRD analyzed. https://e-rocks.com/blogs/1/hoganite-paceite
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Horomanite
Formula: Fe6Ni3S8
Reference: Zoheir, B. (2011). Transpressional zones in ophiolitic mélange terranes: potential exploration targets for gold in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 111(1), 23-38.
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: http://www.gras-sd.com/products/bro_basemetel.htm
Huntite
Formula: CaMg3(CO3)4
Reference: Gatto Rotondo, G., Darchuk, L., Swaenen, M., & Van Grieken, R. (2012). Micro-Raman and SEM analysis of minerals from the Darhib mine, Egypt. Journal of analytical sciences, methods and instrumentation, 2(1), 42-47.
Huttonite
Formula: ThSiO4
Reference: Mohamed, A. (2013). Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Hydrobiotite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Harraz, H. Z.; Hamdy, M. M. 2010. Interstratified vermiculite-mica in the gneiss-metapelite-serpentinite rocks at Hafafit area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: From metasomatism to weathering. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 58, Issue 2, p. 305-320.
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
'Hydrophlogopite'
Reference: Harraz, H. Z.; Hamdy, M. M. 2010. Interstratified vermiculite-mica in the gneiss-metapelite-serpentinite rocks at Hafafit area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: From metasomatism to weathering. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 58, Issue 2, p. 305-320.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Jemmali, N., Souissi, F., Vennemann, T. W., & Carranza, E. J. M. (2011). Genesis of the Jurassic Carbonate‐Hosted Pb–Zn Deposits of Jebel Ressas (North‐Eastern Tunisia): Evidence from Mineralogy, Petrography and Trace Metal Contents and Isotope (O, C, S, Pb) Geochemistry. Resource geology, 61(4), 367-383.
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Ianthinite
Formula: U4+(UO2)5O7 · 10H2O
Reference: Hussein, H. A., & Bakhit, F. S. (1988). Uranium-Bearing Alkaline Volcanics of North Wadi Kariem and Surroundings, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mining Geology, 38(207), 39-48.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Irarsite
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Description: Along with sperrylite, most abundant of noble metal containing phases
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Iron
Formula: Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reference: Péter Németh, Stephen W. Lehner, Michail I. Petaev, Peter R. Buseck (2013): Kumdykolite, a high-temperature feldspar from an enstatite chondrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1070-1073.; Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289; Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.; Lehner, S. W., McDonough, W. F., & Németh, P. (2014). EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49(12), 2219-2240.
Iron var. Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Péter Németh, Stephen W. Lehner, Michail I. Petaev, Peter R. Buseck (2013): Kumdykolite, a high-temperature feldspar from an enstatite chondrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1070-1073.; Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289; Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.; Lehner, S. W., McDonough, W. F., & Németh, P. (2014). EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49(12), 2219-2240.
Iron var. Martensite
Formula: Fe
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2: 632-634. University of California Press.
Ishikawaite
Formula: U4+Fe2+Nb2O8
Reference: Yehia H. Dawood (2011) Mineral Chemistry and Genesis of Uranyl Minerals Associated with Psammitic Gneisses, Abu Rusheid Area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. JKAU: Earth Sci., Vol. 21, No. 1, pp: 137-169; Raslan, M. F., & Ali, M. A. (2011). Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Geologija, 54(2), 205-222.
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Ixiolite
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: Küster, D. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 68-86.
Ixiolite var. Wolframoixiolite
Formula: (Nb,W,Ta,Fe,Mn,Nb)2O4
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: http://www.gras-sd.com/products/bro_basemetel.htm
Jadeite
Formula: Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Reference: Ozawa, S., Ohtani, E., Suzuki, A., Miyahara, M., Terada, K., & Kimura, M. (2007, December). Shock metamorphism of L6 chondrites Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445: the PT conditions and the shock age. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: A. J. Irving, T. E. Bunch, Alan E. Rubin & John T. Wasson (2010). Northwest Africa 2828/Al Haggounia 001 is a Weathered, Unequilibrated EL Chondrite: Trace Element and Petrologic Evidence. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 45, p. A90. [Supplement]
Jordisite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Pagel, M., Cavellec, S., Forbes, P., Gerbaud, O., Vergely, P., Wagani, I., & Mathieu, R. (2005). Uranium deposits in the Arlit area (Niger). In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 303-305). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
'Joséite'
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Kaersutite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg3AlTi4+)(Si6Al2)O22O2
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
Kainite
Formula: KMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2O
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Kalsilite
Formula: KAlSiO4
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Kanemite (TL)
Formula: HNaSi2O5 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Zdenĕk, J., Maglione, G.E. (1972) La kanemite, nouveau silicate de sodium hydraté de néoformation. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 95, 372-382.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Karenwebberite
Formula: NaFe2+PO4
Reference: V. V. Sharygin, N. S. Karmanov and N. M. Podgornykh (2016) Na-Fe-Phosphate Globules in Impact Metal-Troilite Associations of Chelyabinsk Meteorite. 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society (2016)
Kasolite
Formula: Pb(UO2)(SiO4) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: B.H. Ali, M.G. El-Feky, M.A. Ali and E.K. Abu Zeid, (2008) Mineralogical and Fluid Inclusions Studies on the Mineralized Bostonite Dykes at UM Guruf Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1: 158-167.
Keilite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg)S
Reference: Addi Bischoff, Mariam Horstmann, Andreas Pack, Matthias Laubstein & Siegfried Haberer (2010). Asteroid 2008 TC3—Almahata Sitta: A spectacular breccia containing many different ureilitic and chondritic lithologies. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, (#10-11), 1638-1657-1667. (Oct-Nov 2010).
Keldyshite
Formula: (Na,H)2ZrSi2O7
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
'K Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Hassan, K.M. (2018): Trace elements and REE enrichment at Seboah Hill, SW Egypt. Mineralogia 49, 47-65.
Khatyrkite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)Al2
Reference: Suttle, M.D., Twegar, K., Nava, J., Spiess, R., Spratt, J., Campanale, F., and Folco, L. (2019) A unique CO-like micrometeorite hosting an exotic Al-Cu-Fe-bearing assemblage – close affinities with the Khatyrka meteorite. Scientific Reports, 9, Article number: 12426 (2019); https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48937-0
Kirschsteinite
Formula: CaFe2+SiO4
Description: Interstitial
Reference: Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
Krennerite
Formula: Au3AgTe8
Reference: Osman A. M., Pieczonka J., Piestrzyński A. 2002: Relationships between gold and tellurides in the El Sid gold deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 33, no 2, 15-26
Krotite (TL)
Formula: CaAl2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C., Kampf, A.R., Connolly, Jr, H.C., Beckett, J.R., Rossman, G.R., Sweeney Smith, S.A. and Schrader, D.L. (2010) Krotite, IMA 2010-038. CNMNC Newsletter, October 2010, page 901; Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 899-902.
Kumdykolite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Péter Németh, Stephen W. Lehner, Michail I. Petaev, Peter R. Buseck (2013): Kumdykolite, a high-temperature feldspar from an enstatite chondrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1070-1073.
Kuratite
Formula: Ca2(Fe2+5Ti)O2[Si4Al2O18]
Reference: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.P41A0219K (as rhönite); http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2014/pdf/1818.pdf
Kushiroite
Formula: CaAl[AlSiO6]
Reference: Ma, C., Krot, A.N., Nagashima, K. (2017): Addibischoffite, Ca2Al6Al6O20, a new calcium aluminate mineral from the Acfer 214 CH carbonaceous chondrite: A new refractory phase from the solar nebula. American Mineralogist: 102: 1556-1560.
Kushiroite var. Ti-kushiroite
Reference: Ma, C., Krot, A.N., Nagashima, K. (2017): Addibischoffite, Ca2Al6Al6O20, a new calcium aluminate mineral from the Acfer 214 CH carbonaceous chondrite: A new refractory phase from the solar nebula. American Mineralogist: 102: 1556-1560.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: M. Hassaan, A. El-Mezayen, Mervat S. Hassan, T. Ramadan and H. El-Desoky (2009) On the Metamorphism of Hafafit Sillimanite-bearing Pelitic Schists, Nubian Shield: Geochemical and Mineralogical Contributions. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(1): 229-253
Lakargiite
Formula: Ca(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3
Reference: Ma, C. (2011) Discovery of Meteoritic Lakargiite (CaZrO3), a New Ultra-Refractory Mineral from the Acfer 094 Carbonaceous Chondrite (Abstract-Id.#5169). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Supplement s1, p. A144. (Sept 2011).
Laurionite
Formula: PbCl(OH)
Reference: Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Laurite
Formula: RuS2
Description: Erlichmanite (Osmium sulfide) & Laurite (Ruthenium sulfide)form solid solutions and intimate intergrowths.
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Låvenite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 298.
Lechatelierite
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Rob Lavinsky
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: S. Tosson et al. , Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallogr. , 1974, 97, pp. 27-39.
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Leucite
Formula: K(AlSi2O6)
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Liandratite
Formula: U(Nb,Ta)2O8
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion study of the molybdenum-uranium-fluorite deposit, Gebel Gattar area, Eastern Desert, Egypt.
'Libyan Desert Glass'
Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_desert_glass; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C3%BCstenglas
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 77 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Georges FAVREAU collection
Lingunite
Formula: (Na,Ca)AlSi3O8
Reference: Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.
'Lithian Muscovite'
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 72-84.
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: Sakellaris, Grigorios Aarne & Meyer, Franz & Kolb, Jochen & Voudouris, Panagiotis. (2009). Implications for exsolution of Bi-Au-Ag-Te minerals from sulf-arsenides during retrograde metamorphism. A case study: Guelb Moghrein, Mauritania. RMS Annual Session 2009, Ontogeny of minerals applied to scientific and industrial uses, At St Petersburg
Loparite-(Ce)
Formula: (Na,REE)Ti2O6
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Lorenzenite
Formula: Na2Ti2(Si2O6)O3
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Loveringite
Formula: (Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
Description: Inclusions in picotite. Up to 8 wt% ZrO2.
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
'Low-calcium pyroxene'
Reference: https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?sea=Tass%C3%A9det+004&sfor=names&ants=&nwas=&falls=&valids=&stype=contains&lrec=50&map=ge&browse=&country=All&srt=name&categ=All&mblist=All&rect=&phot=&strewn=&snew=0&pnt=Normal%20table&code=70035
Lueshite
Formula: NaNbO3
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y., Tlig, S. & Lévy, C. (1996): Sulfide geochemistry and genesis of Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper deposits in northwestern Tunisia. Mineralium Deposita 31, 188-200.
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Maghemite
Formula: (Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
Reference: Hassan, K.M. (2018): Trace elements and REE enrichment at Seboah Hill, SW Egypt. Mineralogia 49, 47-65.
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Endress, M., Keil, K., Bischoff, A., Spettel, B., Clayton, R. N. & Mayeda, T. K. (1994) Origin of dark clasts in the ACFER 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 chondrite: Meteoritics 29 (1): 26-40. (Jan 1994).
Magnesite var. Breunnerite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)CO3
Reference: Endress, M., Keil, K., Bischoff, A., Spettel, B., Clayton, R. N. & Mayeda, T. K. (1994) Origin of dark clasts in the ACFER 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 chondrite: Meteoritics 29 (1): 26-40. (Jan 1994).
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 122 localities in this region.
Description: Magnetite is usually Ti-rich, characteritic of most Angrites
Reference: Mikouchi, T., McKay, G., Le, L. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (200O) Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI. abstract no. 1970. (March 2000); Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
Magnetite var. Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Abdel‐Karim, A. A. M., & El‐Shafei, S. A. (2018). Mineralogy and chemical aspects of some ophiolitic metaultramafics, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidences from chromites, sulphides and gangues. Geological Journal, 53(2), 580-599.
Majorite
Formula: Mg3(MgSi)(SiO4)3
Reference: Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 118 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Maldonite
Formula: Au2Bi
Reference: Sakellaris, G.A., Meyer, F.M. (2008) A Metamorphic Origin of the Guelb Moghrein Fe Oxide-Copper-Gold-Cobalt Deposit, Mauritania. http://www.minsoc.ru/2008-1-101-1
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Helba, H., Trumbull, R.B., Morteani, G., Khalil, S.O., and Arslan, A. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 164-179.
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Basem Zoheir and Bernd Lehmann (2011): Listvenite–lode association at the Barramiya gold mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ore Geology Reviews 39, 101-115.
Marićite
Formula: NaFe2+(PO4)
Reference: V. V. Sharygin, N. S. Karmanov and N. M. Podgornykh (2016) Na-Fe-Phosphate Globules in Impact Metal-Troilite Associations of Chelyabinsk Meteorite. 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society (2016)
'Maskelynite'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
Masutomilite
Formula: (K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Masuyite
Formula: Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
Reference: B.H. Ali, M.G. El-Feky, M.A. Ali and E.K. Abu Zeid, (2008) Mineralogical and Fluid Inclusions Studies on the Mineralized Bostonite Dykes at UM Guruf Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1: 158-167.
Mckinstryite
Formula: Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Feb. 1999; Ibrahim M. Shalaby, Eugen Stumpfl, Hassan M. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El Mahallawi and Omar A. Kamel (2004) Silver and silver-bearing minerals at the Um Samiuki volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: A. J. Irving, T. E. Bunch, Alan E. Rubin & John T. Wasson (2010). Northwest Africa 2828/Al Haggounia 001 is a Weathered, Unequilibrated EL Chondrite: Trace Element and Petrologic Evidence. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 45, p. A90. [Supplement]
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: Prominent Melilite, Perovskite, Spinel, Hibonite associated in some dark inclusions in El Djouf 001 and Acfer 087 fragments.
Reference: Weber D, Bischoff A (1994) Grossite (CaAl4O7) - a rare phase in terrestrial rocks and meteorites, European Journal of Mineralogy 6, 591-594 ; Weber, D., & Bischoff, A. (1992, March). Mineralogy and chemistry of refractory inclusions in CR-like chondrites from the Sahara desert. In Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts (Vol. 23, p. 1505).
Melonite
Formula: NiTe2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Melonite var. Palladian Melonite
Formula: (Ni,Pd)Te2
Reference: Helmy, H.M., and Mogessie, A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 58-71.
Merenskyite
Formula: PdTe2
Reference: Helmy, H.M., and Mogessie, A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 58-71.; Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Merrillite
Formula: Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
Meta-autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Yehia H. Dawood (2011) Mineral Chemistry and Genesis of Uranyl Minerals Associated with Psammitic Gneisses, Abu Rusheid Area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. JKAU: Earth Sci., Vol. 21, No. 1, pp: 137-169
'Metafelsic-rock'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Meteoritic Iron'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Grady, M.M., Pratesi, G. & Moggi-Cecchi, V. (2015) Atlas of Meteorites. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom. 373 pages.
'Mica Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Michenerite
Formula: PdBiTe
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Microcline var. Amazonite
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Microcline var. Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Meteoritical Society Abstracts (2001)
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Reference: Helba, H., Trumbull, R.B., Morteani, G., Khalil, S.O., and Arslan, A. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 164-179.
'Microperthite'
Reference: Ismail, A. I., Ghabrial, D. S., Ibrahem, W. A., Eissa, M., Cazzaniga, A., Zanelli, C., & Dondi, M. (2018).Exploring syenites from ring complexes in the Eastern Desert (Egypt) as ceramic raw materials. Periodico di Mineralogia, 87(1).
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Colour: Yellow
Description: Up to 2 cm, yellow crystals with bent faces, found in 2002, originally thought to be mimetite, but XRD analysis showed it to be cerussite (platy penetration twins)(Jahn et al 2003) True mimetite has been analytically confirmed on other specimens (Jordi Fabre).
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.336)
Minrecordite ?
Formula: CaZn(CO3)2
Description: ID by x-ray (may be a bit questionable)
Reference: Belhai, D., Sahoui, R., & Devouard, B. (2012, March). New Studies about the Maadna Impact Crater (Talemzane, Algeria). In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 43).
Mirabilite
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Reference: Belyanin, G. A., Kramers, J. D., Andreoli, M. A., Greco, F., Gucsik, A., Makhubela, T. V., ... & Wiedenbeck, M. (2017). Petrography of the carbonaceous, diamond-bearing stone “Hypatia” from southwest Egypt: A contribution to the debate on its origin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
Moluranite
Formula: H4U4+(UO2)3(MoO4)7 · 18H2O
Reference: Hussein, H. A., & Bakhit, F. S. (1988). Uranium-Bearing Alkaline Volcanics of North Wadi Kariem and Surroundings, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mining Geology, 38(207), 39-48.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
'Monazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Benaouda, R., Kraemer, D., Sitnikova, M., Goldmann, S., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Errami, A., Mouttaqi, A., Bau, M. (2020): Discovery of high-grade REE-Nb-Fe mineralization associated with calciocarbonatite in south Morocco. Ore Geology Reviews, 109, (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=16432
Moncheite
Formula: (Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Description: A single grain was analyzed (Schulze,1998).
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Moncheite var. Chengbolite
Description: A single grain was analyzed (Schulze,1998).
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Montroseite
Formula: (V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)
Reference: Pagel, M., Cavellec, S., Forbes, P., Gerbaud, O., Vergely, P., Wagani, I., & Mathieu, R. (2005). Uranium deposits in the Arlit area (Niger). In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 303-305). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Gatto Rotondo, G., Darchuk, L., Swaenen, M., & Van Grieken, R. (2012). Micro-Raman and SEM analysis of minerals from the Darhib mine, Egypt. Journal of analytical sciences, methods and instrumentation, 2(1), 42-47.
Mullite
Formula: Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
Reference: Gian Paolo Sighinolfi, Chiara Elmi, Romano Serra, and Gabriele Contini (2014): High density silica phases as evidence of small-scale hypervelocity impacts: the Gebel Kamil Crater (Egypt). Periodico di Mineralogia 83, 299-312.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 61 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Muscovite var. Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Zoheir, B., & Emam, A. (2014). Field and ASTER imagery data for the setting of gold mineralization in Western Allaqi–Heiani belt, Egypt: A case study from the Haimur deposit. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 99, 150-164.
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Muscovite var. Mariposite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)2(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Abdel‐Karim, A. A. M., & El‐Shafei, S. A. (2018). Mineralogy and chemical aspects of some ophiolitic metaultramafics, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidences from chromites, sulphides and gangues. Geological Journal, 53(2), 580-599.
Muscovite var. Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Reference: Zoheir, Basem & Weihed, Pär. (2013) Greenstone-hosted lode-gold mineralization at Dungash mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2013.06.002.
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Econ Geol (1984) 79:389-392
Nagyágite
Formula: [Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
Reference: Osman A. M., Pieczonka J., Piestrzyński A. 2002: Relationships between gold and tellurides in the El Sid gold deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 33, no 2, 15-26
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Narsarsukite
Formula: Na4(Ti,Fe)2[Si8O20](O,OH,F)2
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Flinn et al. (1992)
Natron
Formula: Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Reference: Salem, S.M., Sayed Ahmed El Gammal, El. (2018) Salt Minerals at Wadi El Natrun Saline Lakes, Egypt. New Implications from Remote Sensing Data. European Chemical Bulletin, 7(2), 72-80. [DOI: 10.17628/ecb.2018.7.72-80].
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Sakellaris, G.A., Meyer, F.M. (2008) A Metamorphic Origin of the Guelb Moghrein Fe Oxide-Copper-Gold-Cobalt Deposit, Mauritania. http://www.minsoc.ru/2008-1-101-1
'Nickel-iron'
Reference: Bischoff, A., Palme, H., Geiger, T. & Spettel, B. (1992) Mineralogy and Chemistry of the EL-Chondritic Melt Rock Ilafegh-009 (Abstract): LPSC XXIII: page 105. (March 1992); McCoy, T. J. et al. (1995) Origin and history of impact-melt rocks of enstatite chondrite parentage: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59 (1): 161-175. (Feb 1995)
Nickelphosphide
Formula: (Ni,Fe)3P
Reference: Gunnar Färber specimens
Nickelskutterudite
Formula: (Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.339)
Nierite
Formula: Si3N4
Reference: Lee, M.R., Russell, S.S., Arden, J.W., & Pillinger, C.T. (1995) Nierite (Si3N4), a new mineral from ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Meteoritics 30 (4): 387-397. (July 1995).
Niningerite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
Reference: Péter Németh, Stephen W. Lehner, Michail I. Petaev, Peter R. Buseck (2013): Kumdykolite, a high-temperature feldspar from an enstatite chondrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1070-1073.; Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289; Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.; Lehner, S. W., McDonough, W. F., & Németh, P. (2014). EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49(12), 2219-2240.
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: S. Tosson et al. , Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallogr. , 1974, 97, pp. 27-39.
Nordstrandite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Northupite
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
'Ochre'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Oldhamite
Formula: (Ca,Mg)S
Reference: Péter Németh, Stephen W. Lehner, Michail I. Petaev, Peter R. Buseck (2013): Kumdykolite, a high-temperature feldspar from an enstatite chondrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1070-1073.; Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289; Lehner, S. W., Nemeth, P., Petaev, M. I., & Buseck, P. R. (2013). Origin of Fine-Grained Albite in an EH3 Sulfidized Chondrule. LPI Contributions, 1719, 2500.; Lehner, S. W., McDonough, W. F., & Németh, P. (2014). EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49(12), 2219-2240.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
Osbornite
Formula: TiN
Description: 3 small grains
Reference: McCoy, T. J. et al. (1995) Origin and history of impact-melt rocks of enstatite chondrite parentage: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59 (1): 161-175. (Feb 1995)
Pargasite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Parisite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Reference: Taylor, C.D. and Giles, S. A. (2012): Potentiel minéral pour des dépôts d’éléments incompatibles au sein des pegmatites, de roches alcalines et de carbonatites sur le territoire de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie.- Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie (PRISM-II), Phase V ; Livrable 87, USGS, 45 pages.
Parkerite
Formula: Ni3(Bi,Pb)2S2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Penfieldite
Formula: Pb2Cl3(OH)
Reference: Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Pentahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Bischoff et al. (1994) ACFER 217 - A new member of the Rumuruti chondrite group (R): Meteoritics 29 (2): 264-274. (March 1994)
Periclase
Formula: MgO
Reference: Greshake, A., Bischoff, A. & Putnis, A. (1996). Pure CaO, MgO (Periclase), TiO2 (Rutile), and Al2O3 (Corundum) in Ca,Al-rich Inclusions from Carbonaceous Chondrites. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, p. 463. (March 1996).
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Weber D, Bischoff A (1994) Grossite (CaAl4O7) - a rare phase in terrestrial rocks and meteorites, European Journal of Mineralogy 6, 591-594 ; Weber, D., & Bischoff, A. (1992, March). Mineralogy and chemistry of refractory inclusions in CR-like chondrites from the Sahara desert. In Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts (Vol. 23, p. 1505).
Perryite
Formula: (Ni,Fe)5(Si,P)2
Reference: Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289
Petalite
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
'Petrified Wood'
Reference: Anthony Ham (2002) Libya (Lonely Planet Country Guide)
Petzite
Formula: Ag3AuTe2
Reference: Osman A. M., Pieczonka J., Piestrzyński A. 2002: Relationships between gold and tellurides in the El Sid gold deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 33, no 2, 15-26
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Phlogopite var. Chromium-bearing Phlogopite
Formula: K(Mg,Cr)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Ti-Cr phlogopite.
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Reference: Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Phosphohedyphane
Formula: Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Joan Rosell - Rosell Minerals
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pigeonite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
Pilsenite
Formula: Bi4Te3
Reference: Kolb, J., Sakellaris, G. A., & Meyer, F. M. (2006). Controls on hydrothermal Fe oxide–Cu–Au–Co mineralization at the Guelb Moghrein deposit, Akjoujt area, Mauritania. Mineralium Deposita, 41(1), 68-81.; Sakellaris, Grigorios Aarne & Meyer, Franz & Kolb, Jochen & Voudouris, Panagiotis. (2009). Implications for exsolution of Bi-Au-Ag-Te minerals from sulf-arsenides during retrograde metamorphism. A case study: Guelb Moghrein, Mauritania. RMS Annual Session 2009, Ontogeny of minerals applied to scientific and industrial uses, At St Petersburg; Kolb, Jochen & Petrov, Nikolay. (2015). The Guelb Moghrein Cu–Au deposit: Neoarchaean hydrothermal sulfide mineralization in carbonate-facies iron formation. Ore Geology Reviews. 78. 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2015.09.003.
Pirssonite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
'Plessite'
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, vol 2: 632-634. University of California Press.
Pollucite
Formula: (Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: Abia, E. H., Nachit, H., Marignac, C., Ibhi, A., & Saadi, S. A. (2003). The polymetallic Au–Ag-bearing veins of Bou Madine (Jbel Ougnat, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): tectonic control and evolution of a Neoproterozoic epithermal deposit. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 36(4), 251-271.
Polycrase-(Y)
Formula: Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion study of the molybdenum-uranium-fluorite deposit, Gebel Gattar area, Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Polyhalite
Formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Polylithionite
Formula: KLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
Reference: Abd El-Naby, H.H. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 436-446.
'Potash Feldspar'
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion study of the molybdenum-uranium-fluorite deposit, Gebel Gattar area, Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
Formula: [(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
'Protolithionite'
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: Ko Jansen collection photo id 681252
Pseudobrookite
Formula: Fe2TiO5
Description: Mg-rich pseudobrookite inclusions in picotite. Ferri-armalcolite.
Reference: J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.339)
Pseudorutile
Formula: Fe2Ti3O9
Reference: C. Hejny et al. (2002) Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 957-967
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Reference: Abia, E. H., Nachit, H., Marignac, C., Ibhi, A., & Saadi, S. A. (2003). The polymetallic Au–Ag-bearing veins of Bou Madine (Jbel Ougnat, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): tectonic control and evolution of a Neoproterozoic epithermal deposit. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 36(4), 251-271.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 222 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Pyrite var. Arsenian Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Zoheir, Basem & Weihed, Pär. (2013) Greenstone-hosted lode-gold mineralization at Dungash mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2013.06.002.
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
'Pyrochlore Group var. Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: Benaouda, R., Holzheid, A., Schenk, V., Badra, L., Enaciri, A. (2017): Magmatic evolution of the Jbel Boho alkaline complex in the Bou Azzer inlier (Anti-Atlas/Morocco) and its relation to REE mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences: 129; doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.01.003
'Pyrochlore Group var. Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: Mohamed, A. (2013). Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.
'Pyrochlore Group var. Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: (Ca,U,Ce)2(Nb,Ti,Ta)2O6(OH,F)
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion study of the molybdenum-uranium-fluorite deposit, Gebel Gattar area, Eastern Desert, Egypt.
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'
Formula: A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
'Pyrochlore Supergroup var. Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: (Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p 329)
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: http://www.rexmining.be/rdmc/Pressroom/1999/1999_06_29_E.htm; Rex Diamond Mining Corp. Investors Brief; .
'Pyroxene Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reference: Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 335 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: H. A. Gilg (2012) Ancient Gems: Egyptian Amethyst in Amethyst: Uncommon Vintage (2012) No. 16 Lithographie. Denver pp22-25
Quartz var. Carnelian
Reference: Harrell, J.A. and Bloxam, E.G. (2004) Stela Ridge Carnelian Mine, Nubian Desert. Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, Tucson, AZ. Program and Abstracts: 52.; Harrell, James A., Sidebotham, Steven E., Bagnall, Roger S., Marchand, Sylvie, Gates, Jennifer E., and Rivard, Jean-Louis (2006) The Ptolemaic to Early Roman Amethyst Quarry at Abu Diyeiba in Egypt’s Eastern Desert. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale (BIFAO), 106, 127-162.; Gilg, H.A. (2012) Ancient Gems: Egyptian Amethyst. In: Amethyst: Uncommon Vintage. ExtraLapis No. 16 Lithographie Monograph. Denver, 22-25.
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Quartz var. Eisenkiesel
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lapis 39 (2014), p. 70
Quartz var. Ferruginous Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Quartz var. Jasper
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Quartz var. Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Zoheir, B., & Emam, A. (2014). Field and ASTER imagery data for the setting of gold mineralization in Western Allaqi–Heiani belt, Egypt: A case study from the Haimur deposit. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 99, 150-164.
Quartz var. Quartz Gwindel
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Quartz var. Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Kaindl, R., Fritz, H., & Loizenbauer, J. (2004). The Sukari Gold Mine, Eastern Desert—Egypt: structural setting, mineralogy and fluid inclusion study. Mineralium Deposita, 39(4), 495-511.
Rammelsbergite
Formula: NiAs2
Reference: Jahn, S., Medenbach, O., Lyckberg, P., Lierl, H. J., Bode, R. & Brandstätter, G. (2003): Marokko - Land der schönen Mineralien und Fossilien. Bode Verlag, Haltern, Germany, 543 pp (p.339)
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Reference: http://www.gras-sd.com/products/bro_basemetel.htm
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Rhodonite
Formula: CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Reference: Ibrahim M. Shalaby, Eugen Stumpfl, Hassan M. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El Mahallawi and Omar A. Kamel (2004) Silver and silver-bearing minerals at the Um Samiuki volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Rhönite
Formula: Ca4[Mg8Fe3+2Ti2]O4[Si6Al6O36]
Description: No Ferric iron, Al deficiency in tetrahedral site; similar to Rhönite in D'Orbigny angite. Rhönite is quite rare in meteorites.
Reference: Jambon, A. & Boudouma, O. (2011). Evidence for Rhönite in Angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555: 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Supplement, id.5167. (Sept 2011)
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Hassan, K.M. (2018): Trace elements and REE enrichment at Seboah Hill, SW Egypt. Mineralogia 49, 47-65.
Ringwoodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
Reference: Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Liu, Y., Beckett, J. R., Rossman, G. R., Zuravlev, K., ... & Taylor, L. A. (2014, March). Discovery of Ahrensite gamma-Fe2SiO4 and Tissintite (Ca, Na, □) AlSi2O6: Two New High Pressure Minerals from the Tissint Martian Meteorite. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 45, p. 1222).; Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.; Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., El Goresy, A., Ozawa, S., & Gillet, P. (2016). Phase transition processes of olivine in the shocked Martian meteorite Tissint: Clues to origin of ringwoodite-, bridgmanite-and magnesiowüstite-bearing assemblages. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 259, 18-28.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Gatto Rotondo, G., Darchuk, L., Swaenen, M., & Van Grieken, R. (2012). Micro-Raman and SEM analysis of minerals from the Darhib mine, Egypt. Journal of analytical sciences, methods and instrumentation, 2(1), 42-47.
Rozenite
Formula: FeSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Rutherfordine
Formula: (UO2)CO3
Reference: El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Rutile var. Ilmenorutile
Formula: Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Reference: Taylor, C.D. and Giles, S. A. (2012): Potentiel minéral pour des dépôts d’éléments incompatibles au sein des pegmatites, de roches alcalines et de carbonatites sur le territoire de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie.- Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie (PRISM-II), Phase V ; Livrable 87, USGS, 45 pages.
Samarskite-(Y)
Formula: YFe3+Nb2O8
Reference: Raslan, M. F., El-Shall, H. E., Omar, S. A., & Daher, A. M. (2010). Mineralogy of polymetallic mineralized pegmatite of Ras Baroud granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of mineralogical and petrological sciences, 105(3), 123-134.
Sampleite
Formula: NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Description: Occurs on copper alloy objects (anthropogenic origin).
Reference: Fabrizi, M., Ganiaris, H., Tarling, S.E., and Scott, D.A. (1989) The occurrence of sampleite, a complex copper phosphate, as a corrosion product on copper alloy objects from Memphis, Egypt. Studies in Conservation: 34: 45-51.
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: M. Girod, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Crist. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 121-125.
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Description: Saponite-serpentine intergrowths in some dark inclusions indicative of disequilibrium.
Reference: Greshake, A., Krot, A. N. & Keil, K. (2004) Mineralogy and Chemistry of Fine-grained Matrices, Rims, and Dark Inclusions in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites Acfer/El Djouf 001 and the Ungrouped Carbonaceous Chondrites Acfer 094 and Adelaide. Workshop on Chondrites and Protoplanetary Disk, pdf.9041. (Nov 2004)
Sapphirine
Formula: Mg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Sarcopside
Formula: (Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
Reference: V. V. Sharygin, N. S. Karmanov and N. M. Podgornykh (2016) Na-Fe-Phosphate Globules in Impact Metal-Troilite Associations of Chelyabinsk Meteorite. 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society (2016)
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Schoepite
Formula: (UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 12H2O
Reference: El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
Schreibersite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3P
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Gannoun, A., Boyet, M., El Goresy, A., & Devouard, B. (2011). REE and actinide microdistribution in Sahara 97072 and ALHA77295 EH3 chondrites: A combined cosmochemical and petrologic investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(11), 3269-3289
Schröckingerite
Formula: NaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
Reference: El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Jianyong Hu, Lun Yang, Hui Li, and Jianquan Liu (2011): Geology and Exploration 47(3), 505-511
Searlesite ?
Formula: Na(H2BSi2O7)
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Seligmannite
Formula: PbCuAsS3
Reference: Aouli Essaid, Belov S.V (2015) Structural and Mineralogical Features of the Amesmessa Mineral Deposit in the Algerian Sahara. XII International Conference «New Ideas in Earth Sciences»pp 97-98
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
'Serpentine Subgroup var. Bastite'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Abdel‐Karim, A. A. M., & El‐Shafei, S. A. (2018). Mineralogy and chemical aspects of some ophiolitic metaultramafics, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidences from chromites, sulphides and gangues. Geological Journal, 53(2), 580-599.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Siderite var. Manganese-bearing Siderite
Formula: (Fe,Mn)CO3
Reference: Kesraoui, M., & Nedjari, S. (2002). Contrasting evolution of low-P rare metal granites from two different terranes in the Hoggar area, Algeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 247-257.; Kesraoui Mokrane; Marignac Christian; Verkaeren Jean, 2000: Late magmatic evolution of rare earth granites; example of the Tin-Amzi Cupola Ahaggar, Algeria. Bulletin du Service Geologique de l'Algerie 11(2): 195-216
Siderite var. Pistomesite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)CO3
Reference: Kolb, Jochen & Petrov, Nikolay. (2015). The Guelb Moghrein Cu–Au deposit: Neoarchaean hydrothermal sulfide mineralization in carbonate-facies iron formation. Ore Geology Reviews. 78. 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2015.09.003.
Siderophyllite
Formula: KFe2+2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Reference: MinMag 63:821-836
'Silica'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Michael Zolensky et al. (2010). Mineralogy and Petrography of the Almahata Sitta ureilite, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, #10-11, 1618-1637. (Oct/Nov 2010).
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: M. Guiraud, J.R. Kienast, A. Rahmani : "Petrological study of high-temperature granulites from In Ouzal, Algeria : some implications on the phase relationships in the FMASTOCr system", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1375-1390.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: http://www.gras-sd.com/products/bro_basemetel.htm
Sinoite
Formula: Si2N2O
Reference: Ahmed El Goresy, Y. Lin, L. Feng, M. Boyet, J. Hao, J. Zhang & L. Dubrovinsky (2012). Almahata Sitta EL-3 Chondrites: Sinoite, Graphite, and Oldhamite (CsS) Assemblages C- and N-Isotopic Compositions and REE Patterns. 75th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held August 12-17, 2012 in Cairns, Australia. Published in Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, id.5108. ( Sept2012).
Sklodowskite
Formula: Mg(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Hussein, H. A., & Bakhit, F. S. (1988). Uranium-Bearing Alkaline Volcanics of North Wadi Kariem and Surroundings, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mining Geology, 38(207), 39-48.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Guillaumen Matton (2008) Le Complexe Crétacé Du Rlchat (Mauritanie); Un Processus Alcalin Péri-Atlantiqu. PhD Thesis University of Montreal.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Steve Sorrell Collection
'Soapstone'
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Sodalite
Formula: Na4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Soddyite
Formula: (UO2)2SiO4 · 2H2O
Reference: El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
'Sodic plagioclase'
Reference: https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=72475
Sperrylite
Formula: PtAs2
Description: Along with irarsite - most abundant of noble metal containing phases
Reference: Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Helba, H., Trumbull, R.B., Morteani, G., Khalil, S.O., and Arslan, A. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 164-179.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 65 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Reference: Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
Spinel var. Pleonaste
Formula: (Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Description: Pleonaste and Cr-Pleonaste appear as two distinct varieties or phases in this meteorite
Reference: Weisberg et al., (2008) Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 94: Meteoritics and Planetary Science 43 (9): 1551-1588. (Sept 2008) ; Anorthite, Diopside, Olivine; Merrillite, Pleonaste, Spinel, Troilite
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Starkeyite
Formula: MgSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Reference: Ibrahim M. Shalaby, Eugen Stumpfl, Hassan M. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El Mahallawi and Omar A. Kamel (2004) Silver and silver-bearing minerals at the Um Samiuki volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Reference: Helba, H., Trumbull, R.B., Morteani, G., Khalil, S.O., and Arslan, A. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 164-179.
Stishovite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.
Stolperite
Formula: AlCu
Reference: Suttle, M.D., Twegar, K., Nava, J., Spiess, R., Spratt, J., Campanale, F., and Folco, L. (2019) A unique CO-like micrometeorite hosting an exotic Al-Cu-Fe-bearing assemblage – close affinities with the Khatyrka meteorite. Scientific Reports, 9, Article number: 12426 (2019); https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48937-0
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Stützite
Formula: Ag5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36
Reference: Kolb, J., Sakellaris, G. A., & Meyer, F. M. (2006). Controls on hydrothermal Fe oxide–Cu–Au–Co mineralization at the Guelb Moghrein deposit, Akjoujt area, Mauritania. Mineralium Deposita, 41(1), 68-81.; Sakellaris, Grigorios Aarne & Meyer, Franz & Kolb, Jochen & Voudouris, Panagiotis. (2009). Implications for exsolution of Bi-Au-Ag-Te minerals from sulf-arsenides during retrograde metamorphism. A case study: Guelb Moghrein, Mauritania. RMS Annual Session 2009, Ontogeny of minerals applied to scientific and industrial uses, At St Petersburg; Kolb, Jochen & Petrov, Nikolay. (2015). The Guelb Moghrein Cu–Au deposit: Neoarchaean hydrothermal sulfide mineralization in carbonate-facies iron formation. Ore Geology Reviews. 78. 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2015.09.003.
Sudburyite
Formula: PdSb
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Suessite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3Si
Reference: Addi Bischoff, Mariam Horstmann, Andreas Pack, Matthias Laubstein & Siegfried Haberer (2010). Asteroid 2008 TC3—Almahata Sitta: A spectacular breccia containing many different ureilitic and chondritic lithologies. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, (#10-11), 1638-1657-1667. (Oct-Nov 2010).
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Sylvanite
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Reference: Osman A. M., Pieczonka J., Piestrzyński A. 2002: Relationships between gold and tellurides in the El Sid gold deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 33, no 2, 15-26
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: A. J. Irving, T. E. Bunch, Alan E. Rubin & John T. Wasson (2010). Northwest Africa 2828/Al Haggounia 001 is a Weathered, Unequilibrated EL Chondrite: Trace Element and Petrologic Evidence. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 45, p. A90. [Supplement]
'Synchysite'
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Synchysite-(Y)
Formula: CaY(CO3)2F
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Szomolnokite
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Reference: Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Description: In amoeboid inclusions.
Reference: Owocki, K. & Muszyńcki, A. (2012) Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite. Geologos 18 (2): 111-118.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Emam, A. (2015) Geochemical Zonal Distribution Of Gold And Associating Elements At Site (S. Ii), Marahiq Gold Mineralization, Wadi Allaqi District, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 4, April 2015 pp 817-834
'Tantalite'
Formula: (Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
'Tapiolite'
Formula: (Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Reference: Küster, D. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 68-86.
Tazheranite
Formula: (Zr,Ti,Ca)O2-x
Reference: Ma, C. (2011) Discovery of Meteoritic Lakargiite (CaZrO3), a New Ultra-Refractory Mineral from the Acfer 094 Carbonaceous Chondrite (Abstract-Id.#5169). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Supplement s1, p. A144. (Sept 2011).
Tellurium
Formula: Te
Reference: Helmy, H. M. (2005). Melonite group minerals and other tellurides from three Cu–Ni–PGE prospects, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ore Geology Reviews, 26(3-4), 305-324.
Tellurobismuthite
Formula: Bi2Te3
Reference: Osman A. M., Pieczonka J., Piestrzyński A. 2002: Relationships between gold and tellurides in the El Sid gold deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 33, no 2, 15-26
'Tennantite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y., Tlig, S. & Lévy, C. (1996): Sulfide geochemistry and genesis of Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper deposits in northwestern Tunisia. Mineralium Deposita 31, 188-200.
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'
Reference: http://www.archive.org/stream/latunisie00laneuoft/latunisie00laneuoft_djvu.txt
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Reference: Ibrahim M. Shalaby, Eugen Stumpfl, Hassan M. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El Mahallawi and Omar A. Kamel (2004) Silver and silver-bearing minerals at the Um Samiuki volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita Volume 39, Numbers 5-6, 608-621
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Reference: Aouli Essaid, Belov S.V (2015) Structural and Mineralogical Features of the Amesmessa Mineral Deposit in the Algerian Sahara. XII International Conference «New Ideas in Earth Sciences»pp 97-98
Tetraferriannite
Formula: KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Reference: J. Fabriès and G. Rocci, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Cristallo., 1965, LXXXVIII, 319-340
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Jianyong Hu, Lun Yang, Hui Li, and Jianquan Liu (2011): Geology and Exploration 47(3), 505-511
Tetrataenite
Formula: FeNi
Reference: Riches, A.J.V. et. al. (2012) Rhenium–osmium isotope and highly-siderophile-element abundance systematics of angrite meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 353-354: 208-218, Angrite Appendix.
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Thermonatrite
Formula: Na2CO3 · H2O
Reference: Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Thorianite
Formula: ThO2
Reference: Shalaby, M., Osman, A., Ali, M., Ahamed, F., & Ali, B. (2002). Radioactive Mineralization in Pegmatites, of Dara-Um Swassi, Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Earth Sciences, 50(1), 51-66.
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Hamdy H. Abd El-Naby (2009): High and low temperature alteration of uranium and thorium minerals, Um Ara granites, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ore Geology Reviews 35, 436-446.
Thorite var. Thorogummite
Formula: (Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Thorite var. Uranothorite
Formula: (Th,U)SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Mohamed, A. (2013). Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Tissintite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na,◻)AlSi2O6
Type Locality:
Reference: Ma, C., Liu, Y. and Tschauner, O. (2013) Tissintite, IMA 2013-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2707; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709; Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Beckett, J.R., Liu, Y., Rossman, G.R., Zhuravlev, K., Prakapenka, V., Dera, P., Taylor, L.A. (2015): Tissintite, (Ca, Na, □)AlSi2O6, a highly-defective, shock-induced, high-pressure clinopyroxene in the Tissint martian meteorite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 422, 194-205
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Hadj-Kaddour, Z., Liegeois, J. P., Demaiffe, D., & Caby, R. (1998). The alkaline–peralkaline granitic post-collisional Tin Zebane dyke swarm (Pan-African Tuareg shield, Algeria): prevalent mantle signature and late agpaitic differentiation. Lithos, 45(1), 223-243.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Roman, S.G., Flach, G., Din, C., Wollenberg, P., Sanguinetti, H. (2018) DASA: Africa's Newest World Class Uranium Deposit in Niger, West Africa-A Global Atomic Corporation Project (No. IAEA-CN--261).
Tosudite
Formula: Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Reference: Billon, S., Patrier, P., Beaufort, D., Sardini, P., & Wattinne-Morice, A. (2016). Occurrence of tosudite in the Guezouman, Tarat and Tchirezrine 2 formations, hosts of uranium deposits in Niger (Tim Mersoï basin). Clay Minerals, 51(4), 635-651.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Tremolite
Formula: ◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: M. Hassaan, A. El-Mezayen, Mervat S. Hassan, T. Ramadan and H. El-Desoky (2009) On the Metamorphism of Hafafit Sillimanite-bearing Pelitic Schists, Nubian Shield: Geochemical and Mineralogical Contributions. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(1): 229-253; Journal of African Earth Sciences Volume 58, Issue 2, September 2010, Pages 305–320
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Mittlefehldt, D. W., McCoy, T. J., Goodrich, C. A. & Kracher, A. (1998). Non-chondritic meteorites from asteroidal bodies. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J. [Ed.]): Chapter 4, 195 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA.
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Description: Traces only
Reference: Mikouchi, T., McKay, G., Le, L. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (200O) Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI. abstract no. 1970. (March 2000); Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
Trona
Formula: Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.
Tsangpoite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)2(SiO4)
Reference: Hwang, S. L., Shen, P., Chu, H. T., Yui, T. F., Varela, M. E., & Iizuka, Y. (2016, March). Tsangpoite: The Unknown Calcium Silico Phosphate Phase in the Angrite D'Orbigny. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 47, p. 1466).
Tsumoite
Formula: BiTe
Reference: Helmy, H. M. (2005). Melonite group minerals and other tellurides from three Cu–Ni–PGE prospects, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ore Geology Reviews, 26(3-4), 305-324.
Tuite
Formula: Ca3(PO4)2
Reference: Ozawa, S., Ohtani, E., Suzuki, A., Miyahara, M., Terada, K., & Kimura, M. (2007, December). Shock metamorphism of L6 chondrites Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445: the PT conditions and the shock age. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Tungstite
Formula: WO3 · H2O
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Tyuyamunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Ulvöspinel
Formula: TiFe2O4
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin Database
'UM2004-47-SiO:AlCaNa' ?
Formula: (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)6O11
Reference: Beck, P., Gillet, P., Gautron, L., Daniel, I., El Goresy, A. (2004): A new natural high-pressure (Na,Ca)-hexaluminosilicate [(CaxNa1–x)Al3+xSi3–xO11] in shocked Martian meteorites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.: 219: 1–12; in: Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S., (2004): New mineral names. Am. Mineral.: 89: 1833
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Mineralium Deposita (2006) 41:68-81; Sakellaris, G.A., Meyer, F.M. (2008) A Metamorphic Origin of the Guelb Moghrein Fe Oxide-Copper-Gold-Cobalt Deposit, Mauritania. http://www.minsoc.ru/2008-1-101-1
Uraninite var. Pitchblende
Formula: UO2
Reference: Pagel, M., Cavellec, S., Forbes, P., Gerbaud, O., Vergely, P., Wagani, I., & Mathieu, R. (2005). Uranium deposits in the Arlit area (Niger). In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 303-305). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Uranocircite
Formula: Ba(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
Uranophane
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: International Geological Congress (2008) MRD-19 Geochemical studies and uranium distribution on granitic: Pegmatitic rocks of Wadi Hawashiya, Ras Gharib District, north Eastern Desert, Egypt
Uranophane-β
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Hussein, H. A., & Bakhit, F. S. (1988). Uranium-Bearing Alkaline Volcanics of North Wadi Kariem and Surroundings, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mining Geology, 38(207), 39-48.
Uranopilite
Formula: (UO2)6(SO4)O2(OH)6 · 14H2O
Reference: El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
Uranopolycrase
Formula: (U4+,Y)(Ti,Nb)2O6
Reference: Helmy, H. M., & Kaindl, R. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion study of the molybdenum-uranium-fluorite deposit, Gebel Gattar area, Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Valleriite
Formula: (Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Reference: M. Youssef collection; M. Youssef and Rob Lavinsky specimens.
Varlamoffite
Formula: (Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Reference: M. S. Amin and M. S. Afia (1954) Anthophyllite-vermiculite deposit of Hafafit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 49:317-327; Journal of African Earth Sciences Volume 58, Issue 2, September 2010, Pages 305–320
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Vishnevite
Formula: (Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
'Wad'
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Mohamed, A. (2013). Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Wadsleyite
Formula: Mg4O(Si2O7)
Reference: Ozawa, S., Ohtani, E., Suzuki, A., Miyahara, M., Terada, K., & Kimura, M. (2007, December). Shock metamorphism of L6 chondrites Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445: the PT conditions and the shock age. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
'Wiikite'
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Wolley, A.R. (2001): Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Africa.- The Geological Society, London
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: Bea, F., Montero, P., Haissen, F., & El Archi, A. (2013). 2.46 Ga kalsilite and nepheline syenites from the Awsard pluton, Reguibat Rise of the West African Craton, Morocco. Generation of extremely K-rich magmas at the Archean–Proterozoic transition. Precambrian Research, 224, 242-254.
Wittichenite
Formula: Cu3BiS3
Reference: Slim-Shimi, N., Moëlo, Y. & Tlig, S. (1990): Caractérisaton minéralogique et signifiance métallogénique des sulfures bismuthifères des minéralisations de La Galite et du Jebel Chouichia (NW de la tunisie). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, Série 2, 311, 127-132.
Wodginite
Formula: Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Reference: Küster, D. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 68-86.
Wöhlerite
Formula: NaCa2(Zr,Nb)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Yassin, A. A., Khalil, F. A., & El Shafie, A. G. (1984). Explanatory Note to the Geological Map at the Scale of 1: 2,000,000 of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan Ministry of Energy and Mining, Geological & Mineral Resources Department. Bulletin, (35), 1-63.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: M. L. Kabesh, M. S. Afia (1959) The Wollastonite Deposit of Dirbat Well. Issue 5 of Bulletin (Sudan. Misāḥah al-Jiyūlujīyah)
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Hussein, H. A., & Bakhit, F. S. (1988). Uranium-Bearing Alkaline Volcanics of North Wadi Kariem and Surroundings, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mining Geology, 38(207), 39-48.
Wüstite
Formula: FeO
Reference: Mariam Horstmann, M. Humayun, D. Harries, F. Langenhorst, N. L. Chabot & Addi Bischoff (2012). 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 19-23, 2012 at The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1659, id.1876.
Wüstite var. Magnesiowüstite
Formula: FeO
Reference: Masaaki Miyahara1, Eiji Ohtani, Shin Ozawa, Makoto Kimura, Ahmed El Goresy, Takeshi Sakai1, Toshiro Nagase1, Kenji Hiraga, Naohisa Hirao, Yasuo Ohishi (2011) Dissociation of olivine to silicate-perovskite and magesiowustite in the shocked Martian meteorite DaG 735. Japan Geooscience Union Meeting Makuhari, Chiba Japan.
'Xenotime'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Taylor, C.D. and Giles, S. A. (2012): Potentiel minéral pour des dépôts d’éléments incompatibles au sein des pegmatites, de roches alcalines et de carbonatites sur le territoire de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie.- Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie (PRISM-II), Phase V ; Livrable 87, USGS, 45 pages.
Zincite
Formula: ZnO
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Zinnwaldite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: MinMag 63:821-836
Zippeite
Formula: K3(UO2)4(SO4)2O3(OH) · 3H2O
Reference: El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Reference: Mauritanian Geological Survey (1995) database
Zirconolite
Formula: CaZrTi2O7
Reference: Mohamed, A. (2013). Mineral chemistry and genesis of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Pb, P, Ce and F enriched peralkaline granites of El-Sibai shear zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: Hussein, H. A., & Bakhit, F. S. (1988). Uranium-Bearing Alkaline Volcanics of North Wadi Kariem and Surroundings, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mining Geology, 38(207), 39-48.

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Aluminium1.AA.05Al
Barringerite1.BD.10(Fe,Ni)2P
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Chromium1.AE.05Cr
Cohenite1.BA.05Fe3C
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Gold1.AA.05Au
var. Electrum1.AA.05(Au,Ag)
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Haxonite1.BA.10(Fe,Ni)23C6
Iron1.AE.05Fe
var. Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
var. Martensite1.AE.05Fe
Khatyrkite1.AA.15(Cu,Zn)Al2
Moissanite1.DA.SiC
Nickelphosphide1.BD.05(Ni,Fe)3P
Nierite1.DB.05Si3N4
Osbornite1.BC.15TiN
Perryite1.BB.10(Ni,Fe)5(Si,P)2
Schreibersite1.BD.05(Fe,Ni)3P
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sinoite1.DB.10Si2N2O
Suessite1.BB.05(Fe,Ni)3Si
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Taenite1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Tellurium1.CC.10Te
Tetrataenite1.AE.10FeNi
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Aikinite2.HB.05aPbCuBiS3
Alabandite2.CD.10MnS
Altaite2.CD.10PbTe
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Aurostibite2.EB.05aAuSb2
Benleonardite2.LA.50[Ag6(Sb,As)2S6Te][Ag9Cu(S,Te)2Te2]
Berryite2.HB.20dCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Calaverite2.EA.10AuTe2
Cervelleite2.BA.60Ag4TeS
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Chalcostibite2.HA.05CuSbS2
Clinosafflorite2.EB.15aCoAs2
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Daubréelite2.DA.05Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Diaphorite2.JB.05Ag3Pb2Sb3S8
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Djerfisherite2.FC.05K6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Erlichmanite2.EB.05aOsS2
Famatinite2.KA.10Cu3SbS4
'Freibergite Subgroup'2.GB.05([Ag6]4+,(Ag,Cu)6)((Cu,Ag)4C2+2)Sb4S12S0-1
Froodite2.AC.45aα-PdBi2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Geffroyite2.BB.15(Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Geversite2.EB.05aPtSb2
Godlevskite2.BB.15(Ni,Fe)9S8
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Heazlewoodite2.BB.05Ni3S2
Hedleyite2.DC.05Bi7Te3
Heideite2.DA.15(Fe,Cr)1.15(Ti,Fe)2S4
Hessite2.BA.60Ag2Te
Horomanite2.BB.Fe6Ni3S8
Irarsite2.EB.25(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Isocubanite2.CB.55bCuFe2S3
Jordisite2.EA.30MoS2
Keilite2.CD.10(Fe2+,Mg)S
Krennerite2.EA.15Au3AgTe8
Laurite2.EB.05aRuS2
Luzonite2.KA.10Cu3AsS4
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Maldonite2.AA.40Au2Bi
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Mckinstryite2.BA.40Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Melonite2.EA.20NiTe2
var. Palladian Melonite2.EA.20(Ni,Pd)Te2
Merenskyite2.EA.20PdTe2
Michenerite2.EB.25PdBiTe
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Moncheite2.EA.20(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
var. Chengbolite2.EA.20(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Nagyágite2.HB.20a[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Nickelskutterudite2.EC.05(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Niningerite2.CD.10(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
Oldhamite2.CD.10(Ca,Mg)S
Parkerite2.BE.20Ni3(Bi,Pb)2S2
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Petzite2.BA.75Ag3AuTe2
Pilsenite2.DC.05Bi4Te3
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
var. Arsenian Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Rammelsbergite2.EB.15aNiAs2
Realgar2.FA.15aAs4S4
Seligmannite2.GA.50PbCuAsS3
Sperrylite2.EB.05aPtAs2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Stephanite2.GB.10Ag5SbS4
Stützite2.BA.65Ag5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36
Sudburyite2.CC.05PdSb
Sylvanite2.EA.05(Au,Ag)2Te4
Tellurobismuthite2.DC.05Bi2Te3
'Tennantite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
Tetradymite2.DC.05Bi2Te2S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Tsumoite2.DC.05BiTe
Valleriite2.FD.30(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Wittichenite2.GA.20Cu3BiS3
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Barstowite3.DC.95Pb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
Carnallite3.BA.10KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Cotunnite3.DC.85PbCl2
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
var. Yttrofluorite3.AB.25(Ca1-xYx)F2+x where 0.05< x
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Herbertsmithite3.DA.10cCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
Laurionite3.DC.05PbCl(OH)
Penfieldite3.DC.15Pb2Cl3(OH)
Sylvite3.AA.20KCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Addibischoffite (TL)4.BC.Ca2Al6Al6O20
Akimotoite4.CB.05(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Baddeleyite4.DE.35ZrO2
Becquerelite4.GB.10Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Belyankinite4.FM.25Ca1-2(Ti,Nb)5O12 · 9H2O (?)
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Carnotite4.HB.05K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Chenmingite (TL)4.BB.FeCr2O4
Chlormayenite4.CC.20Ca12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
var. Ferrian Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+(Cr,Fe3+)2O4
var. Ferrichromite4.BB.05Fe2+(Cr3+,Fe3+)2O4
var. Titaniferous Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Coesite4.DA.35SiO2
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35Fe2+Nb2O6
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
Coronadite4.DK.05aPb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Cryptomelane4.DK.05aK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Curite4.GB.55Pb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Euxenite-(Y)4.DG.05(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ferberite4.DB.30FeWO4
Ferrihydrite4.FE.35Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Ferrohögbomite-2N2S (TL)4.00.[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn,Al)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]2
Francevillite4.HB.15Ba(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2O
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Geikielite4.CB.05MgTiO3
Gibbsite4.FE.10Al(OH)3
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Grossite (TL)4.CC.15CaAl4O7
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var. Martite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var. Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hercynite4.BB.05Fe2+Al2O4
var. Picotite4.BB.05(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Hibonite4.CC.45CaAl12O19
Hübnerite4.DB.30MnWO4
Ianthinite4.GA.10U4+(UO2)5O7 · 10H2O
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Ishikawaite4.DB.25U4+Fe2+Nb2O8
Ixiolite4.DB.25(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
var. Wolframoixiolite4.DB.25(Nb,W,Ta,Fe,Mn,Nb)2O4
Jacobsite4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Lakargiite4.CC.30Ca(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3
Lechatelierite4.DA.30SiO2
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Liandratite4.DH.35U(Nb,Ta)2O8
Loparite-(Ce)4.CC.35(Na,REE)Ti2O6
Loveringite4.CC.40(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
Lueshite4.CC.30NaNbO3
Maghemite4.BB.15(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var. Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Masuyite4.GB.35Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Montroseite4.FD.10(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)
Nordstrandite4.FE.10Al(OH)3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Periclase4.AB.25MgO
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
Polycrase-(Y)4.DG.05Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Pseudobrookite4.CB.15Fe2TiO5
Pseudorutile4.CB.25Fe2Ti3O9
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
'var. Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
'var. Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
'var. Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'4.00.(Ca,U,Ce)2(Nb,Ti,Ta)2O6(OH,F)
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var. Carnelian4.DA.05SiO2
var. Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var. Eisenkiesel4.DA.05SiO2
var. Ferruginous Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Jasper4.DA.05SiO2
var. Milky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Quartz Gwindel4.DA.05SiO2
var. Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var. Ilmenorutile4.DB.05Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Samarskite-(Y)4.DB.25YFe3+Nb2O8
Schoepite4.GA.05(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 12H2O
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
var. Pleonaste4.BB.05(Mg,Fe)Al2O4
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Stishovite4.DA.40SiO2
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Ta2O6
Tazheranite4.DL.10(Zr,Ti,Ca)O2-x
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Thorianite4.DL.05ThO2
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Tungstite4.FJ.10WO3 · H2O
Tyuyamunite4.HB.25Ca(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2O
Ulvöspinel4.BB.05TiFe2O4
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
var. Pitchblende4.DL.05UO2
Uranopolycrase4.DG.05(U4+,Y)(Ti,Nb)2O6
Varlamoffite4.DB.05(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Wodginite4.DB.40Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Wüstite4.AB.25FeO
var. Magnesiowüstite4.AB.25FeO
Zincite4.AB.20ZnO
Zirconolite4.DH.30CaZrTi2O7
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bastnäsite-(Ce)5.BD.20aCe(CO3)F
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dawsonite5.BB.10NaAlCO3(OH)2
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
var. Iron-bearing Dolomite5.AB.10Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Eitelite5.AC.05Na2Mg(CO3)2
Gaylussite5.CB.35Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Huntite5.AB.25CaMg3(CO3)4
Hydrocerussite5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
var. Breunnerite5.AB.05(Mg,Fe)CO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Minrecordite ?5.AB.10CaZn(CO3)2
Nahcolite5.AA.15NaHCO3
Natron5.CB.10Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Northupite5.BF.05Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Parisite-(Ce)5.BD.20bCaCe2(CO3)3F2
Phosgenite5.BE.20Pb2CO3Cl2
Pirssonite5.CB.30Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Rutherfordine5.EB.05(UO2)CO3
Schröckingerite5.EG.05NaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
var. Manganese-bearing Siderite5.AB.05(Fe,Mn)CO3