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Alais meteorite, Alès, Gard, Occitanie, Francei
Regional Level Types
Alais meteoriteMeteorite Fall Location
Alès- not defined -
GardDepartment
OccitanieRegion
FranceCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 44° 7' 0'' North , 4° 4' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 44.11667,4.08333
GeoHash:G#: spffuzjqh
Locality type:Meteorite Fall Location
Meteorite Class:CI1 chondrite meteorite
Meteoritical Society Class:CI1
Metbull:View entry in Meteoritical Bulletin Database
Köppen climate type:Csb : Warm-summer Mediterranean climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Alès42,410 (2016)0.9km
Saint-Christol-lès-Alès6,113 (2016)3.8km
Cendras2,155 (2016)3.9km
Saint-Privat-des-Vieux4,496 (2016)4.8km
Saint-Martin-de-Valgalgues4,696 (2016)5.2km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:Languedoc-Roussillon


Classification: CI1 Carbonaceous Chondrite.

After loud detonations, 2 stones (4 kg, 2 kg) were recovered after the Alais fell near Alais (now Alès), Department Gard, France (15 Mar 1806). Alais was soon recognized as a quite peculiar meteorite with its dark carbonaceous color and its water-soluble sulfates. Alais is one of only 9 CI (Ivuna-like) Carbonaceous Chondrites— 5 were observed falls and 4 were recovered in Antarctica. Among the CI meteorites, Alais ranks second in amount of (originally) recovered mass of Alais. However, less than 70 g still remains in scientific care. Like other CI meteorites, Ivuna lacks chondrules and contains pre-terrestrial minerals produced by aqueous activity. All 9 CI chondrites are classified as having petrologic type CI1.

The CI1 Carbonaceous Chondrites have given us our best estimates for the composition of the moderately heavy and heavy elements in the sun and in the earth’s core. Indeed, carbonaceous chondrites are substantially defined by their nearly solar Mg/Si ratios. They are also defined by similar oxygen isotope ratios. Within these defining chemical and physical parameters, the CI chemical group is distinguished by the absence of chondrules and by a high degree of hydration.

Despite its small size, samples of Alais are still occasionally available for nondestructive research. Sorting out which minerals — especially among the carbonates and sulfates — are preterrestrial survivors and which minerals are terrestrial weathering products remains a difficult and often contentious task.
6kg

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


13 valid minerals.

Meteorite/Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998). Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: John F. Kerridge, J. Douglas Macdougall & K. Marti (1979). Clues to the origin of sulfide minerals in CI chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 43, #3, 359–367. (June 1979).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Magnus Endreß & Adolf Bischoff (1996). Carbonates in CI chondrites: Clues to parent body evolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Volume 60, #3, 489–507. (February 1996).
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: JJ. Douglas MacDougall & John Kerridge (1976). Unusual anhydrous mineral assemblage in the Alais (C1) meteorite. Meteoritics, Vol. 11, p.326-327.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: JJ. Douglas MacDougall & John Kerridge (1976). Unusual anhydrous mineral assemblage in the Alais (C1) meteorite. Meteoritics, Vol. 11, p.326-327.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: JJ. Douglas MacDougall & John Kerridge (1976). Unusual anhydrous mineral assemblage in the Alais (C1) meteorite. Meteoritics, Vol. 11, p.326-327.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: John F. Kerridge, J. Douglas Macdougall & K. Marti (1979). Clues to the origin of sulfide minerals in CI chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 43, #3, 359–367. (June 1979).
Schreibersite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3P
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Paul Ramdohr (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: JJ. Douglas MacDougall & John Kerridge (1976). Unusual anhydrous mineral assemblage in the Alais (C1) meteorite. Meteoritics, Vol. 11, p.326-327.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Iron1.AE.05Fe
var: Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
Schreibersite1.BD.05(Fe,Ni)3P
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 9 - Silicates
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Iron
var: Kamacite
1.1.11.1(Fe,Ni)
Schreibersite1.1.21.2(Fe,Ni)3P
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Iron-Fe
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
MgMagnesium
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
SiSilicon
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
SSulfur
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S TroiliteFeS
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
FeIron
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
Fe TroiliteFeS
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe IronFe
NiNickel
Ni Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Oligocene
23.03 - 33.9 Ma



ID: 3159986
marine deposit

Age: Oligocene (23.03 - 33.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{clay}, Minor{sand,carbonates, consolidated,marl}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Jurassic
145 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 3185222
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Jurassic (145 - 201.3 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Berzelius, J. J. (1834). Handl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akad., p. 115.
Mason, Brian Harold (1963). The Carbonaceous Chondrites. Space Science Reviews: 1(4): 621-646.
Ramdohr, Paul (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
MacDougall, J.J. Douglas & John Kerridge (1976). Unusual anhydrous mineral assemblage in the Alais (C1) meteorite. Meteoritics: 11: 326-327.
Richardson, Steven M. (1978). Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritics 13: 141-159 (March 1978).
Kerridge, John F. J., Douglas Macdougall & K. Marti (1979). Clues to the origin of sulfide minerals in CI chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 43(3): 359–367. (June 1979).
Endreß, Magnus & Adolf Bischoff (1996). Carbonates in CI chondrites: Clues to parent body evolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 60(3): 489–507. (February 1996).
Grady, Monica M. (2000). Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, New York, Oakleigh, Madrid, Cape Town. 690 pages.

External Links



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