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Acfer 094 meteorite, Tamanghasset Province, Algeria

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 43' 59'' North , 4° 25' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 27.73333,4.43333
Other regions containing this locality:Northwest Africa Meteorites
Sahara Desert, North Africa
Non-native locality type:Meteorite
Meteorite Class:Ungrouped C2 chondrite meteorite
Meteoritical Society Class: C2-ung
Metbull:View entry in Meteoritical Bulletin Database
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate

Primitive Ungrouped Carbonaceous Chondrite [C2-ung]
Clasts, Chondrules, CAIs, presolar diamonds & SiC

In Meteoritical Bulletin #71 (1991) a short entry on a very long list records a single 82 gram carbonaceous stone of uncertain classification. Well over 90% of Acfer 094 consists of a roughly half-half mixture of matrix and chondrules. The meteorite's mineralogy most closely resembles the mineralogy of CM chondrites, but its oxygen isotopes most closely resemble the CO class. Like many Carbonaceous Chondrites, its chondrules and clasts are rich in Olivine and Pyroxene. Also, like many classes of Carbonaceous Chondrites, it contains a small complement of refractory inclusions [2-4 vol%?]. It is, to be sure, relatively poor in the hydrated phyllosilicates found in many Carbonaceous Chondrites. Whether and the extent to which these phases are preterrestrial or consequences of desert weathering is currently an open question. What is most unusual about Acfer 094, however, is its generous complement of presolar silicon carbide, diamonds and other phases. We are, of course, speaking relatively. Only a very tiny fraction of the Corundum, Diamond, Spinel and other small grains are presolar. For a meteorite, however, Acfer 094 is “nanodiamond rich.”

Acfer 094 also appears to be one of the very oldest meteorites in our collections. Studies of Acfer 094 have covered the meteorite’s overall mineralogy, its refractory inclusions, and its presolar constituents. It might be said, however, that the smaller the grain, phase or aggregate — the greater the attention.

Mineral List

24 valid minerals.

Meteorite/Rock Types Recorded

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This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Wlotzka, F. (1991). Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 71. Meteoritics: 26(3): 255-262. (Sept 1991).
Newton, J., Bischoff, A., Arden, J. W., Franchi, I. A., Geiger, T., Greshake, A. & Pillinger, C. T. (1995). Acfer 094, a uniquely primitive carbonaceous chondrite from the Sahara. Meteoritics: 30(1): 47-56. (Jan 1995).
Weber, D. (1995). Refractory Inclusions From the Carbonaceous Chondrite Acfer 094 (Abstract). Meteoritics: 30(5): 595-596. (Sept 1995).
Greshake, A., Bischoff, A. & Putnis, A. (1996). Pure CaO, MgO (Periclase), TiO2 (Rutile), and Al2O3 (Corundum) in Ca,Al-rich Inclusions from Carbonaceous Chondrites. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, p. 463. (March 1996).
Gao, X., Amari, S., Messenger, S., Nittler, L. R., Swan, P. D. & Walker, R. M. (1996). Survey of circumstellar grains in the unique circumstellar carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31(S4): A48. (July 1996).
Greshake, A. (1997). The primitive matrix components of the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: A TEM study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (2): 437–452. (Jan 1997).
Krot, A. N., Fagan, T. J., Keil, K., McKeegan, K. D., Sahijpal, S., Hutcheon, I. D., Petaev, M. I. & Yurimoto, H. (2004). Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine aggregates, and Al-rich chondrules from the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: I. mineralogy and petrology. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 68(9): 2167-2184. (May 2004).
Zolensky, M. E., Ohsumi, K., Mikouchi, T., Hagiya, K. & Le, L. (2008). Crystallinity of Fe-Ni Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, LPI Contribution No. 1391: 1676. (March 2008).
Seto, Y., Sakamoto, N., Fujino, K., Kaito, T., Oikawa, T. & Yurimoto, H. (2008). Mineralogical characterization of a unique material having heavy oxygen isotope anomaly in matrix of the primitive carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 72(11): 2723-2734. (June 2008).
Wasson, J. T. & Rubin, A. E. (2010). Matrix and whole-rock fractionations in the Acfer 094 type 3.0 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45 (1): 73-90. (Jan 2010).
Ma, C. (2011) Discovery of Meteoritic Lakargiite (CaZrO3), a New Ultra-Refractory Mineral from the Acfer 094 Carbonaceous Chondrite (Abstract-Id.#5169). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Supplement s1, p. A144. (Sept 2011).
Barth, M.I.F. et al. (2018) Sulfide-oxide assemblages in Acfer 094—Clues to nebular metal-gas interactions. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 53, 2: 187-203. (Feb 2018).

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