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Kyanite and ilmenite locality, Litchfield, Litchfield Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Kyanite and ilmenite locality- not defined -
Litchfield- not defined -
Litchfield Co.County
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 41° North , 73° West (est.)
Margin of Error:~5km
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate


A locality on U. S. Route 202 in NE Litchfield. The locality is not open. It is private, developed, residential property, protected by the owner who was kind enough to let this information be posted. Please respect the property and do not trespass! There are no dumps for collecting in any case, minerals and small mine shafts were discovered during landscaping with heavy equipment. In 2018 the property was sold and the boulders described below were also sold.

This activity uncovered many boulders rich in large kyanite and ilmenite porphyroblasts in Rowe schist and discordant masses of white quartz. They are identical to this description by Brace (1819) (and repeated in Robinson (1825)) of a large kyanite-rich boulder from an unspecified Litchfield location that is most likely this site:

Cyanite or Sappar, are found in great quantities, especially in Harwinton and Litchfield. A crystalline mass of this was found a few years ago, weighing probably 16 cwt. [1600 pounds]; it lay on mica slate [schist] ridge, and undoubtedly had been formerly imbedded [sic] in the slate. Beautiful white talc, and small crystals of sulphuret of iron, are disseminated in the mass. Specimens of this mass are in almost all the cabinets in America. Smaller masses have been found associated with feldspar.


The mineralogy is similar to that described for areas just to the north and east of Town Farm Road (see http://www.mindat.org/loc-251426.html). Two mine shafts and other evidence of prospecting have also been discovered. The location and details of the site match the mysterious place mentioned by several historians but first by Shepard (1837):

A number of rich fragments and even crystals of large dimensions of vitreous copper [chalcocite], have lately been forwarded for examination by Mr. ISRAEL COE of Wolcottville, who states that they were found about two miles from that village on rather an elevated ridge of land, among the rubbish surrounding an excavation made by an English­man prior to the revolutionary war. The tradition is, that the ore obtained was taken to New York and put on board a vessel for England, and that the vessel having been burnt, the enterprise was pursued no farther. Several of the samples are attached to pieces of quartz, and are attended by small quantities of green malachite and chrysocolla. Variegated copper [bornite] likewise occurs to a small extent, blended with the vitreous copper [chalcocite]. Accompanying the specimens, were also sent samples of yellow copper-pyrites [chalcopyrite], associated with iron-pyrites [pyrite] in quartz, and which were stated to have been found within a short distance of the excavation.


While chalcopyrite with malachite coatings have been found, it seems the ilmenite was likely mistaken for chalcocite, to which it bears similarities, but the large crystals and fragments thereof are typical of the area (and this site) and ilmenite's brittle nature. The site is 2 miles from downtown Torrington (formerly Wolcottville) and on an elevated ridge. This ridge may in fact be the place called "Toll Gate Hill" (the name is not on any maps) described below by Hubbard (1905) (the old toll gate for the Torrington-Litchfield Road (now U. S. Route 202) was just NE of the site):

a vein of iron pyrites appears near the Torrington line, and a shaft about 15 feet has been sunk. To the west of this shaft, and at the right of and a short distance from the top of Toll Gate Hill, a number of holes have been dug, apparently by parties seeking ore. It is said that a shaft, begun before the Revolutionary War, was sunk in this locality on a vein of copper ore, but I have never been able to discover it. The only evidence of mineral in the excavations near Toll Gate Hill are a few crystals of Washingtonite or ilmenite, a commircially valuless [sic] ore of iron, perhaps this was what induced the ancient miners to labor, thinking it of value.


Note the similar reference to a pre-Revolutionary War mine. Orcutt (1878) in his History of Torrington says something similar about the history, and even more accurately about the minerals, but gives a name for a hill again not on any map:

Specimens of almost pure ore (amorphous), others vitrified, and crystalized [sic], of various colors, have repeatedly been obtained at the summit of Occident hill (Chestnut hill), and afford presumptive evidence of the existence of a rich copper ore bed in that locality. Tradition says that before the revolutionary war an English miner discovered this ore bed; made considerable excavations; obtained valuable products, which he shipped for England, he going in the same vessel, and that the vessel and himself were lost at sea.

The copper is found in a mica slate [schist] ledge and associated with quartz distinctively. Some of the specimens are carbonates and of beautiful green crystals [malachite]. The yellow or copper pyrites [chalcopyite] are also found.


Kilbourne (1859), in his discussion about mining by Albert Sedgwick and John Buell in the area just to the north of U. S Route 202 added this tidbit about a farm on the south side of the road (as shown on the 1859 map of the town):

On the farm of Mr. Gilbert, one-half mile from this location, was recently found an old shaft 15 feet deep which is supposed to have been sunk before the Revolution. This has been cleaned out and sunk 30 feet upon a small vein of iron and copper running together. The quantity of copper found is not yet sufficient to render the digging profitable, the mine having been but partially developed.


None of these references has been linked to any mineral or mining locality before, and there is enough common information in them to suggest these are all the same place. The Gilbert Farm reference gives it a specific location, coincident with this now residential property whose characteristics match the references. In addition, Domonell (1994) makes a strong case that the "Englishman" was none other than Samuel Higley, operator of the Higley copper mine (now in East Granby and just south of the Old Newgate Mine and Prison) and minter of the first coins in America - the Higley copper! Samuel Higley was supposedly lost at sea in 1737 with a shipment of his ore to England. Or could it have been Isaac Higley, Samuel's half-brother who was one of the first settlers who came to Torrington before 1740? He states there is no direct evidence they did any mining in Torrington (or Litchfield) but the circumstantial evidence is certainly compelling.

While there is malachite present here, green fuchsite mica is much more abundant and it may have inspired much of the mining effort, as the workings are mostly driven into what appears to be schist barren of copper minerals but rich in fuchsite. The worthless nature of fuchsite was not known to the miners, but they certainly eventually found out. Though it must have been very confusing and frustrating for them to see so much green - nearly always an excellent indicator of copper - and yet not end up with any!

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


24 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: fibrous to elongated prisms
Colour: pale greenish white to green
Description: Massive, fibrous, to crudely crystallized in calc-silicate rocks, with grossular, albite, calcite, quartz. Fibrous to acicular green layers in epidote (altered amphibolite).
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: prismatic
Colour: white, gray, peach
Description: Mostly anhedral grains and masses in schist, calc-silicate, amphibolite, and chlorite rich rocks. Small (<1 cm) crystals exposed in vugs where calcite naturally etched out. Large (>5 cm) subhedral crystals in quartz/albite/mica boudins in schist, with kyanite and ilmenite.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: dodecahedral
Colour: maroon
Description: Mostly as relatively small crystals <1 cm in schist.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: botryoidal encrustations
Colour: white
Fluorescence: yellow-white
Description: As botryoidal, slightly waxy crusts forming from meteoric water percolating through fractured amphibolite and calc-silicate rocks and deposited in shallow open spaces. Impregnated with sand grains and minor twigs, etc.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
'Biotite'
Colour: black
Description: Coarse anhedral crystals in coarse-grained boudins in schist, with chlorite, ilmenite, albite, quartz.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: massive
Colour: white
Description: As masses in calc-silicate rock, or in brittle faults. Much of it naturally etched or dissolved away exposing other crystals that seemed to form in vugs.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Habit: rhombohedral
Colour: yellow-orange
Description: Micro crystals to a couple of mm in brittle faults, but well formed and translucent.
Reference: Observations by and collection of Harold Moritz
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: massive
Description: Blebs to 1-2 cm at most, but commonly surrounded by films of green malachite and brown limonite on adjacent albite, quartz or schist.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
'Chlorite Group'
Habit: subhedral to fine-grained massive
Colour: dark green
Description: Scattered in schist but notably concentrated as pure, fine-grained masses at the discordant contact of schist with quartz masses, associated with fluorapatite, albite, ilmenite, magnetite, rutile.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Habit: hexagonal tabular
Colour: pale lavender
Description: A 2 cm, tabular, hexagonal crystal is present in a cabinet specimen of kyanite at Harvard that was part of Brace's large boulder.
Reference: Harvard Mineralogical Museum specimen
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Habit: mostly massive, elongated hexagonal prisms in chlorite
Colour: pistachio green
Description: Mostly as a massive alteration of amphibolite as bands with green actinolite, but rarely as elongated hexagonal prisms in fine-grained chlorite.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Habit: Hexagonal prisms
Colour: pale gray to white
Fluorescence: pale yellow-white
Description: Euhedral prisms to 1.5 cm or so found in fine-grained chlorite concentrations.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: massive
Colour: dark brown
Description: In local rocks as alterations of pyrite and chalcopyrite. But also as glacial erratic cobbles and pebbles, some cementing brecciated quartzite resembling the Dalton Formation.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: dodecahedral
Colour: pale orange
Description: Mostly very fine-grained and massive within calc-silicate rocks, with actinolite, calcite, quartz. Micro crystals in vugs where calcite has naturally dissolved out.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Habit: flaky, massive
Colour: black, red
Description: Fine-grained specular black grains in joints in epidote altered amphibolite. Also as red, compact earthy component of pseudomorphs after ilmenite (with magnetite and rutile, to varying degrees), and as red films on other minerals.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
'Hornblende'
Habit: elongated prismatic
Colour: dark green to black
Description: As a granular component of amphibolite, but subhedral crystals to a few cm more obvious in hornblende gneiss. Some more schistose gneiss boulders show interesting 5-6 cm acicular flabellate groups.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Habit: platy to tabular
Colour: black submetallic
Description: Found in three modes: 1. As small (<1 cm) crystals scattered in schist, gneiss and amphibolite. 2. As deformed platy concentrations in quartz/albite/mica boudins in schist. Loose boudins as boulders vary in size from "turtle shell" pieces, to boulders pushing a meter across with overlapping, curved crystals or aggregates on the order of 10 cm. 3. As undeformed, tabular crystals exceeding 10-15 cm (mostly broken so hard to say exactly), 1 to 15 mm thick, that grew rooted in the chlorite-rich contact of schist with discordant quartz masses. These crystals typically oriented edge-on to the contact and surrounded by massive quartz that evidently filled in after they crystallized. Most of these "ilmenite" crystals are actually pseudomorphed by, to varying degrees, magnetite, hematite, rutile, chlorite, even within the same crystal. As ilmenite is weakly magnetic, it is easy to tell the strongly magnetic magnetite pseudos from ilmenite. The rutile/hematite pseudos are reddish and non-magnetic and blood-red, acicular microcrystals can be seen in them under a scope.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
'K Feldspar'
Colour: white
Description: Wedge-shaped crystals to 6mm in small alpine cleft type gash.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Colour: white
Description: Wedge-shaped crystals to 6mm in small alpine cleft type gash.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Habit: elngated, tabular prisms
Colour: gray to pale blue-green with sky blue cores
Description: Occurs in two modes: 1. As gray crystals in schist and quartz/albite/mica boudins, randomly oriented along the foliation, crystals typically reaching 5 cm. These resistant crystals form rough surfaces on schist boulders where they are abundant. 2: As very long crystals to 10s of cms, commonly concentrated in parallel to subparallel arrangement in massive quartz and adjacent schist. These crystals are pale blue-green with sky blue cores along their lengths. There are +/- 1-meter cone to fan-shaped boulders with solid concentrations of these crystals.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Habit: granular, massive
Colour: steel gray to black
Description: As grains in chlorite-fluorapatite-albite rich rock, or pseudomorphous after undeformed ilmenite crystals in quartz, distinguished by their strong magnetism. Hematite and rutile replacements can accompany magnetite within the same pseudomorph.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: films
Colour: green
Description: As green halos films/crusts around altered chalcopyrite blebs or alone on rock surfaces.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Habit: anhedral
Colour: pink
Description: Coarse crystals with epidote, quartz, minor ilmenite in some cobbles that may be glacial erratics.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: anhedral
Description: As a major, fine-grained component of the Rowe schist, coarser grained in some quartz/albite/ilmenite boudins or boulders.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Muscovite var: Damourite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: pseudomorphs after kyanite
Colour: yellow-brown
Description: Waxy, translucent pseudomorphs after kyanite in a quartz cobble.
Reference: Harold Moritz observations
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Habit: micaceous grains
Colour: emerald green
Description: Streaks and zones of green color in muscovite-annite schist. XRF reveals 0.56% Cr oxide. This may have lead miners to chase what they thought was "copper ore" in what today is obviously barren schist (though there is some malachite here as well). Also confirmed as muscovite via Raman spectroscopy.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: anhedral
Description: Mostly massive grains/blebs and much altered to goethite.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive
Colour: light smoky to white
Description: As a granular component of the Rowe Schist, massive component of calc-silicate rocks, drusy crystals in brittle fault mineralzation, in "turtle shell" boudins in schist, but most obvious as large meter or more scale discordant white masses in schist, typically with ilmenite and chlorite along the contact. Crystals very rare and generally micros.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: massive, acicular, twinned reticular nets
Colour: red
Description: As scattered grains in schist, rarely in vugs as twinned, reticular nets to a cm, most commonly as a fine-grained replacement of undeformed ilmenite found in the quartz masses, with hematite and magnetite to varying degrees, even within the same crystal.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: dark brown
Description: Crystals to 4-5 cm in schist, but mostly a few loose cobbles that were likely dropped on the site by glaciation from the north, across Rt. 202, where they are common.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
'Stilbite subgroup'
Habit: fan-shaped aggregates of tabular micro-crystals
Colour: white
Description: Micro-crystals in fractures and small voids, alone or associated with chabazite.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Habit: acicular
Colour: black
Description: Sprays of acicular crystals radiating from the terminations of thicker crystals are preserved in a quartz cobble several cm across.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: fibrous to acicular
Colour: white
Description: In calc-silicate assemblage, but rarer than the more common actinolite.
Reference: Observations by Harold Moritz

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Chabazite-Ca9.GD.10(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Damourite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Chabazite-Ca77.1.2.1(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Muscovite
var: Damourite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Damourite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O CorundumAl2O3
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O RutileTiO2
O Muscovite (var: Damourite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O AragoniteCaCO3
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O CalciteCaCO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Damourite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Muscovite (var: Damourite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Damourite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
CrChromium
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
FeIron
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Brace, John P. (1819), Observations on the Minerals Connected with the Gneiss Range of Litchfield County. American Journal of Science: s.1, 1: 351-355.
Robinson, Samuel. (1825), A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities; Including All Which Are Known to Exist in the United States and British Provinces, And Having the Towns, Counties, and Districts in Each State and Province Arranged Alphabetically. With an Appendix, Containing Additional Localities and a Tabular View. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co., Boston.
Shepard, Charles U. (1837). A Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut. B. L. Hamlen, New Haven.
Hopkins, G. M., Jr. (1859). Clark's Map of Litchfield County, Connecticut. Richard Clark, Philadelphia.
Kilbourne, P. K. (1859). Sketches and chronicles of the town of Litchfield. Case, Lockwood, Hartford.
F. W. Beers & Company. (1874). Map of Litchfield, Connecticut.
Orcutt, Rev. Samuel. (1878). History of Torrington, Connecticut. J. Munsell, Albany.
Hubbard, John T. (1905). Litchfield mining ventures lecture to the Litchfield Scientific Association, Dec. 13, 1905.
White, Alain Campbell. (1920). The History of the Town of Litchfield, Connecticut, 1720-1920.
Gates, Robert M. and Nikolas L. Christensen. (1965). The Bedrock Geology of the West Torrington Quadrangle. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Quadrangle Report No. 17.
Domonell, Bill. (1994). Torrington's "Lost" Copper Mine. The Torrington Voice: II(39): (April 28).


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