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Khairpur meteorite, Punjab, Pakistan

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 29° 32' North , 72° 18' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 29.53333,72.30000
GeoHash:G#: tt72j0rk0
Locality type:Meteorite Fall Location
Meteorite Class:EL6 chondrite meteorite
Meteoritical Society Class:EL6
Metbull:View entry in Meteoritical Bulletin Database
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate

Enstatite Chondrite [EL6; S2]
Early Enstatite Chondrite fall, 13.6 kg

As dawn was breaking on 23 September 1873, a swarm of bolides were seen, detonations were almost immediately heard, and a shower of meteorites fell over a 5 km x 25 km region of the Punjab forming a number of small craters. A few stones which fell near the village of Khairpur were recovered. The Khairpur meteorite was soon recognized by G. T. Prior (1918) and others as an unusual meteorite with affinities to other meteorite oddballs such as the Daniel’s Kuil (1868) and Hvittis (1901) falls. Today we classify all three meteorites as Enstatite Chondrites, petrologic type EL6. The class name is derived from their most prominent mineral, Enstatite, an iron-poor silicate which is relatively uncommon in earth rocks. In mineralogical circles, interest has been also been piqued by the discovery of a suite of minerals unknown in terrestrial rocks. The Oldhamite in Khairpur described by Prior was an early instance of an ongoing pursuit.

Enstatite Chondrites are marked by sub-solar Mg/Si ratios, near terrestrial Oxygen-isotope ratios, abundant ‘free’ Fe-Ni metal (~10 vol%), and highly reduced mineral assemblages. Both low-iron (EL) and high-iron (EH) chemical groups have abundant Fe-Ni metal, but the (EL) group has less overall Fe content. The EL group is also distinguished by moderately large chondrules and the invariable presence of ferroan alabandite.

Most EL chondrites, including Khairpur, are designated as petrologic type EL6. Metamorphic heating has homogenized most minerals, coarsened feldspar, converted low-Ca pyroxene to orthopyroxene, and obliterated many chondrule outlines. No melting of chondrules is observed.

As the third observed Enstatite Chondrite fall and as the third most massive EL fall, Khairpur has offered both material for study and food for thought for well over a century.

Mineral List

14 valid minerals.

Meteorite/Rock Types Recorded

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Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

2.588 - 23.03 Ma

ID: 3185708
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Neogene (2.588 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Prior, G. T. (1918). The Meteorite stones of Lauton, Warbreccan, Cronstad, Daniel’s Kuil, Khairpur, and Soko-Banja, and Angela. Mineralogical Magazine 18 (83): 1-25.
Mason, B. H. (1966). The Enstatite Chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 30, 23-30.
Keil, K. (1968). Mineralogical and Chemical Relationships among the Enstatite Chondrites. Journal of Geophysical Research 73 (22): 6945-6976. (Nov 1968)
Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Grady, M. M. (2000). Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, New York, Oakleigh, Madrid, Cape Town. 690 pages.
Torigoye, N. & Shima, M. (1993). Evidence for a late thermal event of unequilibrated enstatite chondrites - A Rb-Sr study of Qingzhen and Yamato 6901 (EH3) and Khairpur (EL6). Meteoritics 28 (4): 515-527. (Sept 1993)

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