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Kakangari meteorite, Tamil Nadu, India

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 12° 23' North , 78° 31' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 12.3833333333, 78.5166666667
Kakangari [K3; S2] Chondrite - Prototype for K Chondrites
Fall 4 June 1890; 350 g (2 stones)

In 1966 Mason and Wiik described Kakangari as something of an oddball among the various chondritic meteorites which had been observed. Kakangari is fundamentally a mix of an enstatite-rich matrix (~70 vol%) plus pyroxene and olivine-rich chondrules (~30 vol%). Within the matrix we also find abundant troilite; within the chondrules we also find kamacite and taenite. While various observers were first struck by many textural features resembling the unequilibrated mixes of primitive Carbonaceous Chondrites, it gradually became clear that Kakangari occupies a unique geochemical-mineralogic niche. So it has been deemed the prototype for the rare Kakangari-like chondrites. The Kakangari chemical group or, more precisely, ‘grouplet’ of 4 meteorites is very small indeed. Kakangari is the only witnessed fall and the other three finds have a combined total mass of only 25% the mass of Kakangari [as of August 2015].

Kakangari’s most striking characteristic is its reduced silicate mineralogy dominated by enstatite-rich pyroxenes (mostly En92-96) and lesser amounts of forsteritic olivine (Fo96). The Kakangari group is much more reduced than any ordinary or carbonaceous chondrite group, but clearly not as reduced as the enstatite chondrites which are dominated by nearly pure Enstatite. Kakangari is not, however, an equilibrated meteorite. The pyroxene, olivine, and minor plagioclase exhibit compositional variations and a few small inclusions exhibit similar variations and other mineralogical exotica. The presence of glass is used as the marker for designating Kakangari (and Lea County 002) as petrologic type K3.

Mineral List

24 entries listed. 15 valid minerals.

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Mason, B. H. & Wiik, H. B. (1966) The Composition of the Bath, Frankfort, Kakangari, Rose City, and Tadjera Meteorites. American Museum Novitates #2272: 24 pages. (Dec 1966).

Hutchison, R. & Graham, A. L. (1974) Kakangari - unique member of a distinct chemical class of chondrites? Meteoritics 9 (4): 352. (Dec 1974)

Nehru, C. E., Prinz, M., Weisberg, M. K., & Delaney, J. S. (1983) The Kakangari Chondrite and Its Relationship to Carbonaceous Chondrite: Meteoritics 18 (4): 361-362. (Dec 1983)

Nehru, C. E., Weisberg, M. K., & Prinz, M. (1986) Chondrules in the Kakangari Chondrite: Meteoritics 21 (4): 468. (Dec 1986)

Brearley, A. J. (1988) Nature and Origin of Matrix in the Unique Chondrite, Kakangari: A TEM Investigation, Lunar and Planetary Science XIX, 130-131. (March 1988)

Prinz, M., Weisberg, M. K., Nehru, C. E., MacPherson, G. J., Clayton, R. N. & Mayeda, T. K. (1989) Petrologic and Stable Isotope Study of the Kakangari (K-Group) Chondrite: Chondrules, Matrix, CAI's, Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XX, page 870. (March 1989)

Brearley, A. J. (1996) IN: Hewins, R. H., Jones, R. H. & Scott, E. R. D., Eds: Chondrules and the Protoplanetary Disk. Cambridge University Press. pp. 137-151.

Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998) Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, JJ - Ed.), Chapter 3: 1-398: Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA.

Berlin, J., Jones, R. H. & Brearley, A. J. (2007) A Closer Look at Chondrules and Matrix in Kakangari: Evidence for Wide-Spread Reduction and Sulfurization, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII. LPI Contribution #1338, p. 2395. (March 2007).

Grady, M. M., Pratesi, G. & Moggi-Cecchi, V. (2015) Atlas of Meteorites. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom. 373 pages.

External Links Meteoritical Bulletin Database

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