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Vanderberg Mine (MS 5391; Naylor Rock; Naylor-Vanderburg mine; Sickler group; Vandenburg mine; Vanderburg mine), Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill), Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Vanderberg Mine (MS 5391; Naylor Rock; Naylor-Vanderburg mine; Sickler group; Vandenburg mine; Vanderburg mine)Mine
Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)Mountain
Pala- not defined -
Pala DistrictMining District
San Diego Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 22' 32'' North , 117° 2' 11'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.37583,-117.03639
GeoHash:G#: 9muvbgbsq
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Rainbow1,832 (2011)11.0km
Temecula112,011 (2017)16.7km
Valley Center9,277 (2011)17.5km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)17.6km
Hidden Meadows3,485 (2011)18.2km


"from the mountain"
—Dutch, van meaning "from", der meaning "the", berg meaning "mountain".

Setting:
The Vanderberg mine is located in the SE4 Sec. 24 T9S R2W SBM; about 2.3 miles (3.7 km) east-northeast of Pala. The main workings are in the center of the Vanderberg pegmatite dike, which strikes northward and dips about 40 degrees west. The dike is exposed along the crest of Hiriart Mountain for more than 3000 feet. The deposit has been a source of spodumene, beryl, quartz, and tourmaline.

History:
The Vanderberg was located on April 22nd of 1902 as one of the Sickler group of claims, located near Pala, San Diego County, California, in the Peninsular Range, at an elevation of about 1600 feet. The north-northeast trending unpatented lode mining claim which was bordered on the west by the unpatented White Queen and Sempe lode claims, and on the south by the patented Hiriart lode. This was the northwestern-most claim of the group of lode mining claims filed by Marion M. Sickler on Hiriart Mountain during the period from 1901 to 1904 (see US Mineral Survey 5391A). The deposit was worked for precious gemstones.

Not long after the date of the Vanderberg location, the surrounding vacant public lands were temporarily withdrawn and removed from mineral entry under the United States land and mineral laws pursuant to Secretarial Order dated January 24, 1903. This order was a temporary withdrawal pending acquisition of all private inholdings, including valid existing rights, for the benefit of the Pala Tribe, under Indian tract allotment pursuant to the Act of January 12, 1891.

In 1905, Kunz reported approximately 5 pounds of kunzite had been mined by Sickler from the Naylor-Vanderberg[1]. The mine was also noted as a source for the decorative stone known as Orbicular Gabbro. By 1906, Kunz reported that the mine had been penetrated by a tunnel nearly 200 feet long, which cut the main vein in the two mines. Kunz reported lithium beryl, kunzite, and a transparent green spodumene as the primary mineral production, and mentions the occurrence of a rare "ferro-manganic phosphate of purple color".

On August 27th, 1938, Marion M. Sickler deeded the mine to his son Fred for 1 dollar and 'love and affection'. Fred eventually sold the mine to George Ashley in 1947. In 1949, George Ashley mined approximately 2000 pounds of colorless and smoky quartz crystals, with one reported to weigh in at more than 100 pounds. In 1951, Ashley discovered a pocket in the dike from which he removed about 130 pounds of pink, green and blue gem-quality spodumene.

Ashley sold the mine in January of 1957, although little work was actually accomplished until the claim was purchased by Norman E. Dawson of San Marcos around 1966. Dawson subsequently worked the deposit and produced around 12 kg of high-quality kunzite, along with some morganite and large smoky quartz crystals. In 1983, a series of pockets containing elbaite-foitite tourmaline crystals were discovered by Phil Osborn of Hemet, just below the road and to the southeast of the main workings on the Vanderberg dike. This location is at an elevation of approximately 1440 AMSL, near a spot along the ledge captioned by Kunz in 1905 as "Naylor Rock". Several kilos of small loose tourmaline crystals of gem quality were recovered, typically grading in color from a dark purple to a greenish blue at the basal pyramid, including several samples on matrices of cleavelandite and microcline with quartz.

In the early 1990's the Secretary of the Interior, through the delegation to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), investigated the bona fides of the mining claim to determine any encumbrance of an allotment application (trust patent) filed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs on behalf of the Pala Tribe on June 19, 1980. The Vanderberg claim was adjudicated and in 1992 it was declared abandoned and invalid from the beginning, or void ab initio. The land is now managed for the benefit of the Pala Band of Mission Indians by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

Footnotes:
1.The northeast corner of the Vanderberg lode was separated by a 336 feet from northwest corner of the K. C. Naylor lode at their closest proximity (see US Mineral Survey 5391A). The Naylor-Vanderburg name association was not actually a contiguous deposit, but a loose reference to the north end of the more-or-less contiguous group of lode mining claims generally referred to as the Sickler group, and later as the Ashley group, and lastly as the Dawson group of unpatented lode mining claims.

Regions containing this locality

Pacific PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

21 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
'Feldspar Group'
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
'Hornblende'
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Iron
Formula: Fe
'Lepidolite'
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Pucherite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Purpurite ?
Formula: (Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Sicklerite
Formula: Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Triplite
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Iron1.AE.05Fe
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35Fe2+Nb2O6
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Ta2O6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Pucherite8.AD.40Bi(VO4)
Purpurite ?8.AB.10(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Sicklerite8.AB.10Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Triplite8.BB.10(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Vivianite8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Lepidolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2Fe2+Nb2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3Mn2+Ta2O6
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Sicklerite38.1.4.2Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
AXO4
Pucherite38.4.6.1Bi(VO4)
Purpurite ?38.4.1.2(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Triplite41.6.1.2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl
var: Morganite
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Iron-Fe
'Lepidolite'-
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
LiLithium
Li SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
O Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O PucheriteBi(VO4)
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
FFluorine
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
AlAluminium
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
SiSilicon
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
PPhosphorus
P SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
P Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
VVanadium
V PucheriteBi(VO4)
MnManganese
Mn SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Mn Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Mn Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
Fe Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe IronFe
Fe Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
SbAntimony
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
TaTantalum
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
BiBismuth
Bi PucheriteBi(VO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cretaceous - Triassic
66 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 2776321
Mesozoic gabbroic rocks, unit 2 (undivided)

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 251.902 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Cuyamaca Gabbro; Elk Creek Gabbro; Gold Park Gabbro-Diorite; San Marcos Gabbro; Summit Gabbro

Description: Gabbro and dark dioritic rocks; chiefly Mesozoic

Comments: Mostly small exposures of gabbro and diorite scattered in western Klamath Mts., Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, Mojave Desert, and Peninsular Ranges Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{diorite,gabbro}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 2703103
Gabbro, undivided

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Description: Massive, coarse-grained, dark-gray and black biotite-hornblende-hypersthene gabbro.

Reference: Kennedy, M.P., and S.S. Tan. digital prep. by Bovard et al. Geologic Map of the Oceanside 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California. California Department of Conservation California Geological Survey. [131]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dana, E. S. (1892), System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York; Appendix 3 (1915), by Ford, W. E.: 72.
Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 86, 129-132.
Kunz, G. F. (1906), The Production of Precious Stones in 1905. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and Mineral Resources. GPO, Washington: pages 26-27; 40 pp.
Kunz, George Frederick (1906), Precious stones: Mineral Resources U.S., 1905: 1344.
Schaller, W. T. (1911d), Orbicular gabbro from Pala, San Diego County, California: Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour., vol. 33, p. 162-166.
Wheeler, H. V. (1917), Field notes of the survey of the mining claims of Marion M. Sickler, known as the El Molino, Fargo, Hiriart, K. C. Naylor, and Vanderberg Lodes; and El Molino Mill Site; in Sec 24-25, T9S, R2W, SBM. USDI, Surveyor General's Office, Mineral Survey No. 5391A-B: 1 plat.
Kennard, Theodore Gladden & Rambo, A. I. (1934), The extraction of rubidium and cesium from lepidolite American Journal of Science, 5th series: 28: 102-109.
Milner, A. H. (1948), Famous Gem Mines Reopened. Rocks & Minerals Magazine 23(6): 517.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 72 p.
Weber, F. H. (1963), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 114; illus., maps.
Murdoch, Joseph & Webb, Robert W. (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 242, 346.
Rynerson, F. J. (1967), Exploring and mining for Gems and Gold in the West. Happy Camp, California: Naturegraph Publishers, Inc.: pages 8, 14-19, 42.
Sinkankas, J. (1976), Gemstones of North America. Vol. 2. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 494 p.
Bancroft, P. (1984), Gem and crystal treasures. Fallbrook, California. Western Enterprises/Mineralogical Record, Inc., pages 98-110.
Bancroft, P. (1989), Gem Mining in San Diego County. Environment Southwest, San Diego Natural History Museum, Number 525, pages 14-20.
Todd, W. R. & Waiwood, R. M. (1996), Mineral Report: Validity Examination of the Katerina Lode; Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of the Interior, Oct. 30; 71 p., maps/plats, photos, legal/technical data.
Fisher, J. (2002), Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record 33(5): 363-407.
Osborn, P. (2007), Description of the Naylor Rock location and Foitite discovery on Hiriart Mountain by Phil Osborn of Hemet, Riverside Co., California. Personal communication with S. L. Ritchie; 7/27.
Mauthner, M. H. F. (2011), The History of Kunzite and the California Connection. Rocks & Minerals 86(2): 112-131.

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