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Main Crater, Iodake (Iwodake; Ioudake), Satsuma-Ioujima (Satsuma-Iwojima; Iou island), Mishima village, Kagoshima Prefecture, Nansei Archipelago, Kyushu Region, Japan

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 30° 47' 29'' North , 130° 18' 29'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 30.79139,130.30806
GeoHash:G#: wvkxjjrkv
Locality type:Crater
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate


Main crater of Iodake volcano, known for its high-temperature fumaroles.


High temperature fumarole releasing gases of about 800°C. Field of view about 50 cm.
High temperature fumarole releasing gases of about 800°C. Field of view about 50 cm.
High temperature fumarole releasing gases of about 800°C. Field of view about 50 cm.



Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Description: Green to dark-green elongated, sometimes acicular crystals of good luster and well-developed crystal tips. Common in high-temperature fumaroles in the vicinity of halite crystals, in the hotter, central parts of the fumaroles.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Description: Furs of millimeter-sized white elongated crystals in crevices of a altered tephra. Associated with opal.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Habit: Massive crusts.
Colour: Gray to black.
Description: Solid gray to black crusts, water soluble. The dark color may be caused by finely dispersed molybdenite. Occurs in a zone where the bulk of the metal oxide and sulfide sublimates get deposited. Raman analysis of a black matrix with embedded tugarinovite crystals shows a curve that is a superposition of a molybdenite and aphthitalite patterns. Raman analysis done by Günter Frenz.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Colour: green
Description: Green euhedral elongated crystals inside matrix of crumbly silicified rocks around high-temperature fumaroles. SXRD by Uwe Kolitsch, NHM Vienna. SXRD: C mon, 9.72, 8.89, 5.30, 106.6 Large diopside component.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
'Copiapite Group'
Colour: olive-green
Description: Olive-green pustules on reddish, crumbly rocks at the surface of high-temperature fumaroles. Raman analysis by Günter Frenz.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
'Coquimbite Group'
Description: Sub-millimeter sized, yellow-white to white pustules, associated with copiapite at high-temperature fumaroles. Perhaps not formed as a sublimate but recrystallized from watery solutions of dissolved sublimates.
Reference: Amir Akhavan collection
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: S. Hamasaki (2002) Earth Planets Space 54, 217-229.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Habit: Equant habit, typical, well-developed garnet crystals. Rhombic dodecahedra {110}, sometimes modified by {211}.
Colour: Orange, orange-yellow, green-brown.
Description: Small orange, yellow-orange and green-brown clear crystals with good vitreous luster. Well-developed and typical garnet-like crystal-shape with rhombic dodecahedra {110}, sometimes modified by {211}. Identified by Raman spectroscopy. Crystals occur in small groups inside high-temperature fumaroles associated with green pyroxenes. They can be seen in light-colored zones without sulfide and metal oxide sublimates. Raman analysis by Günter Frenz.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Colour: Colorless or white, but also intensely colored yellow, green or blue by impurities like molybdenum blue.
Description: Fibrous crusts in the vicinity of high temperature fumaroles. Colorless, white, but also colored yellow, green or blue (by molybdenum blue).
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Habit: Cubes, needles, blades, as well as massive with fibrous structure.
Colour: colorless, sometimes gray and red by magnetite and hematite.
Description: 1. As solid crusts of up to 1 cm thickness with fibrous fracture and smooth to cauliform surface inside high-temperature fumaroles. The crusts are clear with a dark blue tint when removed from inside the fumarole, but turn white upon shrinking and audibly cracking in ambient temperatures. 2. As white, millimeter-sized hopper-shaped cubes, mostly intergrown as little crystal trees, covering the inner walls of high-temperature fumaroles, also on solid halite crusts. 3. As long needles (up to several centimeters), randomly intergrown, inside large high-temperature fumaroles. Description based on samples taken from fumaroles with 650 and 720 deg C on the northern inner wall of the crater (Amir Akhavan 2015, 2017).
Reference: Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006) High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 35: 270-281.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006): High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 35, 270-281.
Ilsemannite
Formula: Mo3O8 · nH2O
Description: Conspicuous blue sublimates that cover whitish silicified rocks around high temperature fumaroles. Occasionally included in gypsum crusts, then dark blue-green. Most specimens are not stable and will pale. Molybdenum blue is water-soluble: after strong rain the blue sublimates around high-temperature fumaroles may be gone.
Reference: F. Africano, G. Van Rompaey, A. Bernard, F. Le Guern (2002) Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space 54, 275-286.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Description: In and on salt crusts and halite cubes in high temperature fumaroles. Tiny octahedal crystals. Also as tiny, black plates, associated with a red-brown, translucent mineral, possibly hematite. These crystals may look like iron roses, as if initially deposited hematite had been reduced to magnetite. Crystal flakes are attracted by a magnet, powder XRD confirms magnetite.
Reference: Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A. and Le Guern, F. (2002) Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space, 54, 275-286. Natural samples: XRD of material from a high temperature fumarole XRD-analysed by John Attard, collected by Amir Akhavan.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Description: Tiny, sub-millimeter sized, shiny flakes. Often embedded in silicified rocks around high-temperature fumaroles, but also as a sublimate in high-temperature fumaroles. Finely dispersed black powder in sulfate-crusts of high-temperature fumaroles.
Reference: Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A., Le Guern, F. (2002) Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space: 54: 275-286.
Molybdite
Formula: MoO3
Colour: colorless to slightly blue, sometimes zoned
Description: Elongated to stubby prismatic or platy crystals with striation along the elongated axis. Colorless or slightly blue, with submetallic to adamantine luster (vitreous luster at very high magnifications). Translucent to transparent. Crystals are very small but well visible as sparkling groups. Identity of colorless crystals confirmed with SXRD by Jochen Schlüter, University of Hamburg (aca).
Reference: Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006) High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 35: 270-281.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Description: Botryoidal, colorless hyalite, associated with sulfur, in and around low-temperature fumaroles.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Common rock-forming mineral in highly silicified rocks close to high-temperature fumaroles. Occasionally as a high-temperature fumarole sublimate in sub-millimeter sized, tapered, clear crystals, either as nests or single crystals.
Reference: S. Hamasaki (2002) Earth Planets Space 54, 217-229. Amir Akhavan Collection.
Sassolite
Formula: H3BO3
Habit: Very thin and soft flakes.
Description: Can be found close to the vents of small low temperature fumaroles in the vicinity of high-temperature fumaroles as a white sublimate. Water-soluble, hence can only be found after several days with dry weather.
Reference: Okano, T. (1962) Sassolite from Iwo-zima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists, 47, 188-189.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006) High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 35: 270-281.
'Sulfurite'
Formula: S
Description: Small solidified sulfur flows (a few centimeters in length) of yellow, yellow-brown to orange color, close to fumaroles.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Field Observations
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Sulphur-β
Formula: S8
Reference: Amir Akhavan Field Observations
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006) High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 35: 270-281.
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: S. Hamasaki (2002) Earth Planets Space 54, 217-229.
Tugarinovite
Formula: MoO2
Description: Lilac-brown crystals of submetallic luster covering rocks in the immediate vicinity of high-temperature fumaroles. Also embedded in sulfate-crusts colored black by molybdenite. Crystal size well below 100 µm.
Reference: Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006) High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 35: 270-281.
'Wollastonite Group'
Habit: Acicular, in small radially grown tufts or randomly intergrown.
Colour: Colorless
Description: Colorless needles, in small tufts and randomly intergrown. Associated with garnet and green pyroxenes in high temperature fumaroles in zones with little or no metal sulfide sublimate deposition. Possibly (but not yet confirmed analytically) also on crumbly red rocks from high-temperature fumaroles associated with sulfates (copiapite group). Raman analysis by Günter Frenz.
Reference: Amir Akhavan Collection
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006): High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 35, 270-281. Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A. and Le Guern, F. (2002): Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space, 54, 275-286.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Sulphur'1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Molybdenite'2.EA.30MoS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
'Halite'3.AA.20NaCl
'Sylvite'3.AA.20KCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cristobalite'4.DA.15SiO2
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
'Ilsemannite'4.FJ.15Mo3O8 · nH2O
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Molybdite'4.E0.10MoO3
'Opal'4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
'Tridymite'4.DA.10SiO2
'Tugarinovite'4.DB.05MoO2
Group 6 - Borates
'Sassolite'6.AA.05H3BO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anhydrite'7.AD.30CaSO4
'Aphthitalite'7.AC.35(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Wulfenite'7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Aegirine'9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Copiapite Group'-
'Coquimbite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Sulfurite'-S
'Sulphur-β'-S8
'Wollastonite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Tugarinovite4.4.15.1MoO2
AX3
Molybdite4.5.1.1MoO3
Miscellaneous
Ilsemannite4.6.3.1Mo3O8 · nH2O
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Sylvite9.1.1.2KCl
Group 24 - ANHYDROUS BORATES
AmBn[XO3]p
Sassolite24.3.1.1H3BO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
Aphthitalite28.2.2.1(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Copiapite Group'-
'Coquimbite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Sulfurite'-S
Sulphur-β-S8
'Wollastonite Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H IlsemanniteMo3O8 · nH2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H SassoliteH3BO3
BBoron
B SassoliteH3BO3
OOxygen
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
O CristobaliteSiO2
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlsemanniteMo3O8 · nH2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MolybditeMoO3
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O SassoliteH3BO3
O TridymiteSiO2
O TugarinoviteMoO2
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
NaSodium
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Na HaliteNaCl
SiSilicon
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TridymiteSiO2
SSulfur
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulfuriteS
S SulphurS8
S Sulphur-βS8
ClChlorine
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl SylviteKCl
KPotassium
K Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
K SylviteKCl
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
MoMolybdenum
Mo IlsemanniteMo3O8 · nH2O
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo MolybditeMoO3
Mo TugarinoviteMoO2
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
PbLead
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Okano, T. (1962) Sassolite from Iwo-zima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists: 47: 188-189.
Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A., Le Guern, F. (2002) Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space: 54: 275-286.
Hamasaki, S. (2002) Volcanic-related alteration and geochemistry of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyushu, SW Japan. Earth Planets Space: 54: 217-229.
Nitta, E., Kimata, M., Hoshino, M., Echigo, T. Hamasaki, S., Shinohara, H., Nishida, N., Hatta, T., Shimizu, M. (2006) High-temperature sublimate minerals from Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, Southwestern Japan. Japanese Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences: 35: 270-281.


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