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Nenthead, Alston Moor, Eden, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Nenthead- not defined -
Alston MoorCivil Parish
EdenDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 47' 8'' North , 2° 20' 26'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.78556,-2.34056
GeoHash:G#: gcwrdtrsv
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Alston1,105 (2018)6.8km
Allendale Town709 (2017)13.5km
Stanhope1,602 (2017)21.1km
Haydon Bridge1,557 (2017)21.9km
Haltwhistle3,791 (2017)21.9km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:North Pennines; North and Western Region; Cumberland


Nenthead.

The Société des Mines et Fonderies de Zinc de la Vieille Montagne company of Belgium, or ‘VM’ for short, came to England in 1896, specifically to the small remote village of Nenthead in the Pennine hills of Cumbria. While in England, this international company survived two world wars and the inter-war economic depression, as well as fluctuations in the geological supply and market demand for zinc and lead.
From Roman times until the end of the nineteenth century Alston Moor in Cumbria was famed for the production of lead. For over 180 years from the early 1700s, the leading exponent was the London Lead Company with smaller, locally-based enterprises operating throughout the same period. The industry went into steep decline from the 1860s onwards due to the decreasing ore reserves, the cost of extraction and foreign competition. In 1882 the London Lead Company sold its interests to the Nenthead and Tynedale Lead and Zinc Company. After initial success, a sharp decrease in the value of zinc and the Earl of Carlisle’s refusal to renew the company’s lease of the spelter works at Tindale Fell, fourteen miles away, led to the company’s failure after a tenure of only fourteen years. The new purchaser of the mineral leases, mines, royalties, mills, works, and machinery on Alston Moor in 1896 was the Société Anonyme des Mines et Fonderies de Zinc de la Vieille-Montagne of Belgium or VM for short.

Nenthead was the focal point of their operations in the UK and was the place where they operated for the longest period. From its mines in Nenthead and West Allendale, the company obtained zinc ore by mining and by reprocessing old waste dumps from former lead ore extraction, at one time VM was responsible for more than 60% of the output of UK zinc ore. In addition, although zinc was the main mineral the company was seeking, any lead found was not discarded, but processed as well. Both ores were not smelted, instead, they were sorted, crushed and cleaned at Rampgill Mill in Nenthead, then transported by road, rail and sea to the parent plant in Belgium. This was the practice of the company with its mines worldwide.

The establishment of the Vieille Montagne Company at Nenthead was the start of an era of new technology when previous methods and techniques were replaced by a new dynamism backed by huge financial investment. Nenthead was only one of the many mines; VM also took leases for other mines in the UK. The VM invested many hundreds of thousands of pounds in the area, it was at the forefront of mining and ore processing technology in Britain and Europe, attracting visitors to the village from a distance to view its plant, it employed hundreds of men of several nationalities, mainly Belgian, German and Italian, and the local economy depended on its success.

Then in 1949, after fifty-three years of operation, Vieille Montagne sold its mineral leases, plant, and equipment and left.

Source: "FOREIGNERS IN THE HILLS" from Alastair F. Robertson

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
The Pennines, England, UKRange of Mountains and Hills
North Pennines Area, England, UKArea of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Northern Pennine Orefield, England, UKOre Field
Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England, UKMining District

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

51 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alstonite (TL)
Formula: BaCa(CO3)2
Type Locality:
Habit: Bipyramidal crystals
Colour: White
Description: Occurance restricted to a small area at Holmes Rise on High Cross Vein
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 219; Lithos 8 (1975), 199; BMS Collection
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Colour: white to very pale green
Description: Some annabergite from this mine is Sb enriched. (Pale green translucent balls and small botryoidal masses, where at first thought also to be annabergite, furthere anaysis has found Mg, Ni and Ca)
Reference: Sb rich annabergite Natural History Museum London, and S Rust Collection.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Barytocalcite
Formula: BaCa(CO3)2
Beaverite-(Cu)
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Colour: Yellow to brown
Description: Usually as a yellow powdery crust to seveal cms, and as pustules to 4mm dia. Very rarely forms sparkling vitreous crystal druses composed of minute yellow to yellow-brown micro-crystals
Reference: S.Rust Collection
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Colour: Dirty yellow
Description: Identified while investigating small nickel bering ankerite veinlets in the mine. Forms as very rare dull yellow pseudomorphs after probable ullmannite crystals.
Reference: S. Rust collection
'Blaubleibender Covellite'
Reference: R. A. Ixer, C. J. Stanley and D. J. Vaughan (1979) Cobalt-, Nickel-, and Iron-Bearing Sulpharsenides from the North of England. Mineralogical Magazine 43:389-395.
Bottinoite
Formula: Ni2+Sb5+2(OH)12 · 6H2O
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Habit: Massive
Reference: GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.
Brianyoungite (TL)
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1993) 57, 665-670; BMS Collection
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcanthite ?
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Description: No analysis written or collector reference has been found to substantiate the occurrence of chalcanthite from this mine. Possibly blue-green sulphates where thought to be this species.
Reference: No reference listed
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: R. A. Ixer, C. J. Stanley and D. J. Vaughan (1979) Cobalt-, Nickel-, and Iron-Bearing Sulpharsenides from the North of England. Mineralogical Magazine 43:389-395.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: R. A. Ixer, C. J. Stanley and D. J. Vaughan (1979) Cobalt-, Nickel-, and Iron-Bearing Sulpharsenides from the North of England. Mineralogical Magazine 43:389-395.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Colour: Red to maroon
Description: So far only found on a few micro-specimens derived from a specimen collected in Nov 2010.
Reference: S.Rust Collection
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: R. A. Ixer, C. J. Stanley and D. J. Vaughan (1979) Cobalt-, Nickel-, and Iron-Bearing Sulpharsenides from the North of England. Mineralogical Magazine 43:389-395.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Manchester University Museum
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Harmotome
Formula: (Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Reference: GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Hydroniumjarosite ?
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Colour: Light Yellow
Reference: SEM image on Mineral Paradice Webb Site. This appears to be Hydroniumjarosite (priv com David Green);
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ktenasite
Formula: Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: R. A. Ixer, C. J. Stanley and D. J. Vaughan (1979) Cobalt-, Nickel-, and Iron-Bearing Sulpharsenides from the North of England. Mineralogical Magazine 43:389-395.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Namuwite
Formula: Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Colour: Light blue-green
Description: Found in one restricted area in the mine, in the Second Sun Vein.
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols. Livingstone, A., Bridges, T. F. and Bevins, R. E. (1990): Schulenbergite and namuwite from Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russell Soc. 3, 23-24.; American Mineralogist, Volume 81, pages 238-243, 1996
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: No reference listed
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Colour: Light blue-green
Description: Crystals are minute hexagonal <0.2mm, sometimes forming small aggregates to a few mm.
Reference: Livingstone, A., Bridges, T. F. and Bevins, R. E. (1990): Schulenbergite and namuwite from Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russell Soc. 3, 23-24.
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
'Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)'
Formula: Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Witherite (TL)
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Ullmannite2.EB.25NiSbS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
Bottinoite4.FH.05Ni2+Sb5+2(OH)12 · 6H2O
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Alstonite (TL)5.AB.35BaCa(CO3)2
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Barytocalcite5.AB.45BaCa(CO3)2
Brianyoungite (TL)5.BF.30Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydromagnesite5.DA.05Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Witherite (TL)5.AB.15BaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu)7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcanthite ?7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Goslarite7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hydroniumjarosite ?7.BC.10(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ktenasite7.DD.20Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Namuwite7.DD.50Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Schulenbergite7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Serpierite7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Annabergite8.CE.40Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
Harmotome9.GC.10(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Blaubleibender Covellite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)'-Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Ullmannite2.12.3.3NiSbS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
X(OH)3
Bottinoite6.3.9.1Ni2+Sb5+2(OH)12 · 6H2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
Witherite (TL)14.1.3.2BaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Alstonite (TL)14.2.5.1BaCa(CO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Barytocalcite14.2.6.1BaCa(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydromagnesite16b.7.1.1Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite ?29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu)30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Namuwite31.4.7.1Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Ktenasite31.6.3.1Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Serpierite31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Annabergite40.3.6.4Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Harmotome77.1.3.5(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Blaubleibender Covellite'-
Brianyoungite (TL)-Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Hydroniumjarosite ?-(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)'-Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
H BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
H HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
CCarbon
C AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2
C BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
C WitheriteBaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C StrontianiteSrCO3
OOxygen
O AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2
O BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
O WitheriteBaCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CerussitePbCO3
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
O HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
AlAluminium
Al Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
SSulfur
S BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MilleriteNiS
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S SulphurS8
S UllmanniteNiSbS
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S CovelliteCuS
S ChalcociteCu2S
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
KPotassium
K Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2
Ca Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
CoCobalt
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
NiNickel
Ni BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
ZnZinc
Zn BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Zn NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
AsArsenic
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
SbAntimony
Sb BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
BaBarium
Ba AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2
Ba WitheriteBaCO3
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2
Ba Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Late Carboniferous
298.9 - 323.2 Ma



ID: 3160982
Late Carboniferous sandstone

Age: Pennsylvanian (298.9 - 323.2 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{sandstone}, Minor{siltstone,mudstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Bashkirian - Visean
315.2 - 346.7 Ma



ID: 2031508
Yoredale Group

Age: Carboniferous (315.2 - 346.7 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Yoredale Group

Lithology: Limestone with subordinate sandstone and argillaceous rocks

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Nenthead: From Alastair Robertson

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