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Palinuro Seamount, Aeolian Arc seamounts, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Palinuro SeamountSeamount
Aeolian Arc seamounts- not defined -
Southern Tyrrhenian SeaSea
Tyrrhenian SeaSea
ItalyCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
39° 31' 59'' North , 14° 42' 0'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Other Languages:
Italian:
Monte submarino Palinuro


Located in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, it is part of the eastern sector of the Aeolian Arc together with: Lamentini and Alcione seamounts, Panarea and Stromboli islands.

A mineralisation consisting of indurated sulphide crust, mixed with dark ooze of organic and volcanic origin, and reddish layers produced by oxidation has been described by Minniti & Bonavia (1984). Bismuthinite, copper, luzonite, pyrite, rutile, silver, sphalerite, stibnite, tennantite-tetrahedrite, baryte and quartz have been identified.

A complex massive sulphide formation, which occurs at water depths near 630 m, has been described by Tufar (1992). The paragenesis is characterised by sulphides (pyrite, 'melnikovite'-pyrite, euhedral sphalerite, 'schalenblende', galena, chalcopyrite, bravoite, marcasite and wurtzite), sulphosalts (enargite, tennantite and probable jordanite) and sulphate gangue material (baryte).

Manganese crusts, recovered from Palinuro Seamount, consist of porous, black, layered Mn oxides up to 45 mm in thickness. In some cases, the surface has a black metallic sheen. The crusts overlie substrates such as calcareous sediment, siltstone, and oyster shells. They consist dominantly of 10‐Å manganate (todorokite) and 7‐Å manganate (birnessite), with minor quartz, calcite, aragonite, illite, montmorillonite, plagioclase, and goethite (Eckhardt et al., 1997).

A gravelly sand deposit at 103 m depth, on the summit region of Palinuro Seamount, is made up of a mixture of manganese and iron micronodules with shallow water shell debris. The manganese-rich micronodules have very high Mn: Fe ratios, they are deficient in minor elements and todorokite is their principal manganese oxide phase. The iron-rich concretions are made up of smectite, probably along with amorphous iron oxides and/or hydroxides (Kidd & Ármannson, 1979).

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


25 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Jordanite ?
Formula: Pb14(As,Sb)6S23
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
'Melnikovite'
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Kidd, R.B., and Ármannson, H. (1979) Manganese and iron micronodules from a volcanic seamount in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Journal of the Geological Society, 136, 71-76.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Sphalerite var: Schalenblende
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Jordanite ?2.JB.30aPb14(As,Sb)6S23
Luzonite2.KA.10Cu3AsS4
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var: Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Melnikovite'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Luzonite3.2.2.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Jordanite ?3.3.1.1Pb14(As,Sb)6S23
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Melnikovite'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Sphalerite
var: Schalenblende
-ZnS

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O RutileTiO2
O QuartzSiO2
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S CovelliteCuS
S Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
S BaryteBaSO4
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S StibniteSb2S3
S LuzoniteCu3AsS4
S JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
KPotassium
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
NiNickel
Ni Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
CuCopper
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Cu CopperCu
Cu LuzoniteCu3AsS4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
Zn TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
AsArsenic
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
As LuzoniteCu3AsS4
As JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
SbAntimony
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Ma



ID: 3159158
submarine continental crust

Age: Anthropocene ( Ma)

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kidd, R.B., and Ármannson, H. (1979) Manganese and iron micronodules from a volcanic seamount in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Journal of the Geological Society, 136, 71-76.
Minniti, M., and Bonavia, F. (1984) Copper-ore grade hydrothermal mineralization discovered in a seamount in the Tyrrhenian sea (Mediterranean): is the mineralization related to porphyry-copper or to base metal lodes? Marine Geology, 59, 271-282.
Minniti, M., Bonavia, F., Dacquino, C., and Raspa, G. (1984) Distribution of Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu in young sediments on the Palinuro seamount in the southeast Tyrrhenian sea. Marine Mining, 5, 3, 277-305.
Tufar, W. (1992) Paragenesis of Complex Massive Sulfide Ores from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 84, 265-300.
Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.


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