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Panasqueira Mines, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal

This page kindly sponsored by Paul De Bondt
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Entry of the 'mine-city' with the large dump in the background

Panasqueira Mines, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
Plant and dumps view / Vista geral e das escombreiras

Panasqueira Mines, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
Entry of the 'mine-city' with the large dump in the background

Panasqueira Mines, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
Plant and dumps view / Vista geral e das escombreiras

Panasqueira Mines, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
Entry of the 'mine-city' with the large dump in the background

Panasqueira Mines, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
Plant and dumps view / Vista geral e das escombreiras

Panasqueira Mines, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 40° 9' 14'' North , 7° 44' 52'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 40.15395,-7.74786
GeoHash:G#: ez4krty1t
Other regions containing this locality:Iberian Peninsula
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:Csb : Warm-summer Mediterranean climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Couto Mineiro da Panasqueira, Covilhã, Distrito de Castelo Branco, Portugal


Mine Information: A large tin-tungsten mine made up of multiple concessions that started production in 1898. Mining is in gently dipping stacked quartz veins that lead into mineralized wolfram-bearing schist. The mineralized zone has dimensions of approximately 2,500 m in length, varying in width from 400 m to 2,200 m, and continues to at least 500 m in depth.

Originally the longwall method or a variant with partial filling was used, but in 1986 it was changed to room-and-pillar based on an analysis of geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock mass.

Access to the mine's main levels is by a 2.5 m x 2.8 m decline from the surface at a 14% grade. The main levels consist of a series of parallel drives that are spaced 100 m apart and which provide access to the ore passes for rail transport, and connect with ramps for movement of drilling and loading equipment.

Blocks of ore are laid out initially in 100 m x 80 m sections by driving 5 m wide tunnels, 2.2 m high. Similar crosscuts are then set off at right angles to create roughly 11 m by 11m pillars, which are ultimately trimmed to 3 m by 3 m, providing an extraction rate of 84%. Blasted ore is loaded from the stopes by a fleet of LHDs (rubber tired low profile loaders), tipping into 1.8 m-diameter bored raises connecting to the main level boxes. Rail haulage with trolley locomotives is used to transport the ore to the shaft on Level 3, and to the 900 t-capacity main ore pass on Level 2 that provides storage for the 190 metric ton/hour jaw crusher located at the 530 m-level.

Geology: Panasqueira granite intrudes Precambrian marine shales, greywackes, and sandstones. Shales are converted into biotite cordierite andalusite hornfelses near the granite contact. Irregular barren quartz masses were formed in shales (quartz segregation lenses) during Hercynian (the geologic mountain-building event caused by the Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea) regional metamorphism. Panasqueira muscovite-albite leucogranite batholith evolves upwards into a quartz-greisen cupola overlain by a quartz cap, from which related quartz veins (stockscheider) penetrate into the shales. Later subhorizontal mineralized veins follow these quartz veins.

Four stages of mineralization are known:
1) Oxide-silicate stage (280-320°C): ferberite, cassiterite in quartz veins, arsenopyrite, topaz, muscovite and tourmaline
2) Sulfide stage: arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, stannite, etc.
3) Pyrrhotite alteration stage
4) Carbonate stage: calcite and dolomite, minor sulfides

The mine has existed since 1896. There is an estimated 12,000 km of tunnels, some still working and others already abandoned. At the time of World War II, about 10,000 people worked in the mine; today (2017), approximately 370. The mine has a planned production for more than 30 years.





The industrial mining center commonly known as "Panasqueira Mines" extends over a vast area covered by the Panasqueira and Vale da Ermida Mining Fields with a total area around 20.5 km2.

Although the current mining is concentrated in about a dozen concessions, all others are the object of a systematic study for the evaluation of reserves and determination of their economic potential.

Mineralized zones: Décio Thadeu (*), supported by morphological, mineralogical and tectonic data, presented a classification that until today has been adopted and confirmed by the mining works executed in them. According to this author, the areas are as follows:

a) Panasqueira and Barroca Grande
b) Corga Seca, Alvoroso, Veia Branca and Giestal
c) Lomba da Cevada
d) Rebordões and Seladinho
e) Fonte das Lameiras
f) Vale das Freiras and Vale da Ermida
g) Cabeço do Pião

1 - Panasqueira Mining Field – Castelo Branco District
(concession no. - name - registered on - locality)
316 – Ponte Masso - 07-04-1900 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis – Covilhãt
340 – Corga Seca - 26-11-1901 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis – Covilhã
366 – Salada Coca - 14-09-1903 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis - Covilhã
367 – Barroca Grande - 15-09-1903 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis - Covilhã
378 – Gambão - 05-05-1904 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis - Covilhã
380 – Alvaroso - 09-05-1904 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis - Covilhã
381 – Vale de Carvalhos - 10-05-1904 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis - Covilhã
399 – Terreno de Manuel Gil - 16-03-1906 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis – Covilhã
721 – Fontainhas - 21-11-1916 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis - Covilhã
844 – Giestal - 02-04-1919 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis – Covilhã
990 – Chiqueiro no. 2 - 03-03-1921 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis - Covilhã
1139 – Sítio dos Cambões - 12-05-1922 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis - Covilhã
1565 – Bodelhão no. 1 - 12-11-1926 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis - Covilhã
1566 – Bodelhão no. 2 - 12-11-1926 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis - Covilhã
1567 – Bodelhão no. 3 - 12-11-1926 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis – Covilhã
3088 – Parada do Bodelhão - 31-03-1956 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis - Covilhã
3089 – Ribeiro da Videira no. 1 - 31-03-1956 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis - Covilhã
3090 – Ribeiro da Videira no. 2 - 31-03-1956 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis – Covilhã
3108 – Guinchão - 17-05-1956 – Aldeia de São Francisco Assis - Covilhã
3109 – Ribeiro Dianteiro - 17-05-1956 – Aldeia de São de Francisco Assis - Covilhã
3196 – Barroco do Carneiro - 20-02-1958 – Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis – Covilhã
1568 – Panasqueira no. 4 - 12-11-1996 - São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
2347 – Madurrada - 08-01-1949 - São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
2425 – Cova da Cruz - 29-09-1949 - São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
2526 – Torgais - 24-02-1950 - São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
253 – Panasqueira - 31-05-1894 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
3098 – Cambões de Baixo - 03-05-1956 - São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
3107 – Barroco dos Carias - 17-05-1956 - São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
317 – Panasqueira no. 2 - 09-04-1900 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
318 – Panasqueira no. 3 - 10-04-1900 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
319 - Vale da Ermida - 11-04-1900 - São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
3223 – Madurrada no. 2 - 12-07-1958 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) – Covilhã
470 – Vale do Rebordão - 04-09-1908 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
695 – Barroco Fundo (Cebola no. 1) - 10-04-1916 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
900 – Vale da Ermida no. 4 - 18-11-1919 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) - Covilhã
980 – Lomba do Muro - 02-12-1920 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) – Covilhã
987 – Curral dos Capados - 26-02-1981 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) – Covilhã
CM15 – Panasqueira – 23-09-1927 – São Jorge da Beira (Cebola) – Covilhã
255 – Cabeço do Pião - 11-10-1894 – Barroca - Fundão
1036 – Terras do Muro - 07-05-1921 – Barroca - Fundão
1207 – Cebolal ou Resteira - 28-07-1922 – Barroca – Fundão
955 – Costa Meal - 02-06-1920 – Silvares - Fundão
1212 – Costa Meal no. 1 - 03-08-1922 – Silvares – Fundão

2 - Vale da Ermida Mining Field – Coimbra District
(concession no. - name - registered on - locality)
640 – Fonte das Lameiras - 14-01-1915 – Dornelas do Zêzere – Pampilhosa da Serra - Coimbra
3186 - Roçadas - 31-12-1957 – Dornelas do Zêzere – Pampilhosa da Serra - Coimbra
986 - Vale da Ermida no. 2 - 25-02-1921 – Unhais o Velho – Pampilhosa da Serra – Coimbra
988 – Curral dos Capados no. 2 - 28-02-1921 – Unhais o Velho – Pampilhosa da Serra - Coimbra
989 – Chiqueiro no. 1 - 28-02-1921 – Unhais o Velho – Pampilhosa da Serra - Coimbra
3185 – Eiradas - 31-12-1957 – Unhais o Velho – Pampilhosa da Serra - Coimbra
3187- Portela no. 3 - 31-12-1957 – Unhais o Velho – Pampilhosa da Serra - Coimbra
CM55 - Vale da Ermida - 04-03-1961 – Unhais o Velho – Pampilhosa da Serra – Coimbra

Two mining fields: Panasqueira and Vale da Ermida
Two districts: Castelo Branco and Coimbra
Three municipalities: Covilhã, Fundão, Pampilhosa da Serra
Six localities: Aldeia de São Francisco de Assis, São Jorge da Beira, Barroca, Silvares, Dornelas do Zêzere and Unhais-o-Velho


(*) Thadeuite: TL Panasqueira, named for Décio Thadeu (1919-1995), Professor of Geology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

75 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cambrian
485.4 - 541 Ma



ID: 3187107
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cambrian (485.4 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Middle Cambrian - Neoproterozoic
501 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3138046
Xisto-Grauvaquico Complex

Age: Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (501 - 1000 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Xisto-Grauvaquico Complex

Description: flysch (sediments)

Lithology: Shale/slate

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Localities in this Region
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This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Clark, A.H. (1965) Notes on the mineralogy of Panasqueira tin-tungsten deposit, Portugal. Comunicacaoes dos Servicos Geologicos de Portugal 48, 201-12.
Gaines, R.W. and Thadeu, D. (1971) The minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal. Mineralogical Record, 2(2), 73-78.
dos Reis, A.C. (1971) As Minas da Panasqueira. Beralt Tin & Wolfram, Ltd., Lisboa.
Dunn, P.J. (1977) Apatite. A guide to species nomenclature. Mineralogical Record 8 (2): 78-82 [with analysis of green and violet apatite-(CaF) from Panasqueira].
Thadeu, D. (1979) Le gisement stanno-wolframifère de Panasqueira (Portugal). Chronique de la Recherche Minière 450, 35-42.
Kelly, W.C. and Rye, R.O. (1979) Geologic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope studies of the tin-tungsten deposits of Panasqueira, Portugal. Economic Geology 74, 1721-1822.
Bull. Minéral., (1984) 107, 703-713.
Bussink, R.W. (1984) Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal. Geologica Ultraiectina, 33, 1-170.
Wimmers, D. (1985) Silver Minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal: A New Occurrence of Te-Bearing Canfieldite. Mineralogical Magazine 49:745-748.
Bull. Minéral. (1988) 111, 251-256.
Costa, L.R. and Goinhas, J.A.C. (1988) Alguns aspectos da indústria extractiva de cobre em Portugal. Boletim de Minas, Lisboa 25 (2) Abr/Jun 1988, p. 167-175.
Foxford, K.A., Nicholson, R., and Polya, D.A. (1991) Textural evolution of W-Cu-Sn bearing hydrothermal veins at Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 55, 435-445.
Azevedo Da Silva, R.P. and Calvo, M. (1997) Minéralogie (Panasqueira). Bocamina, 12-27.
Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998) International Strategic Mineral Issues Summary Report - Tungsten. US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
De Ascencao Guedes, R. (2002) Le coteau minier de Panasqueira, Beira Baixa (Portugal). Le Règne Minéral(43), 6-32.
USGS (2005) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10055806 & 10304117.
Keeping a low profile at Panasqueira, Mining Methods in Underground Mining (2007) Atlas Copco, 135-140.
Carlos Curto Milà and Jordi Fabre (2014) The Mineralogical Record, 45 (1), 11-55.
Weiß, S., Fabre, J., and Mila, C.C. (2014) Panasqueira, Portugal: Wolframit, Zinnstein und prächtige Apatite. Lapis, 39 (7/8), 16-29 (in German).
Weiß, S. and Fabre, J. (2014) Panasqueira: Mineralien für Kenner - von A bis Z. Lapis, 39 (7/8), 30-53.
Mila, C.C., Salvan, C.M., and Fabre, J. (2014) Panasqueira: Neufunde und Neubestimmungen. Lapis, 39 (7/8), 54-63 [mineral list on p. 63].
Alves, P. (2016) Svanbergita y florencita-(Ce) de la mina Panasqueira (Covilhã, Castelo Branco, Portugal). Acopios, 7: 1-8.
Siorminp/LNEG.

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