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Rakefet magmatic complex, Mount Carmel, Haifa District, Israeli
Regional Level Types
Rakefet magmatic complexComplex
Mount CarmelMountain
Haifa DistrictDistrict
IsraelCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 32° 43' 59'' North , 35° 2' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 32.73333,35.05000
GeoHash:G#: svbfjwftk
Locality type:Complex
Age:96.7 ± .5 Ma
Geologic Time:Late Cretaceous
Reference for age:Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate


The Rakafet magmatic complex is a composite basic to ultrabasic volcanic system interbedded with shallow marine carbonates of the Late Cretaceous Judea Group. The magmatic rocks have kimberlitic affinities.

Paleo-volcanic cones are well exposed in outcrop.

A dellagiustaite-bearing rock where super-reduced mineral assemblages have crystallized from high-T melts trapped in corundum aggregates (micro-xenoliths) within picritic-tholeiitic lavas ejected from Cretaceous volcanoes (Cámara et al. 2018)

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


23 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Carmeltazite (TL)
Formula: ZrAl2Ti4O11
Type Locality:
Reference: Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Bindi, L., Toledo, V., Cámara, F., Saunders, M., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): Carmeltazite, ZrAl2Ti4O11, a New Mineral Trapped in Corundum from Volcanic Rocks of Mt Carmel, Northern Israel. Minerals, 8, 601.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Dellagiustaite
Formula: V2+Al2O4
Reference: Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010004
Diamond
Formula: C
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Glass'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Grossite
Formula: CaAl4O7
Reference: Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).; Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4
Gupeiite
Formula: Fe3Si
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Hibonite
Formula: (Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.; Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).; Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010004
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Khamrabaevite
Formula: (Ti,V,Fe)C
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Krotite
Formula: CaAl2O4
Reference: Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010004
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Moissanite-6H'
Reference: Gems & Gemology, Summer 2014 Vol. 50 No. 2
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Osbornite
Formula: TiN
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.; Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4
Tin
Formula: Sn
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Tistarite
Formula: Ti3+2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Unnamed (V-Al Alloy)'
Formula: VxAly
Reference: Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4
'Unnamed (V-Cr Alloy)'
Formula: VxCry
Reference: Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4
Vanadium
Formula: V
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.; Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).
Zirconolite
Formula: CaZrTi2O7
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Gupeiite1.BB.30Fe3Si
Khamrabaevite1.BA.20(Ti,V,Fe)C
Moissanite1.DA.SiC
Osbornite1.BC.15TiN
Tin1.AC.10Sn
Vanadium1.AE.V
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
Grossite4.CC.15CaAl4O7
Hibonite4.CC.45(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Tistarite4.CB.05Ti3+2O3
Zirconolite4.DH.30CaZrTi2O7
Group 9 - Silicates
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
var: Fassaite9.DA.15(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Carmeltazite (TL)-ZrAl2Ti4O11
Dellagiustaite-V2+Al2O4
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Glass'-
Krotite-CaAl2O4
'Moissanite-6H'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Unnamed (V-Al Alloy)'-VxAly
'Unnamed (V-Cr Alloy)'-VxCry

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gupeiite1.1.23.2Fe3Si
Khamrabaevite1.1.19.2(Ti,V,Fe)C
Osbornite1.1.19.1TiN
Tin1.1.13.1Sn
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Moissanite1.3.8.1SiC
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
(AB)10X14
Grossite7.3.2.1CaAl4O7
AB12X19
Hibonite7.4.1.1(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
Zirconolite8.2.5.5CaZrTi2O7
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Augite
var: Fassaite
-(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Carmeltazite (TL)-ZrAl2Ti4O11
Corundum
var: Ruby
-Al2O3
var: Sapphire-Al2O3
Dellagiustaite-V2+Al2O4
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Glass'-
Krotite-CaAl2O4
'Moissanite-6H'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
Tistarite-Ti3+2O3
'Unnamed (V-Al Alloy)'-VxAly
'Unnamed (V-Cr Alloy)'-VxCry
Vanadium-V

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
CCarbon
C DiamondC
C MoissaniteSiC
C Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
NNitrogen
N OsborniteTiN
OOxygen
O CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O GrossiteCaAl4O7
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O CorundumAl2O3
O Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
O Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
O Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
O TistariteTi23+O3
O ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O DellagiustaiteV2+Al2O4
O KrotiteCaAl2O4
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
MgMagnesium
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Mg Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al GrossiteCaAl4O7
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
Al Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Al Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Al DellagiustaiteV2+Al2O4
Al KrotiteCaAl2O4
Al Unnamed (V-Al Alloy)VxAly
SiSilicon
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si MoissaniteSiC
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Si GupeiiteFe3Si
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca GrossiteCaAl4O7
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ca Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ca ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca KrotiteCaAl2O4
Ca FluoriteCaF2
TiTitanium
Ti CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ti Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ti Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
Ti OsborniteTiN
Ti TistariteTi23+O3
Ti ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
VVanadium
V Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
V VanadiumV
V DellagiustaiteV2+Al2O4
V Unnamed (V-Al Alloy)VxAly
V Unnamed (V-Cr Alloy)VxCry
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr Unnamed (V-Cr Alloy)VxCry
FeIron
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Fe GupeiiteFe3Si
Fe Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
ZrZirconium
Zr CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
Zr ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
SnTin
Sn TinSn
CeCerium
Ce Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Gems & Gemology, Summer (2014), Vol. 50 No. 2
Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Bindi, L., Toledo, V., Cámara, F., Saunders, M., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): Carmeltazite, ZrAl2Ti4O11, a New Mineral Trapped in Corundum from Volcanic Rocks of Mt Carmel, Northern Israel. Minerals, 8, 601.
Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).
Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010004

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