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Rakefet magmatic complex, Mount Carmel, Haifa District, Israeli
Regional Level Types
Rakefet magmatic complexComplex
Mount CarmelMountain
Haifa DistrictDistrict
IsraelCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 32° 43' 59'' North , 35° 2' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 32.73333,35.05000
GeoHash:G#: svbfjwftk
Locality type:Complex
Age:96.7 ± .5 Ma
Geologic Time:Late Cretaceous
Reference for age:Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate


The Rakafet magmatic complex is a composite basic to ultrabasic volcanic system interbedded with shallow marine carbonates of the Late Cretaceous Judea Group. The magmatic rocks have kimberlitic affinities.

Paleo-volcanic cones are well exposed in outcrop.

Regions containing this locality

African Plate

Plate - 0 mineral species & varietal names listed

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


19 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Alkali basalt'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Carmeltazite (TL)
Formula: ZrAl2Ti4O11
Type Locality:
Reference: Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Bindi, L., Toledo, V., Cámara, F., Saunders, M., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): Carmeltazite, ZrAl2Ti4O11, a New Mineral Trapped in Corundum from Volcanic Rocks of Mt Carmel, Northern Israel. Minerals, 8, 601.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Diamond
Formula: C
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Glass'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Grossite
Formula: CaAl4O7
Reference: Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).
Gupeiite
Formula: Fe3Si
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Hibonite
Formula: (Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.; Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Khamrabaevite
Formula: (Ti,V,Fe)C
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Kimberlite'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Moissanite-6H'
Reference: Gems & Gemology, Summer 2014 Vol. 50 No. 2
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Osbornite
Formula: TiN
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Peridotite'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf
'Pyroxenite'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: http://mayafiles.tase.co.il/RPdf/697001-698000/P697832-00.pdf; Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Tholeiitic basalt'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'commodity:Tin'
Formula: Sn
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Tistarite
Formula: Ti3+2O3
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
'Tuff'
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Vanadium
Formula: V
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.; Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).
Zirconolite
Formula: CaZrTi2O7
Reference: Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Diamond'1.CB.10aC
Gupeiite1.BB.30Fe3Si
Khamrabaevite1.BA.20(Ti,V,Fe)C
Moissanite1.DA.SiC
Osbornite1.BC.15TiN
Vanadium1.AE.V
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Chromite'4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
'Corundum'4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
Grossite4.CC.15CaAl4O7
Hibonite4.CC.45(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Tistarite4.CB.05Ti3+2O3
Zirconolite4.DH.30CaZrTi2O7
Group 9 - Silicates
'Anorthite'9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Augite'9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
var: Fassaite9.DA.15(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
'Diopside'9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Alkali basalt'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Carmeltazite' (TL)-ZrAl2Ti4O11
Fayalite-Forsterite Series-
Garnet Group-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Glass-
Kimberlite-
Moissanite-6H-
Orthopyroxene Subgroup-
Peridotite-
Pyroxenite-
Tholeiitic basalt-
Tuff-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gupeiite1.1.23.2Fe3Si
Khamrabaevite1.1.19.2(Ti,V,Fe)C
Osbornite1.1.19.1TiN
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Moissanite1.3.8.1SiC
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
(AB)10X14
Grossite7.3.2.1CaAl4O7
AB12X19
Hibonite7.4.1.1(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
Zirconolite8.2.5.5CaZrTi2O7
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Alkali basalt'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Augite
var: Fassaite
-(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Carmeltazite (TL)-ZrAl2Ti4O11
Corundum
var: Ruby
-Al2O3
var: Sapphire-Al2O3
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Glass'-
'Kimberlite'-
'Moissanite-6H'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Peridotite'-
'Pyroxenite'-
'Tholeiitic basalt'-
Tistarite-Ti3+2O3
'Tuff'-
Vanadium-V

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C DiamondC
C Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
C MoissaniteSiC
NNitrogen
N OsborniteTiN
OOxygen
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O CorundumAl2O3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O GrossiteCaAl4O7
O Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
O Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O TistariteTi23+O3
O ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Mg Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
AlAluminium
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Al GrossiteCaAl4O7
Al Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
Al Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si GupeiiteFe3Si
Si MoissaniteSiC
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ca GrossiteCaAl4O7
Ca Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ca ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
Ti Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ti Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
Ti OsborniteTiN
Ti TistariteTi23+O3
Ti ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
VVanadium
V Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
V VanadiumV
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
FeIron
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Fe GupeiiteFe3Si
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)C
ZrZirconium
Zr CarmeltaziteZrAl2Ti4O11
Zr ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
CeCerium
Ce Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Gems & Gemology, Summer (2014), Vol. 50 No. 2
Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Bindi, L., Toledo, V., Cámara, F., Saunders, M., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): Carmeltazite, ZrAl2Ti4O11, a New Mineral Trapped in Corundum from Volcanic Rocks of Mt Carmel, Northern Israel. Minerals, 8, 601.
Griffin, W.L., Gain, S.E.M., Huang, J.-X., Saunders, M., Shaw, J., Toledo, V., O’Reilly, S.Y. (2018): A terrestrial magmatic hibonite-grossite-vanadium assemblage: desilication and extreme reduction in a volcanic plumbing system, Mt Carmel, Israel. American Mineralogist, 103, (in press).

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