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Mogok Valley, Mogok Township, Pyin-Oo-Lwin District, Mandalay Region, Myanmari
Regional Level Types
Mogok ValleyValley
Mogok TownshipTownship
Pyin-Oo-Lwin DistrictDistrict
Mandalay RegionRegion
MyanmarCountry

This page kindly sponsored by John and Anthea Strickland
Key
Washing ruby-laden gravel in the rich mines of Mogok, 1904.

Mogok Valley, Mogok Township, Pyin-Oo-Lwin District, Mandalay Region, Myanmar
Washing plant of the Burma Ruby Mining Company at Mogok, 1905.

Mogok Valley, Mogok Township, Pyin-Oo-Lwin District, Mandalay Region, Myanmar
Washing ruby-laden gravel in the rich mines of Mogok, 1904.

Mogok Valley, Mogok Township, Pyin-Oo-Lwin District, Mandalay Region, Myanmar
Washing plant of the Burma Ruby Mining Company at Mogok, 1905.

Mogok Valley, Mogok Township, Pyin-Oo-Lwin District, Mandalay Region, Myanmar
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
22° North , 96° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~31km
Locality type:
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Burma


The Mogok Valley, or "Möng kut", meaning "Winding Valley" in the Shan language is the original location where rubies, sapphires, and other gemstones were first mined systematically by the Burma Ruby Mines Limited for more than 43 years; thereafter the valley was mined by private concerns, Burmese government-owned companies and lately by joint venture gem companies.

The main valley starts at the foothills of Oak-saung-taung in the east, continuing for about 7 km in the south-western direction, and ending at Haphalar-sho in the west. Nearly all mining activities are situated at the northern side of the Mogôk-Mömeik road ending up to the northern high hills bordering the valley.

There are more than 200 mining plots in the valley floor managed by more than 35 companies.

The most important mines are the government-operated Shwe-pyi-aye, Lin-yaung-chi and Nga-yant-inn, all working mainly on the alluvium.

Other important mines are Dattaw, Le-U-le-taw and Ohn-bin-ywe-htwet.

- Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
AsiaContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

60 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: AmMin 89:610–613 (2004)
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Reference: Sieghard Ellenberger data; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Chrysoberyl var: Alexandrite
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Cordierite var: Iolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Star Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Star Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ekanite
Formula: Ca2ThSi8O20
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger specimens
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: No reference listed
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: No reference listed
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Reference: No reference listed
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: No reference listed
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: No reference listed
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: No reference listed
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Roger Lang collection
Graphite
Formula: C
'Hackmanite'
Formula: Na8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
Haüyne
Formula: (Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
'Hornblende'
'Humite Group'
Reference: Dan Weinrich photo
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection (SXRD-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch)
Jadeite
Formula: Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Reference: No reference listed
Jeremejevite ?
Formula: Al6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
Description: Locality seems uncertain; all known jeremejevites from the Mogok area are from the Pantahole Mine.
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Kornerupine
Formula: Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Reference: No reference listed
'Lazurite'
Formula: Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S
Formula: Mg3Al8BeO16
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger specimens
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Meionite
Formula: Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
'Mica Group'
Reference: Rick Dalrymple Collection
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
'Moonstone'
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Norbergite
Formula: Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Description: Specimens labelled "Norbergite" coming from Oakssaung Hill has showed by analysis to be chondrodite or clinohumite. See messageboard at http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-227088.html
Reference: Moore, T. (2004): What's New in Minerals. Denver Show 2003. Mineralogical Record. 35 (2), 151-156
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Painite (TL)
Formula: CaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Type Locality:
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1957) 31, 420-425; Amer.Min.(1976) 61, 88-94
Pargasite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Reference: No reference listed
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Poudretteite
Formula: KNa2B3Si12O30
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
'Scapolite'
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Serendibite
Formula: Ca4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Sillimanite var: Fibrolite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Sinhalite
Formula: MgAl(BO4)
Sodalite
Formula: Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: No reference listed
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Sieghard Ellenberger data
'Uvite Series'
Formula: Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Reference: [MinRec 25:61, 25:301]
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: No reference listed
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger specimens
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chrysoberyl4.BA.05BeAl2O4
var: Alexandrite4.BA.05BeAl2O4
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Star Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Star Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S4.FC.25Mg3Al8BeO16
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Jeremejevite ?6.AB.15Al6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
Painite (TL)6.AB.85CaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Sinhalite6.AC.05MgAl(BO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Amblygonite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Montebrasite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cancrinite9.FB.05(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Chondrodite9.AF.45(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
var: Iolite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Danburite9.FA.65CaB2Si2O8
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Edenite9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ekanite9.EA.10Ca2ThSi8O20
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Euclase9.AE.10BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Fayalite9.AC.05Fe2+2SiO4
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Haüyne9.FB.10(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Jadeite9.DA.25Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Kornerupine9.BJ.50Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
'Lazurite'9.FB.10Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Meionite9.FB.15Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Norbergite ?9.AF.40Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Pargasite9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Poudretteite9.CM.05KNa2B3Si12O30
Sanidine9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Serendibite9.DH.40Ca4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
var: Fibrolite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Sodalite9.FB.10Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Uvite Series'9..Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hackmanite'-Na8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
'Hornblende'-
'Humite Group'-
'Mica Group'-
'Moonstone'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chrysoberyl7.2.9.1BeAl2O4
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S7.2.11.1Mg3Al8BeO16
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
(AB)2X3
Painite (TL)7.5.2.1CaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 24 - ANHYDROUS BORATES
A2XO4
Sinhalite24.1.1.1MgAl(BO4)
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Jeremejevite ?25.8.1.1Al6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
Montebrasite41.5.8.2LiAl(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Fayalite51.3.1.1Fe2+2SiO4
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Euclase52.2.1.1BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chondrodite52.3.2b.2(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Norbergite ?52.3.2a.1Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with[Si2O7] with borate groups
Danburite56.3.1.1CaB2Si2O8
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [4] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n=1, 2)
Kornerupine58.1.1.1Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Uvite Series'61.3.1.3Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Poudretteite63.2.1a.8KNa2B3Si12O30
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Jadeite65.1.3c.1Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Edenite66.1.3a.10{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Pargasite66.1.3a.12{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 69 - INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
Serendibite69.2.1a.6Ca4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Ekanite72.1.1.1Ca2ThSi8O20
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Sanidine76.1.1.2K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Cancrinite76.2.5.3(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Haüyne76.2.3.3(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
'Lazurite'76.2.3.4Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Sodalite76.2.3.1Na8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Aragonite-CaCO3
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Chrysoberyl
var: Alexandrite
-BeAl2O4
Cordierite
var: Iolite
-(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Corundum
var: Ruby
-Al2O3
var: Sapphire-Al2O3
var: Star Ruby-Al2O3
var: Star Sapphire-Al2O3
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hackmanite'-Na8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
'Hornblende'-
'Humite Group'-
Meionite-Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3
'Mica Group'-
'Moonstone'-
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
'Scapolite'-
Sillimanite
var: Fibrolite
-Al2(SiO4)O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
H Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
H MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
LiLithium
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
BeBeryllium
Be ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Be Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be Chrysoberyl (var: Alexandrite)BeAl2O4
Be EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
B DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
B KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
B SinhaliteMgAl(BO4)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
B JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
C CalciteCaCO3
C Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
C MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
OOxygen
O PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
O ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O FayaliteFe22+SiO4
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
O KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O QuartzSiO2
O Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
O Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O SinhaliteMgAl(BO4)
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HackmaniteNa8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
O Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
O EkaniteCa2ThSi8O20
O CalciteCaCO3
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O CorundumAl2O3
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Chrysoberyl (var: Alexandrite)BeAl2O4
O Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
O PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
O SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
O MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Corundum (var: Star Ruby)Al2O3
O SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Sillimanite (var: Fibrolite)Al2(SiO4)O
O Cordierite (var: Iolite)(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O Corundum (var: Star Sapphire)Al2O3
O SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
O JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
O NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
FFluorine
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
F NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na HackmaniteNa8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
Na Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Na Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Na PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
Na MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Na LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Na Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
MgMagnesium
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Mg SinhaliteMgAl(BO4)
Mg Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Mg Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Mg Cordierite (var: Iolite)(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
AlAluminium
Al PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Al ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Al KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Al Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
Al Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al SinhaliteMgAl(BO4)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al HackmaniteNa8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
Al Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Chrysoberyl (var: Alexandrite)BeAl2O4
Al Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Al SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Corundum (var: Star Ruby)Al2O3
Al SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Sillimanite (var: Fibrolite)Al2(SiO4)O
Al Cordierite (var: Iolite)(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al Corundum (var: Star Sapphire)Al2O3
Al SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Al JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
SiSilicon
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Si KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si HackmaniteNa8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
Si Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Si EkaniteCa2ThSi8O20
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si EuclaseBeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
Si SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Sillimanite (var: Fibrolite)Al2(SiO4)O
Si Cordierite (var: Iolite)(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Si NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
PPhosphorus
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S HackmaniteNa8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
S Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
S MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
S LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
S Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
ClChlorine
Cl HackmaniteNa8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
Cl MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
Cl SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Cl Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
K SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
CaCalcium
Ca PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Ca DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca EkaniteCa2ThSi8O20
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Ca Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Ca Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
FeIron
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Fe JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Cordierite (var: Iolite)(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
ZrZirconium
Zr PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
ThThorium
Th EkaniteCa2ThSi8O20
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Iyer, L.A.N. (1953) The geology and gem-stones of the Mogok Stone Tract, Burma. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, 82. Government of India Press, Calcutta, India, 100 pp. (Reprinted in 2007 by White Lotus Co Ltd.)
O'Neil, P. (1983) Gemstones (Planet Earth Series). Time Life Education, 176 pp.
Themelis, T. (2000) Mogôk - Valley of Rubies & Sapphires. A & T Publishing, Los Angeles, USA, 272 pp.
Barley, M.E., Pickard, A.L., Khin Zaw, Rak, P., and Doyle, M.G. (2003) Jurassic to Miocene magmatism and metamorphism in the Mogok metamorphic belt and the India-Eurasia collision in Myanmar. Tectonics, 22, 1-11.
Themelis, T. (2008) Gems and mines of Mogok. A & T Publishing, Los Angeles, USA, 352 pp. [Note: some coordinates were correct in the previous edition (Themelis 2000), but are wrong in this edition.]
Harlow, G.E. and Bender, W. (2013) A study of ruby (corundum) compositions from the Mogok Belt, Myanmar: Searching for chemical fingerprints. American Mineralogist, 98, 1120-1132.

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