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Roşia Montană (Verespatak; Vöröspatak; Goldbach), Roşia Montanã Commune, Alba Co., Romania

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Name(s) in local language(s):Roşia Montană
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 46° 18' 21'' North , 23° 7' 54'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 46.30611,23.13194
GeoHash:G#: u80rqmu0t
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate


Ancient and modern gold mines. A project by open-pit mining (by the Canadian investor Gabriel Resources) was abandoned in around 2007.
Breccia pipe/brecciated dyke, discordant veins in clusters.
Host rock: Dacite.

Alteration: adularization, sericitization, chloritization, argillization, silicification and pyritization.

The ore deposition at the Rosia Montana deposit evolved from an early Au-(Ag) low-sulfidation character to a late Ag-Te-(Ge-Au) intermediate-sulfidation character, and may be correlated with late magmatic pulses (Tamas et al., 2006).

Ancient gold mines on Mt. Kirnik, with well-preserved Roman galleries. The mining has started here about 2000 years ago.

Located about 4 km SW of Rosia Poieni.

No mines actually exist in Roşia Montanã (Verespatak. The Roşia Montană Area has been mined for Gold since the Copper Age (5300 to 1700 BC). During this age mining was entirely alluvial. This form of mining continued into the Bronze Age (3500 to 1200 BC) and then into the Early Iron Age (1200 to 550 BC). Roşia Montană Quartz vein lode Gold mining is speculated, in literature, to have begun in the late Bronze Age using trench/pit techniques. In the Dacian Age (1st Century AD) lode Gold mining began in earnest in Romania. Roşia Montană is the oldest permanent Roman mining settlement in Romania (about 1880 years old) then called “Alburmus Maior.” More accurately, according to Roman Wax Tablets found in the Cătălina Monuleşt gallery in the Coş Mine, the exact founding date was February 6, 131! Numerous major Mines have existed over the ages in the Roşia Montană area. Cârnic, Cetate, Cârnicel, Carpeni, Găuri, Zeus, Coş, Orlea, Ţarina, Piatra Corbului, Igre, Lety, Jig-Văidoaia, and Roşia Poieni (discovered in 1978) are all major Mines within an area less than 5 Km of the village of Roşia Montanã. It is rare to see anything but Roşia Montanã (Verespatak) on any older label. That is the reason why everyone assumes that Roşia Montanã (Verespatak) is a Mine and all specimens labeled Roşia Montanã (Verespatak) come from that Mine. Major corrections are needed for Alba and Hunedoara Counties.


Regions containing this locality

Golden Quadrangle (Golden Quadrilateral; Apuseni District), Romania

Quadrangle - 199 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

52 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
Alburnite (TL)
Formula: Ag8GeTe2S4
Reference: Tămaş, C. G., Grobety, B., Bailly, L., Bernhardt, H. J., & Minuţ, A. (2014). Alburnite, Ag8GeTe2S4, a new mineral species from the Roşia Montana Au-Ag epithermal deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. American Mineralogist, 99(1), 57-64.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Reference: Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: C.Auer (2014)
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Apjohnite
Formula: Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Argyrodite
Formula: Ag8GeS6
Reference: Bailly, Laurent; Tamas, Calin-Gabriel; Minut, Adrian (2005): Te-rich argyrodite occurrence in Rosia Montana ore deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 337, 755-762; Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383; Călin G. TĂMAŞ, Béatrice CAUUET, Marguerite MUNOZ (2016): Argyrodite occurrence in Roșia Montană epithermal Au-Ag deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania - EPMA data. Rom. J. Mineral Deposits, 89, 7-12.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Canfieldite
Formula: Ag8SnS6
Reference: Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41.
Cervelleite
Formula: Ag4TeS
Reference: Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
'Dacite'
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Dietrichite
Formula: (Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Bailly, Laurent; Tamas, Calin-Gabriel; Minut, Adrian (2005): Te-rich argyrodite occurrence in Rosia Montana ore deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 337, 755-762.
Evansite
Formula: Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 923.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5; Marcoux, E., Grancea, L., Lupulescu, M., & Milési, J. (2002). Lead isotope signatures of epithermal and porphyry-type ore deposits from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. Mineralium Deposita, 37(2), 173-184.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Reference: Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Jôkokuite
Formula: MnSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Kalinite
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
'K Feldspar'
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Woodside Collection
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Petzite
Formula: Ag3AuTe2
Reference: Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Pigeonite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Pirquitasite
Formula: Ag2ZnSnS4
Reference: Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41.
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Rozenite
Formula: FeSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Econ Geol (1985) 80:1467-1514; Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Sylvanite
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Reference: Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html; Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.; al României, I. G. (2003). The 5 th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp4-5
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Acanthite'2.BA.35Ag2S
'Alabandite'2.CD.10MnS
'Alburnite' (TL)2.BA.Ag8GeTe2S4
'Altaite'2.CD.10PbTe
'Argyrodite'2.BA.70Ag8GeS6
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
'Berthierite'2.HA.20FeSb2S4
'Canfieldite'2.BA.70Ag8SnS6
'Cervelleite'2.BA.60Ag4TeS
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Hessite'2.BA.60Ag2Te
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Pearceite'2.GB.15[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
'Petzite'2.BA.75Ag3AuTe2
'Pirquitasite'2.CB.15aAg2ZnSnS4
'Polybasite'2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
'Proustite'2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stephanite2.GB.10Ag5SbS4
Sylvanite2.EA.05(Au,Ag)2Te4
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Anatase'4.DD.05TiO2
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Opal' ?4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite'5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Rhodochrosite'5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Alunite'7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Alunogen'7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
'Apjohnite'7.CB.85Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Copiapite'7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
'Dietrichite'7.CB.85(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
'Halotrichite'7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
'Jôkokuite'7.CB.20MnSO4 · 5H2O
'Kalinite'7.CC.15KAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
'Melanterite'7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
'Pickeringite'7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Rozenite7.CB.15FeSO4 · 4H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Evansite'8.DF.10Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Vivianite8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Pigeonite'9.DA.10(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
'Rhodonite'9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Dacite'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Hessite2.4.2.1Ag2Te
Petzite2.4.3.3Ag3AuTe2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Argyrodite2.5.6.1Ag8GeS6
Canfieldite2.5.6.2Ag8SnS6
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Altaite2.8.1.3PbTe
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Pirquitasite2.9.2.7Ag2ZnSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Sylvanite2.12.13.3(Au,Ag)2Te4
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Pearceite3.1.8.1[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ø = 4
Stephanite3.2.4.1Ag5SbS4
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
ø = 2
Berthierite3.7.9.3FeSb2S4
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Kalinite29.5.4.2KAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Jôkokuite29.6.7.4MnSO4 · 5H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Rozenite29.6.6.1FeSO4 · 4H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Apjohnite29.7.3.3Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Dietrichite29.7.3.4(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Evansite42.1.2.1Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Pigeonite65.1.1.4(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal ?75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Alburnite (TL)-Ag8GeTe2S4
Cervelleite-Ag4TeS
'Chlorite Group'-
'Dacite'-
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
var: Rock Crystal
-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
H KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
O KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si QuartzSiO2
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S AlabanditeMnS
S AlburniteAg8GeTe2S4
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BerthieriteFeSb2S4
S CanfielditeAg8SnS6
S CervelleiteAg4TeS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S GalenaPbS
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
S KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S PirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S PyriteFeS2
S RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S StephaniteAg5SbS4
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
MnManganese
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mn Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mn JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BerthieriteFeSb2S4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Zn PirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
GeGermanium
Ge AlburniteAg8GeTe2S4
Ge ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag AlburniteAg8GeTe2S4
Ag ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
Ag CanfielditeAg8SnS6
Ag CervelleiteAg4TeS
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag HessiteAg2Te
Ag Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Ag PetziteAg3AuTe2
Ag PirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag StephaniteAg5SbS4
Ag Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
SnTin
Sn CanfielditeAg8SnS6
Sn PirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
SbAntimony
Sb BerthieriteFeSb2S4
Sb Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Sb StephaniteAg5SbS4
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
TeTellurium
Te AlburniteAg8GeTe2S4
Te AltaitePbTe
Te CervelleiteAg4TeS
Te HessiteAg2Te
Te PetziteAg3AuTe2
Te Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
Au PetziteAg3AuTe2
Au Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
PbLead
Pb AltaitePbTe
Pb GalenaPbS

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Miocene : 12.78 ± 0.09 Ma to 12.71 ± 0.13 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Cenozoic
  Neogene
   Miocene
ⓘ Adularia (youngest age)12.71 ± 0.13 Ma
ⓘ Adularia (oldest age)12.78 ± 0.09 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Neogene
2.588 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3145219
Neogene andesite

Age: Neogene (2.588 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{andesite}, Minor{rhyolite,rhyodacite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Mesoproterozoic
1000 - 1600 Ma



ID: 3186649
Mesoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)

Lithology: Crystalline metamorphic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 923.
- Mârza, I., Tămaş, C. G., Ghergari, L. (1997): Low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit from Roşia Montană, Metaliferi Mountains, Romania. St. Cerc. Geol., 42, 3-12.
- Tămaş, C. G. (1998): Descriptive breccia types in the Roşia Montană low sulfidation epithermal ore deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, XLIII(1), 75-88.
- Tămaş, C. G., Bailly, L. (1999): Roşia Montană epithermal ore deposit - evidence from fluid inclusion study. Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, XLIV(1), 49-56.
- Benea, M., Bailly, L., Tămaş, C. G. (2000): New data concerning Mn bearing minerals from Roşia Montană, Metaliferi Mountains, Romania. Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, XLV(1), 67-77.
- Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
- Kouzmanov, Kalin; von Quadt, Albrecht; Peytcheva, Irena; Harris, Caroline; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Rosu, Emilian; O'Connor, Gary. (2005): Rosia Poieni porphyry Cu-Au and Rosia Montana epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Apuseni Mts., Romania: timing of magmatism and related mineralisation. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 43, 113-117.
- Bailly, Laurent; Tamas, Calin-Gabriel; Minut, Adrian (2005): Te-rich argyrodite occurrence in Rosia Montana ore deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 337, 755-762.
- Wallier, Stefan; Rey, Roger; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Pettke, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Leary, Stephen; O'Connor, Gary; Tamas, Calin G.; Vennemann, Torsten; Ullrich, Thomas (2006): Magmatic fluids in the breccia-hosted epithermal Au-Ag deposit of Rosia Montana, Romania. Economic Geology 101, 923-954.
- Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
- Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41. [http://rjes.igr.ro/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Popescu-Neacsu-Sn-minerals.pdf]
- Călin G. TĂMAŞ, Béatrice CAUUET, Marguerite MUNOZ (2016): Argyrodite occurrence in Roșia Montană epithermal Au-Ag deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania - EPMA data. Rom. J. Mineral Deposits, 89, 7-12.

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