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Roşia Montană (Verespatak; Vöröspatak; Goldbach), Roşia Montanã Commune, Alba Co., Romania

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Location is approximate, based on center of defined region.
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 46° 18' 21'' North , 23° 7' 54'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 46.30611,23.13194
Name(s) in local language(s):Roşia Montană

Ancient and modern gold mines. A project by open-pit mining (by the Canadian investor Gabriel Resources) was abandoned in around 2007.
Breccia pipe/brecciated dyke, discordant veins in clusters.
Host rock: Dacite.

Alteration: adularization, sericitization, chloritization, argillization, silicification and pyritization.

The ore deposition at the Rosia Montana deposit evolved from an early Au-(Ag) low-sulfidation character to a late Ag-Te-(Ge-Au) intermediate-sulfidation character, and may be correlated with late magmatic pulses (Tamas et al., 2006).

Ancient gold mines on Mt. Kirnik, with well-preserved Roman galleries. The mining has started here about 2000 years ago.

Located about 4 km SW of Rosia Poieni.

No mines actually exist in Roşia Montanã (Verespatak. The Roşia Montană Area has been mined for Gold since the Copper Age (5300 to 1700 BC). During this age mining was entirely alluvial. This form of mining continued into the Bronze Age (3500 to 1200 BC) and then into the Early Iron Age (1200 to 550 BC). Roşia Montană Quartz vein lode Gold mining is speculated, in literature, to have begun in the late Bronze Age using trench/pit techniques. In the Dacian Age (1st Century AD) lode Gold mining began in earnest in Romania. Roşia Montană is the oldest permanent Roman mining settlement in Romania (about 1880 years old) then called “Alburmus Maior.” More accurately, according to Roman Wax Tablets found in the Cătălina Monuleşt gallery in the Coş Mine, the exact founding date was February 6, 131! Numerous major Mines have existed over the ages in the Roşia Montană area. Cârnic, Cetate, Cârnicel, Carpeni, Găuri, Zeus, Coş, Orlea, Ţarina, Piatra Corbului, Igre, Lety, Jig-Văidoaia, and Roşia Poieni (discovered in 1978) are all major Mines within an area less than 5 Km of the village of Roşia Montanã. It is rare to see anything but Roşia Montanã (Verespatak) on any older label. That is the reason why everyone assumes that Roşia Montanã (Verespatak) is a Mine and all specimens labeled Roşia Montanã (Verespatak) come from that Mine. Major corrections are needed for Alba and Hunedoara Counties.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

52 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Mineralization age: Miocene : 12.78 ± 0.09 Ma to 12.71 ± 0.13 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
ⓘ Adularia (youngest age)12.71 ± 0.13 Ma
ⓘ Adularia (oldest age)12.78 ± 0.09 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

1000 - 1600 Ma

ID: 1378239
Mesoproterozoic intrusive and metamorphic terranes

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)

Comments: Mixtures of metamorphic and intrusive or plutonic rocks, tracts known as crystalline, migmatitic terranes, moderately to highly metamorphosed rocks of unknown origin with or without intrusions. This classification is inherently prone to variable interpretation, as other compilers might distinguish some packages by their metamorphic or gneissic protoliths, and the associated age ranges may be more variable.

Lithology: Intrusive and metamorphic terranes

Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. [18]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
- Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 923.
- Mârza, I., Tămaş, C. G., Ghergari, L. (1997): Low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit from Roşia Montană, Metaliferi Mountains, Romania. St. Cerc. Geol., 42, 3-12.
- Tămaş, C. G. (1998): Descriptive breccia types in the Roşia Montană low sulfidation epithermal ore deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, XLIII(1), 75-88.
- Tămaş, C. G., Bailly, L. (1999): Roşia Montană epithermal ore deposit - evidence from fluid inclusion study. Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, XLIV(1), 49-56.
- Benea, M., Bailly, L., Tămaş, C. G. (2000): New data concerning Mn bearing minerals from Roşia Montană, Metaliferi Mountains, Romania. Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, XLV(1), 67-77.
- Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. []
- Kouzmanov, Kalin; von Quadt, Albrecht; Peytcheva, Irena; Harris, Caroline; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Rosu, Emilian; O'Connor, Gary. (2005): Rosia Poieni porphyry Cu-Au and Rosia Montana epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Apuseni Mts., Romania: timing of magmatism and related mineralisation. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 43, 113-117.
- Bailly, Laurent; Tamas, Calin-Gabriel; Minut, Adrian (2005): Te-rich argyrodite occurrence in Rosia Montana ore deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 337, 755-762.
- Wallier, Stefan; Rey, Roger; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Pettke, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Leary, Stephen; O'Connor, Gary; Tamas, Calin G.; Vennemann, Torsten; Ullrich, Thomas (2006): Magmatic fluids in the breccia-hosted epithermal Au-Ag deposit of Rosia Montana, Romania. Economic Geology 101, 923-954.
- Tamas, C. G.; Bailly, L.; Ghergari, L.; O'Connor, G.; Minut, A. (2006): New occurrences of tellurides and argyrodite in Rosia Montana, Apuseni mountains, Romania, and their metallogenic significance. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 367-383.
- Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41. []

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