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Cioclovina cave, Boșorod, Hunedoara, Hunedoara, Romaniai
Regional Level Types
Cioclovina caveCave
Boșorod- not defined -
Hunedoara- not defined -
HunedoaraCounty
RomaniaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 45° 34' 27'' North , 23° 8' 17'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 45.57444,23.13833
GeoHash:G#: u807q88f6
Locality type:Cave
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate


Lower Cretaceous-aged limestones with guano-derived phosphate sediments mined 1912-1941 (1942?). This is one of three caves in the Tara Hategului plateau near the town of Hunedoara. This plateau has also produced some small dinosaur fossils.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


34 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Ardealite (TL)
Formula: Ca2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig (1931) 80, 349-352; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1010.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45; Dumitraş, D.-G. (2017): A re-investigation of ardealite from the type locality, the "dry" Cioclovina Cave (Şureanu Mountains, Romania). European Journal of Mineralogy 29, 1055-1066.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Onac, BP; Effenberger, HS; Collins, NC; Kearns, JB; Breban, RC (2011): Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania). International Journal of Speleology 40, 21-30.
Bassanite
Formula: CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.
Berlinite
Formula: AlPO4
Description: First reported occurrence of berlinite formed entirely under sedimentary conditions. Disputed in 2005 reference. Confirmed in 2007 reference. Spontaneous combustion of bat guanno is likely cause for creation of high temperature phase.
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.; Am. Min., 88, 1395–1397 (2003) ; Am. Min. 90,1203-1208 (2005); Am. Min. 92,1998-2001(2007)
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Brushite
Formula: Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Reference: European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Burbankite
Formula: (Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.; Onac, B.P.; Bernhardt, H.-J.; Effenberger, H. (2009): Authigenic burbankite in the Cioclovina Cave sediments (Romania). European Journal of Mineralogy 21, 507-514.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Chlorellestadite ?
Formula: Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
Description: Disputed in 2005
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34; American Mineralogist: 90:1203-1208 (2005)
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Description: Disputed in 2005
Reference: Onac, B.P., Ettinger, K., Kearns, J., Balasz, I.I. (2005): A modern, guano-related occurrence of foggite, CaAl(PO4)(OH)2·H2O and churchite-(Y), YPO4·2H2O in Cioclovina Cave, Romania. Mineralogy and Petrology, 85, 291-302.; European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514
Collinsite
Formula: Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.; Onac, BP; Effenberger, HS; Collins, NC; Kearns, JB; Breban, RC (2011): Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania). International Journal of Speleology 40, 21-30.
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Foggite
Formula: CaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Onac, B.P., Ettinger, K., Kearns, J., Balasz, I.I. (2005): A modern, guano-related occurrence of foggite, CaAl(PO4)(OH)2·H2O and churchite-(Y), YPO4·2H2O in Cioclovina Cave, Romania. Mineralogy and Petrology, 85, 291-302.; European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist 46,431-445(2008); D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Hydroxylellestadite
Formula: Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
Reference: Onac, B.P., et al. (2006). American Mineralogist: 91: 1927-1931.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Kröhnkite
Formula: Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Onac, BP; Effenberger, HS; Collins, NC; Kearns, JB; Breban, RC (2011): Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania). International Journal of Speleology 40, 21-30.
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Eur.Journ.Min. 14:157-164
Monetite
Formula: Ca(HPO4)
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: European Journal of Mineralogy (2002): 14: 157-164.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: European Journal of Mineralogy (2002): 14: 157-164.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Paratacamite
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Eur.Journ.Min. 14:157-164; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Sampleite
Formula: NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Taranakite
Formula: (K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Reference: Am Min 90:1203-1208 (2005); D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Tinsleyite
Formula: KAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Description: Rare authigenic, early diagenetic mineral, in bat guano deposits in the cave.
Reference: Eur.Journ.Min. 14:157-164; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Variscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
Habit: Tiny crusts and veinlets in argillaceous material accumulated on the cave floor.
Colour: Dull white
Reference: Onac, B.P., Kearns, J., Breban, R., and Pânzaru, S.C. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 93.
Vaterite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
'Atacamite'3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Birnessite'4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
'Burbankite'5.AC.30(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Vaterite5.AB.20CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Bassanite'7.CD.45CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Kröhnkite7.CC.30Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Ardealite' (TL)8.CJ.50Ca2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
'Berlinite'8.AA.05AlPO4
'Brushite'8.CJ.50Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Churchite-(Y)8.CJ.50Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Collinsite8.CG.05Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Crandallite8.BL.10CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Foggite8.DL.05CaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Leucophosphite8.DH.10KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Monetite8.AD.10Ca(HPO4)
Sampleite8.DG.05NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Taranakite8.CH.25(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Tinsleyite8.DH.10KAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Variscite8.CD.10AlPO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Chlorellestadite ?9.AH.25Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
Hydroxylellestadite9.AH.25Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AB8X16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Vaterite14.1.2.1CaCO3
Miscellaneous
Burbankite14.4.4.1(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Kröhnkite29.3.2.1Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Bassanite29.6.1.1CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 37 - ANHYDROUS ACID PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES AND VANADATES
Miscellaneous
Monetite37.1.1.1Ca(HPO4)
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Berlinite38.4.2.1AlPO4
Group 39 - HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A[HXO4]·xH2O
Brushite39.1.1.1Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Miscellaneous
Taranakite39.3.6.1(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O
Collinsite40.2.2.3Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Churchite-(Y)40.4.6.1Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Variscite40.4.1.1AlPO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Crandallite42.7.3.1CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Foggite42.7.2.1CaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Sampleite42.9.4.1NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Leucophosphite42.11.6.1KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Tinsleyite42.11.6.2KAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Acid Compound Phosphates, etc·
Ardealite (TL)43.1.1.1Ca2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Chlorellestadite ?52.4.9.5Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
Hydroxylellestadite52.4.9.4Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Hydroxylapatite
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
-Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
H Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
H Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
H CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
H CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H FoggiteCaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
H LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
H MonetiteCa(HPO4)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
H Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
H TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
C CalciteCaCO3
C Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
C VateriteCaCO3
OOxygen
O AragoniteCaCO3
O ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
O BerliniteAlPO4
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
O Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
O CalciteCaCO3
O Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
O Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
O CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
O CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O FoggiteCaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
O LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
O MonetiteCa(HPO4)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
O QuartzSiO2
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
O Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
O TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
O VateriteCaCO3
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Na KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Na SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AlAluminium
Al BerliniteAlPO4
Al CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al FoggiteCaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Al TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
SiSilicon
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
Si HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
P BerliniteAlPO4
P BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
P Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
P Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
P CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
P CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P FoggiteCaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
P LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
P MonetiteCa(HPO4)
P SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
P Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
P TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
P VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
SSulfur
S ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
S BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
S ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
S KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cl SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
K TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
Ca BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
Ca Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ca ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
Ca CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FoggiteCaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
Ca MonetiteCa(HPO4)
Ca SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca VateriteCaCO3
MnManganese
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
FeIron
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
CuCopper
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cu SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
ZnZinc
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
SrStrontium
Sr Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
YYttrium
Y Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
BaBarium
Ba Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CeCerium
Ce Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Cretaceous - Jurassic
100.5 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 3142383
undifferentiated

Age: Mesozoic (100.5 - 201.3 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{siltstone,sandstone,marlstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3193174
Paleoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Crystalline metamorphic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1010.
Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., Craciun, C. (1999) Crandallite in the phospahte association from Cioclovina Cave (Sureanu Mts., Romania). in Scientific Works by Emil Constantinescu, Mineralogy in the System of earth Sciences, Imperial College Press, London, U.K.
Dumitras, D.-G., Marincea, S. (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45.
Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Marincea, S., Dumitras, D.-G., Gibert, R. (2002) Tinsleyite in from the "dry" Cioclovina Cave (Sureanu Mountains, Romania): the second occurrence. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 157-164.
Onac, B.P., White, W.B. (2003) First reported sedimentary occurrence of berlinite (Al{p4) in the phosphate-bearing sediments from Cioclovina Cave, Romania. AMerican Mineralogist: 88: 1395-1397.
Marincea, S., Dumitras, D.-G. (2003) The occurrence of taranakite in the "dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Monatsh.: 127-144.
Breban, R., Serban, M., Viehman, I., Baicoana, M. (2003) History of the mining of guano-phosphate and of the discovery of the Homo fossils in the "dry" Cioclovina Cave. Proteus SpeleoClub, Deva, Romania (in Romanian).
Dumitras, D.-G., Marincea, S., Fransolet, A.-M. (2004) Brushite in the bat guano deposit from the "dry" Cioclovina Cave (Sureanu Mountains, Romania). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen: 180: 45-64. 10.1127/0077-7757/2004/0180-0045.
Onac, B.P., Kearns, J., Breban, R., Pânzaru, S.C. (2004) Variscite (AlPO4·2H2O) from Cioclovina Cave (Şureanu Mountains, Romania): A tale of a missing phosphate. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia: 49(1): 3-14.
Onac, B.P., Ettinger, K., Kearns, J., Balasz, I.I. (2005) A modern, guano-related occurrence of foggite, CaAl(PO4)(OH)2·H2O and churchite-(Y), YPO4·2H2O in Cioclovina Cave, Romania. Mineralogy and Petrology: 85: 291-302.
Onac, B.P., Kearns, J., Breban, R., Pânzaru, S.C. (2005) Variscite (AlPO4 x 2H2O) from Cioclovina Cave (Sureanu Mountains, Romania): A Tale of a Missing Phosphate. Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005: 93.
Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., Bourgier, V. (2005) New Data on Ardealite from the Type Locality (The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania). Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005: 31-36.
Marincea, S., Dumitras, D.-G., (2005) First reported occurrence of berlinite (AlPO4) in phosphate-bearing sediments from Cioclovina Cave, Romania - comment. American Mineralogist: 90: 1203-1208.
Onac, B.P., Effenberger, H. , Ettinger, K., Pinzaru Cinta, S. (2006) Hydroxylellastadite from the Cioclovina Cave (Romania): microanalytical, structural, and vibrational spectroscopy data. American Mineralogist: 91: 1927-1931.
Onac, B.P., Effenberger, H. (2007) Re-examination of berlinite (AlPO4) from the Cioclovina Cave, Romania. American Mineralogist: 92: 1998-2001.
Onac, B.P., Effenberger, H., Breban, R. (2007) High-temperature and "exotic" minerals from the Cioclovina Cave, Romania: a review. Studia Univ. Babes-Bolyai, Geol.: 52(2): 3-10.
Dumitraş, D.G., Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Hatert, F. (2008) Apatite-(CaOH) in the fossil bat guano deposit from the “dry” Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 46(2): 431-445.
Cinta Pinzaru, S., Onac, B.P. (2008) Raman study of natural berlinite from the Cioclovina Cave phosphate deposit. Vibrational Spectroscopy.
Marincea, S., Dumitras, D.-G. (2009) Apatite-(CaOH) in the fossil bat guano deposit from the “dry” Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mountains, Romania: Reply. The Canadian Mineralogist: 47: 208-210. 10.3749/canmin.47.1.208.
Onac, B.P., Bernhardt, H.-J., Effenberger, H. (2009) Authigenic burbankite in the Cioclovina Cave sediments (Romania). European Journal of Mineralogy: 21: 507-514.
Onac, B.P., Effenberger, H.S., Collins, N.C., Kearns, J.B., Breban, R.C. (2011) Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania). International Journal of Speleology: 40: 21-30.
Dumitraş, D.-G. (2017): A re-investigation of ardealite from the type locality, the "dry" Cioclovina Cave (Şureanu Mountains, Romania). European Journal of Mineralogy 29, 1055-1066.


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