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Bernardmyo, Mogok Township, Pyin-Oo-Lwin District, Mandalay Region, Myanmari
Regional Level Types
Bernardmyo- not defined -
Mogok TownshipTownship
Pyin-Oo-Lwin DistrictDistrict
Mandalay RegionRegion
MyanmarCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
23° 1' North , 96° 27' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Mogok90,843 (2016)12.6km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Burma


The gem mining area at Bernardmyo village and surrounding vicinity was in operation before the commencement of the British occupation. These mines are located at high elevations, where the topography and geology are distinctly different from those of the Mogok valley area.
Around 1910, a large deposit of blue sapphires was discovered in this area, where considerable quantities of these stones were already being mined by the Burma Ruby Mines Co. Ltd. Few of these blue sapphires were of fine quality, magnificent in color and impressively large. But the majority of these sapphires were far of a less attractive dark blue color with a prominent greenish tinge that gave them an undesirable overall appearance. These dark blue sapphires were marketed in Mogok and elsewhere in 1913, creating a generally negative reputation for Mogok blue sapphires which continued well into the 1930s.
Since the early 1990s many of these dark blue sapphires have been heat-treated to lighten their dark blue/green color and improve their appearance, but the results from the treatment have not been very satisfactory.
Just east of Bernardmyo village, the famous peridot mines at Myasein Taung near Pyaung-gaung and Zalat-taung continue to produce peridot. Many other gems and minerals are found in the general area at Bernardmyo.
The principle rocks found at the general area at Bernardmyo are peridotite-dunite, occasionally intruded by biotite microgranite (Kabaing granite); other rocks found are leucogranite, syenite, marble, calc-silicate rocks and gneiss. - Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
AsiaContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

25 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
'Chabazite'
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection (SXRD-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch); Kolitsch et al., to be published
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
'Chrysoprase'
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Corundum var: Star Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Corundum var: Star Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Forsterite var: Peridot
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
'Hornblende'
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Magnetite var: Ishkulite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Cr3+)2O4
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
'Moonstone'
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyroaurite
Formula: Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Harlow G1, Thu K (2014) Hydrothermal recrystallization of dunitic olivine: peridot from Pyaung-Gaung, Myanmar and other examples. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 198
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Chrysoberyl4.BA.05BeAl2O4
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Star Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Star Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
Diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var: Ishkulite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Cr3+)2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Pyroaurite5.DA.50Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
var: Peridot9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Lizardite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Chabazite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Chrysoprase'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Hornblende'-
'Moonstone'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Diaspore6.1.1.1AlO(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chrysoberyl7.2.9.1BeAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Pyroaurite16b.6.2.3Mg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Lizardite71.1.2b.2Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Goshenite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Chabazite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Chrysoprase'-
Corundum
var: Ruby
-Al2O3
var: Sapphire-Al2O3
var: Star Ruby-Al2O3
var: Star Sapphire-Al2O3
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Forsterite
var: Peridot
-Mg2SiO4
'Hornblende'-
Magnetite
var: Ishkulite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Cr3+)2O4
'Moonstone'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
Quartz
var: Citrine
-SiO2
var: Rock Crystal-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H DiasporeAlO(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
BeBeryllium
Be ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
OOxygen
O Forsterite (var: Peridot)Mg2SiO4
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O QuartzSiO2
O Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O Corundum (var: Star Ruby)Al2O3
O Corundum (var: Star Sapphire)Al2O3
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O DiasporeAlO(OH)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O RutileTiO2
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O CorundumAl2O3
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Magnetite (var: Ishkulite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Cr3+)2O4
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
FFluorine
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Forsterite (var: Peridot)Mg2SiO4
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
Al ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
Al Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Corundum (var: Star Ruby)Al2O3
Al Corundum (var: Star Sapphire)Al2O3
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al DiasporeAlO(OH)
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Forsterite (var: Peridot)Mg2SiO4
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
CrChromium
Cr Magnetite (var: Ishkulite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Cr3+)2O4
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Magnetite (var: Ishkulite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Cr3+)2O4
Fe PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Neogene
2.588 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185708
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Neogene (2.588 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok, p. 172

Localities in this Region
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