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Kangankunde hill, Balaka, Southern Region, Malawii
Regional Level Types
Kangankunde hillHill
BalakaDistrict
Southern RegionRegion
MalawiCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
15° 7' 30'' South , 34° 54' 33'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Balaka18,902 (2011)16.9km
Liwonde22,469 (2013)34.5km
Machinga1,418 (2011)42.2km
Ntcheu10,445 (2011)44.8km


REE deposit in Late Cretaceous dolomitic carbonatite and fenite.

Regions containing this locality

Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)Tectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


22 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
'Bastnäsite'
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Daqingshanite-(Ce)
Formula: (Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
'Florencite'
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Goyazite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
'Monazite'
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; H.G. Dill, A review of mineral resources in Malawi: With special reference to aluminium variation in mineral deposits, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 47, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 153-173, ISSN 1464-343X, 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.12.006.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Rutile var: Niobian Rutile
Formula: (Ti,Nb)O2
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; H.G. Dill, A review of mineral resources in Malawi: With special reference to aluminium variation in mineral deposits, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 47, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 153-173, ISSN 1464-343X, 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.12.006.; Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Boulangerite2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Niobian Rutile4.DB.05(Ti,Nb)O2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Daqingshanite-(Ce)5.BF.15(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Goyazite8.BL.10SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Monticellite9.AC.10CaMgSiO4
Nepheline9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Florencite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Melilite Group'-Ca2M(XSiO7)
'Monazite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Pyrochlore Group'8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Daqingshanite-(Ce)17.1.10.1(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Goyazite42.7.3.3SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Monticellite51.3.2.1CaMgSiO4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Florencite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Melilite Group'-Ca2M(XSiO7)
'Monazite'-
Rutile
var: Niobian Rutile
-(Ti,Nb)O2
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CCarbon
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
OOxygen
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O SideriteFeCO3
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
O MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
O RutileTiO2
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F FluoriteCaF2
F Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
Si MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S SphaleriteZnS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
Ca MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
TiTitanium
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
Sr GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Sr Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Nb Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
SbAntimony
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
LaLanthanum
La Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
CeCerium
Ce Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
PbLead
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Early Cretaceous : 129 Ma to 117 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Mesozoic
  Cretaceous
   Early Cretaceous
ⓘ Phlogopite (youngest age)117 Ma
ⓘ Phlogopite (oldest age)129 Ma

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- D. N. Holt (1965): The Kangankunde Hill rare earth prospect. Government Printer, Zomba, Malawi, xx pp.
- Woolley, A.R. (1987): Lithosphere metasomatism and the petrogenesis of the Chilwa Province of alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites, Malawi. Journal Afr. Earth Sci. 6, 891-898.
- Eby, G.N., Roden-Tice, M., Kreuger, H.L., Ewing, W., Faxon, E.H., and Woolley, A.R. (1995): Geochronology and cooling history of the northern part of the Chilwa alkaline province, Malawi. Journal Afr. Earth Sci. 20, 275-288.
- Wall, F. and Mariano, A.N. (1996) Rare earth minerals in carbonatites: a discussion centered on the Kangankunde carbonatite, Malawi. In: Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits (A.P. Jones, F. Wall, & C.T. Williams, editors). Chapman & Hall, London, U.K. (193-225).
- Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences. USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
- Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.

External Links



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