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Tundulu Complex, Phalombe District, Malawi

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 15° 32' 21'' South , 35° 48' 27'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -15.53917,35.80750
Köppen climate type:Cwa : Monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate

A carbonatite complex in southeastern Malawi intruded during the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous over three episodes. During the first and second episodes, the major rock types were calcite carbonatites, ankerite carbonatites, and apatite carbonatites. Host rocks are nepheline syenite, sövite and ijoite.

NOTE on the mineral list: The three listed (Ca-)REE carbonates are all Ce-dominant, even though the abstract of Ngwenya (1994) erroneneously suggests La-dominance (compare Table 3 in the paper).

Mineral List

20 valid minerals.


Mineralization age: Early Cretaceous : 140 Ma to 126 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
   Early Cretaceous
ⓘ Biotite (youngest age)126 Ma
ⓘ Biotite (oldest age)140 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

541 - 1000 Ma

ID: 1384055
Neoproterozoic Tectonic assemblages, metamorphic schist belts, melanges

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 1000 Ma)

Description: Pan-African;PAN-AFRICAN

Comments: Rocks distinguished in compilation sources primarily as part of a tectonic assemblage, belts of schist and mylonite of mixed parentage, and tectonic melanges.

Lithology: Tectonic assemblages, metamorphic schist belts, melanges

Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. [18]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
- Woolley, A.R. (1987): Lithosphere metasomatism and the petrogenesis of the Chilwa Province of alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites, Malawi. Journal Afr. Earth Sci. 6, 891-898.
- Ngwenya, B.T. (1994): Hydrothermal rare earth mineralization in carbonatites of the Tundulu complex, Malawi: processes at the fluid/rock interface. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 2061-2072.
- Eby, G.N., Roden-Tice, M., Kreuger, H.L., Ewing, W., Faxon, E.H., and Woolley, A.R. (1995): Geochronology and cooling history of the northern part of the Chilwa alkaline province, Malawi. Journal Afr. Earth Sci. 20, 275-288.
- Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences. USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
- Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.

Mineral and/or Locality  
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