Tundulu Complex, Phalombe District, Malawi
|Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):||15° 32' 21'' South , 35° 48' 27'' East|
|Latitude & Longitude (decimal):||-15.53917,35.80750|
A carbonatite complex in southeastern Malawi intruded during the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous over three episodes. During the first and second episodes, the major rock types were calcite carbonatites, ankerite carbonatites, and apatite carbonatites. Host rocks are nepheline syenite, sövite and ijoite.
NOTE on the mineral list: The three listed (Ca-)REE carbonates are all Ce-dominant, even though the abstract of Ngwenya (1994) erroneneously suggests La-dominance (compare Table 3 in the paper).
20 valid minerals.
GeochronologyMineralization age: Early Cretaceous : 140 Ma to 126 Ma
Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.
|Geologic Time||Rocks, Minerals and Events|
This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.
Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org
541 - 1000 Ma
|Neoproterozoic Tectonic assemblages, metamorphic schist belts, melanges|
Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 1000 Ma)
Lithology: Tectonic assemblages, metamorphic schist belts, melanges
Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. 
- Ngwenya, B.T. (1994): Hydrothermal rare earth mineralization in carbonatites of the Tundulu complex, Malawi: processes at the fluid/rock interface. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 2061-2072.
- Eby, G.N., Roden-Tice, M., Kreuger, H.L., Ewing, W., Faxon, E.H., and Woolley, A.R. (1995): Geochronology and cooling history of the northern part of the Chilwa alkaline province, Malawi. Journal Afr. Earth Sci. 20, 275-288.
- Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences. USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
- Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.