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Krähenberg meteorite, Krähenberg, Thaleischweiler-Wallhalben, Südwestpfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germanyi
Regional Level Types
Krähenberg meteoriteMeteorite Fall Location
Krähenberg- not defined -
Thaleischweiler-WallhalbenCollective Municipality
SüdwestpfalzDistrict
Rhineland-PalatinateState
GermanyCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
49° 19' 36'' North , 7° 27' 52'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Meteorite Class:
Meteoritical Society Class:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Krähenberg171 (2011)0.7km
Biedershausen283 (2011)1.8km
Kleinbundenbach441 (2016)2.5km
Knopp-Labach471 (2011)2.7km
Winterbach554 (2018)2.7km
Name(s) in local language(s):
Krähenberg Meteorit, Krähenberg, Zweibrücken, Pfalz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland


Ordinary Chondrite (LL5)
Fall, 5 May 1869; 16.5 kg

After the appearance of a cloud, accompanied by detonations, a single stone fell. As an ordinary petrologic type 5 chondrite, Krähenberg is a meteorite with chondrules which have been largely equilibrated with the surrounding matrix. However, in recent decades Krähenberg began to receive extra attention once it was realized that the matrix had more than the usually mixture of heterogeneous agglomerates found in most ordinary chondrites. In particular, there are a number of large, cm-sized olivine-rich fragments with high K enrichments. Other very dark, chondrule-poor inclusions contain small idiomorphic olivine crystals, pyroxene, and anomalous Ni-poor iron. These fragments and their curious relationship to the rest of the Krähenberg meteorite have been the focus of a number of recent studies. This is all rather unusual for an ordinary chondrite recovered over a century ago. As the most massive of the 4 recovered German LL chondrites, it is fortunate that enough mass still remains to allow more intensive study of this old fall than is usually the case.

Rb-Sr ages of the host (light regions) and the darker regions define an ancient Rb-Sr age (isochron) ~4.6 Ga. On the other hand, K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages for the lighter and darker regions are 4.1 Ga and 3.8 Ga, respectively. A cosmic ray exposure age of ~15 Ma is also reported for Krähenberg. Approximately 20% of the LL chondrites have similar ages, suggesting a possible cohort of fragments derived from a single preterrestrial impact.

Krähenberg is one of the 31 recognized German ordinary chondrites, but one of only 3 with masses greater than 10 kg [2015]. The main mass has been with the Speyer Museum in Berlin for many decades.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
The Palatinate, Rhineland-Palatinate, GermanyRegion (Historical)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


9 valid minerals.

Meteorite/Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Reed, S.J.B. & Smith, D.G.W. (1985) Ion probe determinations of rare earths in merrillite and apatite in chondrites: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 72: 238-244.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages. ; Wlotzka F. (2005) Cr spinel and chromite as petrogenetic indicators in ordinary chondrites: Equilibration temperatures of petrologic types 3.7 to 6. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40 (11): 1673-1702. (Nov 2005).; Misawa, K., Yokoyama, T. & Okano, O. (2010) Alkaline Element Fractionations in LL-chondritic Breccias: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #P14C-02. (Dec 2010); Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: McSween Jr., H.Y. & Patchen, A.D. (1989) Pyroxene thermobarometry in LL-group chondrites and implications for parent body metamorphism: Meteoritics 24 (4): 219-226. (Dec. 1989).
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Description: Olivine - Composition [Fa27.8] , one typical indicator of L Chondrite Group membership
Reference: Trieloff, M., Kunz, J. & Jessburger, E. K. (1994) High-resolution Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of K-rich chondritic inclusions. Meteoritics 29 (4): 541-542. (July 1994); Grady, M. M. (2000) Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; New York; Oakleigh; Madrid; Cape Town. 689 pages. ; Wlotzka F. (2005) Cr spinel and chromite as petrogenetic indicators in ordinary chondrites: Equilibration temperatures of petrologic types 3.7 to 6. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40 (11): 1673-1702. (Nov 2005).; Misawa, K., Yokoyama, T. & Okano, O. (2010) Alkaline Element Fractionations in LL-chondritic Breccias: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #P14C-02. (Dec 2010); W. Kempe, W. & G. Müller (1969) The Stony Meteorite Krähenberg — Its Chemical Composition and the Rb-Sr Age of Light and Dark Portions: IN: Meteoritic Research: Peter M. Millman, Editor: pp. 418-428. D. Reidel Publishing Company: Dordrecht-Holland. 941 pages.; Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Trieloff, M., Kunz, J. & Jessburger, E. K. (1994) High-resolution Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of K-rich chondritic inclusions. Meteoritics 29 (4): 541-542. (July 1994)
'Glass'
Description: K-rich glass of special interest
Reference: Grady, M. M. (2000) Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; New York; Oakleigh; Madrid; Cape Town. 689 pages. ; Misawa, K., Yokoyama, T. & Okano, O. (2010) Alkaline Element Fractionations in LL-chondritic Breccias: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #P14C-02. (Dec 2010); Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Description: Iron within the dark inclusions contains only 0.08% Ni.
Reference: W. Kempe, W. & G. Müller (1969) The Stony Meteorite Krähenberg — Its Chemical Composition and the Rb-Sr Age of Light and Dark Portions: IN: Meteoritic Research: Peter M. Millman, Editor: pp. 418-428. D. Reidel Publishing Company: Dordrecht-Holland. 941 pages.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
'K Feldspar'
Description: K-rich feldspars found in dark inclusions associated with olivine and troilite.
Reference: Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).
Merrillite
Formula: Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Reference: Reed, S.J.B. & Smith, D.G.W. (1985) Ion probe determinations of rare earths in merrillite and apatite in chondrites: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 72: 238-244.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Prior, G. T. (1916). On the Genetic relationship and classification of meteorites. Min Mag 18, 26-44.; McSween Jr., H.Y. & Patchen, A.D. (1989) Pyroxene thermobarometry in LL-group chondrites and implications for parent body metamorphism: Meteoritics 24 (4): 219-226. (Dec. 1989). ; Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Grady, M. M. (2000) Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; New York; Oakleigh; Madrid; Cape Town. 689 pages. ; Misawa, K., Yokoyama, T. & Okano, O. (2010) Alkaline Element Fractionations in LL-chondritic Breccias: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #P14C-02. (Dec 2010)
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages. ; Misawa, K., Yokoyama, T. & Okano, O. (2010) Alkaline Element Fractionations in LL-chondritic Breccias: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #P14C-02. (Dec 2010); Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Iron1.AE.05Fe
var: Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
Taenite1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Isocubanite2.CB.55bCuFe2S3
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Merrillite8.AC.45Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Group 9 - Silicates
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Glass'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Iron
var: Kamacite
1.1.11.1(Fe,Ni)
Taenite1.1.11.2(Fe,Ni)
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Isocubanite2.9.13.3CuFe2S3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
(AB)3(XO4)2
Merrillite38.3.4.4Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Glass'-
Iron-Fe
'K Feldspar'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
OOxygen
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
MgMagnesium
Mg MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
SiSilicon
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
SSulfur
S IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
S TroiliteFeS
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
CaCalcium
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
FeIron
Fe Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Fe TroiliteFeS
Fe IronFe
NiNickel
Ni Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Ni Taenite(Fe,Ni)
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu IsocubaniteCuFe2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Jurassic
145 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 3185222
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Jurassic (145 - 201.3 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Middle Triassic
237 - 247.2 Ma



ID: 3146519
Middle Triassic limestone

Age: Middle Triassic (237 - 247.2 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{sandstone,mudstone,marlstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Anisian - Late Permian
242 - 272.95 Ma



ID: 2620775

Age: Phanerozoic (242 - 272.95 Ma)

Description: limnic - fluvial to marine - brackish deposits

Lithology: Sandstone, siltstone, claystone

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Prior, G.T. (1916) On the Genetic relationship and classification of meteorites. Mineralogical Magazine: 18: 26-44.
Prior, G.T. (1923) Catalogue of Meteorites: with special reference to those represented in the collection of the British Museum of Natural History. Richard Clay & Sons, Limited: Bungay, Suffolk.
Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York: 245 pages.
W. Kempe, W. & G. Müller (1969) The Stony Meteorite Krähenberg — Its Chemical Composition and the Rb-Sr Age of Light and Dark Portions: IN: Meteoritic Research: Peter M. Millman, Editor: pp. 418-428. D. Reidel Publishing Company: Dordrecht-Holland. 941 pages.
Wlotzka et al. (1983) Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47(4): 743-757. (April 1983).
Reed, S.J.B. & Smith, D.G.W. (1985) Ion probe determinations of rare earths in merrillite and apatite in chondrites: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 72: 238-244.
McSween Jr, H.Y. & Patchen, A.D. (1989) Pyroxene thermobarometry in LL-group chondrites and implications for parent body metamorphism: Meteoritics 24 (4): 219-226. (Dec. 1989).
Trieloff, M., Kunz, J., Jessburger, E.K. (1994) High-resolution Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of K-rich chondritic inclusions. Meteoritics: 29(4): 541-542.
Grady, M.M. (2000) Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; New York; Oakleigh; Madrid; Cape Town. 689 pages.
Wlotzka F. (2005) Cr spinel and chromite as petrogenetic indicators in ordinary chondrites: Equilibration temperatures of petrologic types 3.7 to 6. Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 40(11): 1673-1702.
Misawa, K., Yokoyama, T., Okano, O. (2010) Alkaline Element Fractionations in LL-chondritic Breccias: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #P14C-02. ([Dec 2010]
Grady, M.M., Pratesi. G. & Moggi-Cecchi, V. (2015) Atlas of Meteorites. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom. 373 pages.

External Links



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