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Allan Hills A77005 Martian meteorite (ALHA77005), Allan Hills, Victoria Land, Eastern Antarctica, Antarcticai
Regional Level Types
Allan Hills A77005 Martian meteorite (ALHA77005)Meteorite Fall Location
Allan HillsGroup of Hills
Victoria LandRegion
Eastern AntarcticaRegion
AntarcticaContinent

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
76° 43' South , 159° 40' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Meteorite Class:
Meteoritical Society Class:
Origin locality:
Köppen climate type:


Shergottite, lherzolitic
Find, 1977; 483 g

A small ellipsoidal stone (~9.5x7.5x5 cm) partially embedded in the ice and with remnants of a fusion crust turned out to be the first martian meteorite recovered from Antarctica. Rounded and subhedral olivine grains apparently account for > 50 vol% of this heavily shocked meteorite, but like all shergottites, it contains significant amounts of pyroxene (~30 vol%) and maskelynite (~10 vol%). Pyroxene occurs as colorless prismatic crystals, sometimes twinned and sometimes enclosing olivine. Opaques (~2 vol%) include chromite, ilmenite, and traces of sulfides and, perhaps, meteoritic iron. Phosphates and other accessory phases are also reported. No obvious signs of weathering were evident upon first inspection, but a terrestrial age of ~ 200,000 years has been reported. Kaersutite provides prima facie evidence of preterrestrial aqueous activity and Raman spectroscopy evidence has also been used to adduce Martian aqueous alteration. It goes without saying that it requires very strong evidence to separate the effects of pre-terrestrial and post-terrestrial weathering. The reader is invited to read the literature for himself/herself.

There has been considerable discussion about the ages of the Shergottite meteorites, but most recent articles suggest that most or all of them were produced by lava flows of the past billion years. Many favor an age of less than 200 million years. A cosmic ray exposure age of ~3 Ma suggests that ALH 77005 may have been involved with several other shergottites in a preterrestrial collision either on Mars or as part of a large fragment from an earlier large ejection from Mars.

Approximately 80% of the 150+ recognized martian meteorites are classified as shergottites (Shergotty-like) as of June 2015. However, only 9 samples (representing 5 or more individual falls) were listed as "lherzolitic shergottites' at the Martian Meteorite Compendium which provides more specific classification data.

Bibliographical Note: The sources cited here are those most pertinent to establishing the mineralogy of ALH 77005. The Martian Meteorite Compendium provides a very detailed and more comprehensive bibliography for those interested.

Synonyms: ALH-77005 & ALHA77005 are two of several additional labels attached to this meteorite. More standardized abbreviations for Antarctic meteorites were developed later.

Regions containing this locality

Antarctic PlateTectonic Plate
Antarctic MeteoritesGroup of Meteorite Fall Locations

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


12 valid minerals.

Meteorite/Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Akaganeite
Formula: (Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Description: Apparent weathering product.
Reference: Kuebler, K. E. (2013) A comparison of the iddingsite alteration products in two terrestrial basalts and the Allan Hills 77005 martian meteorite using Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 118 (4): 803-830. (Apr 2013).
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Shearer, C.K., Burger, P.V., Papike, J.J., McCubbin, F.M. & Bell, A.S. (2015) Crystal chemistry of merrillite from Martian meteorites: Mineralogical recorders of magmatic processes and planetary differentiation. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 50 (4): 649-673. (Apr 2015).
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Description: Ti-rich and Ti-poor chromites complex zoning patterns.
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.; Goodrich, C. A., Herd, C. D. K. & Taylor, L. A. (2003) Spinels and oxygen fugacity in olivine-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38 (12): 1773-1792. (Dec 2003)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Description: Most olivine is nearly equilibrated (Fo69-73), but quenched olivine in shock veins is quite variable (Fo86-58).
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
'Glass'
Description: K-rich trachytic glass in pigeonite inclusions as well as the more abundant shock melted plagioclase glass found
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1998) Petrology of Magmatic Silicate Inclusions in the ALH77005 Lherzolitic Shergottite: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4): 803-812. (Jul 1998)
'Iddingsite'
Formula: MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Reference: Kuebler, K. E. (2013) A comparison of the iddingsite alteration products in two terrestrial basalts and the Allan Hills 77005 martian meteorite using Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 118 (4): 803-830. (Apr 2013).
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Raman spectroscopy used to argue for a martian origin of jarosite.
Reference: Kuebler, K. E. (2013) A comparison of the iddingsite alteration products in two terrestrial basalts and the Allan Hills 77005 martian meteorite using Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 118 (4): 803-830. (Apr 2013).
Kaersutite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Description: Small amounts detected in magmatic inclusions.
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1998) Petrology of Magmatic Silicate Inclusions in the ALH77005 Lherzolitic Shergottite: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4): 803-812. (Jul 1998)
'Maskelynite'
Description: Shock pressures of 50-80 GPa estimated by Ikeda (1994).
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
Merrillite
Formula: Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.; Shearer, C.K., Burger, P.V., Papike, J.J., McCubbin, F.M. & Bell, A.S. (2015) Crystal chemistry of merrillite from Martian meteorites: Mineralogical recorders of magmatic processes and planetary differentiation. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 50 (4): 649-673. (Apr 2015).
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Description: As inclusions in Pyrrhotite.
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
Pigeonite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite: Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites 7: 9-29.
'Silica'
Description: Small amounts detected in magmatic inclusions.
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1998) Petrology of Magmatic Silicate Inclusions in the ALH77005 Lherzolitic Shergottite: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4): 803-812. (Jul 1998)
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Ikeda, Y (1998) Petrology of Magmatic Silicate Inclusions in the ALH77005 Lherzolitic Shergottite: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4): 803-812. (Jul 1998)
Ulvöspinel
Formula: TiFe2O4
Reference: Goodrich, C. A., Herd, C. D. K. & Taylor, L. A. (2003) Spinels and oxygen fugacity in olivine-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38 (12): 1773-1792. (Dec 2003)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Akaganeite4.DK.05(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Ulvöspinel4.BB.05TiFe2O4
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Merrillite8.AC.45Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Group 9 - Silicates
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Kaersutite9.DE.15{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Pigeonite9.DA.10(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Glass'-
'Iddingsite'-MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
'Maskelynite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Silica'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Akaganeite6.1.6.1(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Ulvöspinel7.2.5.2TiFe2O4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
(AB)3(XO4)2
Merrillite38.3.4.4Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Pigeonite65.1.1.4(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Kaersutite66.1.3a.18{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Glass'-
'Iddingsite'-MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
'Maskelynite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Silica'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
H IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
OOxygen
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
O Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
O IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O UlvöspinelTiFe2O4
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
Na Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
Mg Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Mg Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
AlAluminium
Al Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Si Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
PPhosphorus
P MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
ClChlorine
Cl Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
Ca Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
Ti UlvöspinelTiFe2O4
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
FeIron
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Fe IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe UlvöspinelTiFe2O4
NiNickel
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
(1981) Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter 4(1), Johnson Space Center, Houston.
Nishiizumi, K., Caffee, M.W., Finkel, R.C. (1994) Exposure histories of ALH 84001 and ALHA 77005. Meteoritics, 29(4), 511 (Jul 1994).
Treiman, A.H. et al. (1994) Comparison of the LEW88516 and ALHA77005 martian meteorites: Similar but distinct. Meteoritics, 29(5), 581-592 (Sept 1994).
Ikeda, Y. (1994) Petrography and petrology of the ALH-77005 shergottite. Proc. NIPR Symposium Antarctic Meteorites, 7, 9-29.
Eugster, O., Weigel, A., Polnau, E. (1996) Two Different Ejection Events for Basaltic Shergottites QUE94201, Zagami and Shergotty (2.6 MA Ago) and Lherzolitic Shergottites LEW88516 and ALH77005 (3.5 MA Ago). Lunar and Planetary Science, 27, 345 (Mar 1996).
Ikeda, Y. (1998) Petrology of Magmatic Silicate Inclusions in the ALH77005 Lherzolitic Shergottite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33(4), 803-812 (Jul 1998).
McSween Jr., H.Y., Treiman, A.H. (1998) Martian Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, JJ - Ed.), Chapter 6: 1-53: Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA.
Grady, M.M. (2000) Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; New York; Oakleigh; Madrid; Cape Town. 689 pages.
Goodrich, C.A., Herd, C.D.K., Taylor, L.A. (2003) Spinels and oxygen fugacity in olivine-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 38(12), 1773-1792 (Dec 2003).
Kuebler, K.E. (2013) A comparison of the iddingsite alteration products in two terrestrial basalts and the Allan Hills 77005 martian meteorite using Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets), 118(4), 803-830 (Apr 2013).
Shearer, C.K., Burger, P.V., Papike, J.J., McCubbin, F.M., Bell, A.S. (2015) Crystal chemistry of merrillite from Martian meteorites: Mineralogical recorders of magmatic processes and planetary differentiation. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50(4), 649-673 (Apr 2015).
Grady, M.M., Pratesi, G., Cecchi, V.M. (2015) Atlas of Meteorites. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. 373 pages.

Other Databases

Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Hills_77005
Wikidata ID:Q63434345

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