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Custer Mine, Darwin, Darwin Mining District, Darwin Hills, Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Custer MineMine
Darwin- not defined -
Darwin Mining DistrictMining District
Darwin HillsGroup of Hills
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
36° 16' 23'' North , 117° 34' 28'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Olancha192 (2015)38.8km


A former Pb-Ag-Cu-Zn-Au mine located in sec. 19, T19S, R41E, MDM, 1.6 km (1.0 mile) ENE of Darwin, in a narrow canyon, locally called Custer Canyon. The road is washed out and one has to hike down the canyon. It was in operation from the 1870’s until the 1950’s, but with long idle periods. It was re-timbered in the early 1950’s, but operation was closed down a few years later. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is . Corrected description and position N36.27317 W117.57432 by Richard Muster, courtesy Gail Dunning, Walt Margerum and Robert Hously.

Mineralization is hosted in tactite. The ore body is pod-shaped and lies on the contact between a dark brown calc-hornfels and a body of blue-gray limestone and is hosted in an irregular body of crystalline calcite. Local rocks include Carboniferous marine rocks, unit 2 (SE California Carbonate Assemblage) and/or Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits.

Workings include underground openings comprised of 2 separate workings. The main working consists of an inclined shaft on the N side of Custer canyon with a depth of 400 feet and with levels at 50, 200, 250 and 300 feet. A wince extends another 240 feet. The minor part consists of an adit, approx. 125 feet long, which was driven in the 1950’s into a mineralized copper-lead-zinc contact zone that occurs on the south side of the canyon. No viable ore reserves were found and this operation was ended.
Most of the minerals interesting for collectors come from this adit with the approx position of N36.27259, W117.57362. Entry was possible without restriction and dumps were accessible in 2003.

Production data are also found in: Goodwin, J.C. (1957): 465.

It produced until 1949 approximately 141 ounces of Au, 17,000 ounces of Ag, 6,600 pounds of Cu, 97,000 pounds of Pb and 72 pounds of Zn. 50 tons of ore were shipped in 1940-1941.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


19 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: [Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5]; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Occurs as crystallized masses.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 228; Mineralogical Record (1984) 15:5-18; Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: Rhombohedra 2 to 6 inches (5 to 15 cm) long; some as long as 24 inchs (60 cm).
Description: Abundant - makes up most of the vein.
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 18; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 102 (map 3-6), 210, 355; Report XV of the State Mineralogist 1915-1916; WARING, C. A., 1915 , INYO COUNTY; 15TH REPT. STATE MINERALOGIST; CALIF. MIN. BUR., P. 89; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Report XV of the State Mineralogist 1915-1916; [Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5]; WARING, C. A., 1915 , INYO COUNTY; 15TH REPT. STATE MINERALOGIST; CALIF. MIN. BUR., P. 89; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: [Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5]; WARING, C. A., 1915 , INYO COUNTY; 15TH REPT. STATE MINERALOGIST; CALIF. MIN. BUR., P. 89; Report XV of the State Mineralogist 1915-1916; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Report XV of the State Mineralogist 1915-1916; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; WARING, C. A., 1915 , INYO COUNTY; 15TH REPT. STATE MINERALOGIST; CALIF. MIN. BUR., P. 89; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: ; [Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5]
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: [Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5]
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Mineralogical Record (1984) 15:5-18
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Cooper; Fen and Dunning, Gail (2003) : Occasional Publication of the Bay Area Mineralogists, February, 2003.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Mineralogical Record (1984) 15:5-18
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: ; [Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5]
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Fluorescence: Green (brilliant)
Description: Occurs coating a calcite seam.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 355.
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Fluorescence: Green (brilliant)
Description: Occurs coating a calcite seam.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 355.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Report XV of the State Mineralogist 1915-1916; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; WARING, C. A., 1915 , INYO COUNTY; 15TH REPT. STATE MINERALOGIST; CALIF. MIN. BUR., P. 89; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Description: Occurs as masses.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 212; Mineralogical Record (1984) 15:5-18
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: [Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74 No.5]
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O CerussitePbCO3
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O HematiteFe2O3
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O SideriteFeCO3
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
SiSilicon
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Knopf, Adolph (1914) The Darwin Lead-Silver Mining District California, USGS Bulletin 580-A, 19 p.
Waring, C.A. (1915), Inyo County; 15th Report of the State Mineralogist, California Mining Bureau (Report 15): 15: 89.
Burling, Tucker, W. (1926), Imperial, Inyo Counties: California Mining Bureau. (Report 22): 22: 482-483.
Norman, L.A., and Stewart, R.A.(1951), Mines and Mineral Resources of Inyo County, California, California Division of Mines and Geology (Report 47): 47(1) (January 1951).
Goodwin, Joseph Grant (1957) Lead and zinc in California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, Division of Mines (Report 53): 53(3&4): 465.
Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, p: 65.
Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS Professional Paper 368: 59, 76, 77.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 106, 107.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 102 (map 3-6), 125-126, 234, 333.
Stolburg, C. S. (1984) The Mines and Minerals of Darwin, California, The Mineralogical Record: 15(1): 5-18.
Randol Mining Directory (1990).
Cooper; Fen and Dunning, Gail (2003) : Occasional Publication of the Bay Area Mineralogists, February, 2003.
Margerum, W. (2004) The Darwin Tungsten Area Part II: Mines and Mineralogy in the Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California Vol. 74(5).
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID possibly #10102971 & 10236052.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060270300.

USGS MRDS Record:10102971

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